Arches of foot
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Arches of foot

on

  • 4,040 views

arches of foot structure and function

arches of foot structure and function

Statistics

Views

Total Views
4,040
Views on SlideShare
4,040
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
3
Downloads
128
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Arches of foot Arches of foot Presentation Transcript

  • The first foot On moon
  • Human Foot performs - supports weight of body - serves as lever to propel body in walking & running Child starts walking without support at 18 months age Myelination of pyramidal tracts begin Arches begin to get shape
  • These functions are carried out by 1. Foot skeleton made of series of small bones - Foot acts as a segmented lever with multiple joints thus becomes pliable and adapts to uneven surfaces 2. Long Flexors and Intrinsic muscles of foot act on forepart of foot and assist propulsive action of gastrocnemius and soleus View slide
  • These functions are carried out by 2. Long Flexors and Intrinsic muscles of foot act on forepart of foot and assist propulsive action of gastrocnemius and soleus View slide
  • Arches of foot 1. Longitudinal 2. Transverse Concavity of both arches directed to the plantar surface Functions of arches 1. Proportional distribution of weight
  • Body weight 120 pounds Rt. Foot - Talus 60 pounds Lt. Foot - Talus 60 pounds Rt. Calcaneus 30 pounds Heads of 5 Meta tarsals 30 pounds 6 Bearing points 4 metatarsals + 2 sesmaoids under hallux Each 5 founds 1 2 3 4 5 6
  • Functions of arches 2. Arched foot acts as a segmented lever Fore part of foot short muscles and long flexors assist gastrocnemius and soleus helps in take off of fore part from ground Lumbricals prevent buckling from contraction of Flex. Dig. Longus
  • Functions of arches 3. Plantar concavity protects plantar vessels and nerves from compression Flat foot – compression leads to Metatarsalgia
  • Functions of arches 4. Arched foot is dynamic and pliable - When foot is on the ground arch flattens - Off the ground restores original contour Acts like a spring board
  • Functions of arches 5. Invertors lift foot on medial side shifts weight to lat.border Tibialis anterior, Tibialis posterior Evertors lift foot on lateral side shift weight to med. Border Peroneus longus, brevis assisted by Per. Tertius LATERALMEDIAL Tib.Posterior Tib.Anterior Per.Longus Per.Brevis Per.Tertius
  • Longitudinal arch Medial and lateral Transverse Medial Longitudinal arch
  • Medial Longitudinal arch Talus Tibia CalcaneusSpring Lig. Navicular Med.Cun. 1st Met.Tar. Sesam.Bone
  • Medial Longitudinal arch Summit of arch Art. Surf.Talus Post.pillar Med.Tub.Calcaneus Ant.pillar Heads of 1st to 3rd Met.Tar Vulnerable part Head of Talus “Key stone”
  • The medial longitudinal arch This arch is very tall (which is why the medial side of the foot is missing from a footprint ) and is extremely resilient due to its large number of component bones.
  • Lateral Longitudinal arch Post.pillar Med.Tub.Calcaneus Ant.pillar Heads of 4th & 5th Met.tar. Summit of arch Sub Talar Joint Vulnerable part Calcaneo-cuboid jnt.
  • Lateral Longitudinal arch 5th Metatarsal Cuboid Talus Calcaneus Peroneus longus Suspension
  • The lateral longitudinal arch The arch is flat and contains relatively less no. of bones Hence more rigid Bears the body weight before the medial arch comes into play Note the foot print
  • The medial and lateral longitudinal arches of the foot
  • Transverse arch When med. Borders of both feet are approximated a complete transverse arch is formed Each foot represents a half dome Made of prox. By 3 cuneiforms and cuboid Distally bases of 5 metatarsals
  • Transverse arch
  • Factors maintaining arches of foot Med. Long. Arch: 1 Shape of bones wedge shape with thin edge downwards Talus “key stone” rests on concave art.surface of navicular and on sustentaculum tali of calcaneus 2 Intersegmental tiers - like staples Plantar ligs. Spring Lig. (supported from below by Tib.Post.) permanent stretch of spr.lig. Produces flat foot. 3. Factors acting as tie beams Plantar aponeurosis, Abd.Hallucis, Med.part of Flex.dig.brevis, Tendon of Flex.Hal.Longus, Med.part of tendon of Flex.dig.longus, Flex.hal.brevis 4. Suspending arch from above Tendon of Tib.anterior, Sup.fibres of Delt.Lig. Tend. Of Tib.Post.
  • Factors maintaining arches of foot Lat. Long. Arch: 1 Calcaneal angle of cuboid supports ant lower art.surf. of calcaneus – upward tilt of long axis of calcaneus 2 Intersegmental tiers - like staples Long and short plantar ligs. 3. Factors acting as tie beams Plantar aponeurosis, Abd.dig.minimi, Lat.part of Flex.dig.brevis, Lat.part of tendon of Flex.dig.longus, Flex.dig.min.brevis 4. Suspending arch from above Tendon of Per.brevis and tertius exert sling action Peroneus longus – long course below foot - sustentacular action
  • Factors maintaining arches of foot Transverse Arch: 1 Shape of bones Wedge shaped 3 cuneiforms Bases of middle 3 metatarsals accentuate arch 2 Intersegmental tiers - like staples Deep transverse ligs, other intrinsic plantar ligs. Dorsal interossei, Oblique and transverse heads of add. hallucis 3. Factors acting as tie beams Tendons of per. Longus and Tib. Posterior 4. Acting from above Per. Longus and tertius on lat. Side Tib.anterior on med. Side Factors which maintain long. Arches also maintain Trans.arch.
  • Deformities of the foot 1 Pes planus – Flat foot 2 Pes Cavus – High arched foot Exaggeration of long. Arch Toes dorsiflexed at metatarso-phalang. Joints plantarflexed at inter-phalang. Joints - Claw foot 3. Club Foot – Talipes – congenital or acquired a. Talipes equinus – Toes dorsiflexed and directed to ground similar to horse b. Talipes calcaneus – Heel remains on ground toes are upturned c. Talipes varus – Foot fixed in inversion and adduction d. Foot fixed in eversion and abduction
  • Deformities of the foot Foot print (Normal) Flat foott (Pes planus) Highly arched foot (Pes cavus)
  • Deformities of the foot March Foot Neck of intermediate metatarsals undergo decalcification Minor injury may lead to pathological fracture Commonly observed in soldiers prolonged walk after prolonged sedentary rest
  • Deformities of the foot Hallux vulgus Great toe adducted towards midline 1st Metatarsal abducted wearing of narrow pointed shoes results in undue prominence of medial part of metatarsal head and a bunion may develop