Pericardium external features

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Pericardium external features

  1. 1. Primitive arterial end Primitive venous end
  2. 2. Primitive arterial end (Truncus arteriosus) Primitive venous end
  3. 3. Hollow conical muscular organ Situated in mid. Mediastinum Covered by pericardium Size of clenched fist 4 chambers 2 atria - interatrial septum 2 ventricles – intervent. Sep.
  4. 4. Rt.atrium receives deoxygenated blood Via Sup. & Inf. venacavae, and coronary sinus. Thru’ Rt. atrioventricular orifice To – Rt. Ventricle Ejected to Pulm. Trunk To Pulm. Capillary plexus for oxygenation Pulmonary circulation To Left atrium Via 4 pulmonary veins Thru’ Lt. atrioventricular orifice To Left ventricle Ejected to ascending aorta for Systemic circulation
  5. 5. Measurements Apex to base – - 12 cms Antero-post diameter - 6 cms Widest transverse diameter 8 to 9 cms (Equal to one half of diameter of thorax) Weight male – 280 to 340 gms female - 230 to 280 gms Presenting parts Apex Base 3 surfaces – Sternocostal, diaphragmatic & Left 3 borders - Right, Inferior & Left
  6. 6. Apex Conical area formed by left ventricle Directed downwards, forwards and to left In 5th intercostal space 9 cms from midline Slightly below & medial to left nipple Separated from ant.thoracic wall by left lung & pleura Base Posterior surface – fixed part of heart Quadrilateral in outline Formed 2/3rds by post. Surface of left atrium & 1/3rd by Rt. Atrium
  7. 7. Base
  8. 8. Boundaries of base Above Bifurcation of Pulm. Trunk Below Post. Part of interventricular groove containing coronary sinus & anastomosis of Rt. & Lt. coronary arteries. Rt. Side Rt. Border of Rt. Atrium from sup to Inf. Vena cava Lt. side Left border of left atrium from upper to lower Lt. pulm. veins
  9. 9. Features of the Base SVC opens in upper post part of Rt.atrium IVC opens in lower post part of Rt.atrium 4 Pulm. Veins 2 on each side open in Post. Surface of Lt. atrium A shallow vertical inter atrial groove may be found between 2 atria – Post. Attachment of Inter atrial septum
  10. 10. Right border Rounded and convex Formed by Rt. Atrium Extends from Rt. Side of opening of SVC to IVC The border separates base from Sternocostal surface Shallow vertical groove accpmanies Rt. Border – Sulcus terminalis Corresponds to Crista terminalisin the Interior of Rt. atrium
  11. 11. INCISURA APICIS CORDIS Inferior Border Sharp Separates sternocostal from diaphragmatic Surfaces Extends from opening of IVC to apex Border accompanied by marginal branch of Rt. Coronary artery and vein Notch near apex – Incisura apicis cordis Ant. Interventricular br. of left coronary curves around it.
  12. 12. Left Border ILL defined convex Convexity to left and upwards Separates sternocostal from left surface Extends from left auricle to apex Accompanied by marginal br. of Lt. coronary artery.
  13. 13. Sterno – costal surface Directed forwards and upwards Separated From base to by Rt. Border From diaphragmatic surface by Inf. Border From Left surface by Left border Formed by Ant. Surface of Rt. atrium & its auricle Part of ant. Surface of Lt. auricle Ant. Surface of Rt. Ventricle (2/3) Ant. Surface of left ventricle (1/3)
  14. 14. Features of Sterno-Costal Surface Ant. Part of atrio-ventricular groove Passes downwards & to right between Rt. Atrium & Rt. Ventricle Lodges trunk of Rt. Coronary artery Ant. Interventricular groove passes downwards parallel to left border meets inf. Border at incisura. The groove lodges ant. Interventricular br. of Lt. coronary artery & great cardiac vein Indicates ant. attachment of interventricular septum
  15. 15. Diaphragmatic or Inferior Surface Flat Face downwards and backwards Formed only by ventricles 2/3 left ventricle & 1/3rd by Rt. Ventricle Separated From Sternocostal surface by inf. Border From the base by the post. Part of Interventricular groove From left surface by less defined unnamed border which is backward Continuation of inferior border
  16. 16. Features of Inferior Surface Post. Interventricular groove runs forwards along this surface & meets incisura epi.cordis Groove indicates post. attachment of Interventricular septum Groove lodges post. Interventricular br. of Rt. Coronary artery Middle cardiac vein Anastomosis of interventricular branches of Both coronary arteries
  17. 17. Left Surface Directed upwards backwards and to left Formed mainly by left ventricle and Partly by left atrium & Left auricle Features Left part of atrioventricular groove intervenes between Lt. auricle and lt. ventricle This groove lodges – Trunk and cicumflex br. of left cor. art. Termination of great cardiac vein Commencement of coronary sinus
  18. 18. Apex formed by left ventricle Base formed by 2 atria Rt. Border formed by Rt. Atrium Diaphragmatic surface formed by 2 ventricles Base - 2/3 lt. atrium 1/3 Rt. Atrium Diaphragmatic surface – 2/3 Lt. ventricle, 1/3 Rt. Ventricle Sternocostal surface – 2/3 Rt. Ventricle 1/3 Lt. ventricle From midline 2/3 to left of midline, 1/3 to Rt. Of midline
  19. 19. If an elderly in your house suffers from chest pain Do not browse net from your cel to verify which Doctor can diagnose the illness But; equip yourself with sufficient Knowledge to save your own kith and kin first. Only gratitude you can return to your “well-wishers” And it is the ultimate pride and their ambition

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