Medication Routes and Dosage Formulations

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Medication Routes and Dosage Formulations

  1. 1. Routes and Formulations
  2. 3. Reasons for Different Routes of Administration <ul><li>Ease of administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenience/Compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rate of onset </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid/slow onset of action desired </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duration of action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid/Prolong the duration of action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Site of action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target drug delivery to a specific site </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preferred route is unavailable </li></ul>
  3. 4. Enteral Parenteral <ul><li>Anything involving the ALIMENTARY tract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth to rectum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oral (po) </li></ul><ul><li>Rectal (pr) </li></ul><ul><li>Sublingual (sl) </li></ul><ul><li>Buccal </li></ul><ul><li>Anything that is outside of or beside the alimentary tract </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs administered that bypass the GIT </li></ul>
  4. 5. Oral (PO) Rectal (PR) <ul><li>Safe, easy to administer </li></ul><ul><li>Convenient, most economical </li></ul><ul><li>Usually painless </li></ul><ul><li>Erratic absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach irritation </li></ul><ul><li>Slow onset </li></ul><ul><li>Patient must be conscious </li></ul><ul><li>No GI irritation </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for unconscious or vomiting patients </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for treating conditions of the rectum </li></ul><ul><li>Inconvenient, unliked </li></ul><ul><li>More expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Erratic absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Slow onset </li></ul>
  5. 7. Sublingual & Buccal <ul><li>Convenient, safe to administer </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid absorption, no GI upset </li></ul><ul><li>Short acting, possibly unpleasant taste </li></ul><ul><li>Limited number of drugs available this way </li></ul><ul><li>Patient must be conscious </li></ul>
  6. 8. Solid Oral Formulations <ul><li>Tablets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar or film coated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat-action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sustained release (SR) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled release (CR) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enteric coated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chewable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effervescent salts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lozenges/troches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capsules </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk powders </li></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inactive ingredients (inert) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diluents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disintegrant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Binder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lubricant </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Liquid Oral Formulations <ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Syrups </li></ul><ul><li>Elixirs </li></ul><ul><li>Spirits </li></ul><ul><li>Tinctures </li></ul><ul><li>Suspensions </li></ul><ul><li>Emulsions </li></ul><ul><li>Gels </li></ul>
  8. 10. Pouring Liquids <ul><li>Left side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apothecary units </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Right side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metric units </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meniscus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Error of parallax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye level </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Meniscus
  10. 12. Parenteral Route <ul><li>Intraocular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ophthalmic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conjunctival </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Otic </li></ul><ul><li>Intranasal </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalation </li></ul><ul><li>Dermal (Topical) </li></ul><ul><li>TransDermal </li></ul><ul><li>Vaginal (PV) </li></ul><ul><li>Urethral </li></ul><ul><li>Intra-dermal (ID) </li></ul><ul><li>Subcutaneous (SQ) </li></ul><ul><li>Intravenous (IV) </li></ul><ul><li>Intramuscular (IM) </li></ul>
  11. 13. Ophthalmic Formulations <ul><li>Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dropper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ointment (ung) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ocusert </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Intranasal
  13. 15. What Does Not Add UP?
  14. 16. Oral Inhalation <ul><li>Absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MDI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spacer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nebulizers </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Topicals <ul><li>The Skin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creams,Ointments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gels, Lotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerosols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trans-dermal systems </li></ul></ul>
  16. 19. Vaginal <ul><li>Products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppository </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solutions/Foams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tablets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IUD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urethral </li></ul>
  17. 20. Injections <ul><li>Usefulness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pt unconscious/unco-op </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor GI absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug difficult to remove if toxic effect </li></ul></ul>
  18. 22. Injection Routes
  19. 23. Injection Routes
  20. 24. IV Solutions
  21. 25. IV with Piggyback (IVPB)
  22. 26. Volumetric Infusion Controller <ul><li>Infusion Pump </li></ul>
  23. 27. Summary Slide <ul><li>Reasons for Different Routes of Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Enteral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral (PO) Rectal (PR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sublingual (SL) and Buccal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solid Oral Formulations </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid Oral Formulations </li></ul><ul><li>Parenteral Route </li></ul>

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