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Common Psychostimulants: Caffeine and Nicotine Sources Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics Side effects
Pharmacology <ul><li>Xanthine derivatives or  methylxanthines </li></ul><ul><li>Caffeine </li></ul><ul><li>Theophylline </...
Caffeine <ul><li>Most popular drug in the world </li></ul><ul><li>“ Caffeine is useless since it serveth neither Nourishme...
Pharmacokinetics <ul><li>Oral administration  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beverages: Coffee, tea, cocoa, chocolate milk, cola (f...
Pharmacodynamics: Effects <ul><li>Cortex at normal doses (100-200 mg): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewarding effect: Feel compet...
Medicinal Effects  OTC  <ul><li>Stimulants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No-Doz 100mg/tab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vivarin 200mg...
Cardiac Effects <ul><li>Indirect Stimulation of Catecholamines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epinephrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
Pharmacodynamic Mechanisms <ul><li>Caffeine and Theophylline  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Block GABA receptors </li></ul></ul><u...
Caffeinism <ul><li>Caffeine-induced disorders from DSM-IV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerance and Dependence </li></ul></ul><u...
<ul><li>Conflicting data on reproductive effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May slow growth  in utero , especially high dose </...
How much caffeine? 5oz 5oz 5oz 1oz  1oz  12oz  Tab-  Anal-  Diur- Coffee Tea  Cocoa  Choc.  C.Milk  Cola  lets  gesics  et...
The REAL Thing – Coca-Cola <ul><li>Active ingredient is phosphoric acid.  </li></ul><ul><li>pH of 2.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Di...
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Caffeine

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Transcript of "Caffeine "

  1. 1. Common Psychostimulants: Caffeine and Nicotine Sources Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics Side effects
  2. 2. Pharmacology <ul><li>Xanthine derivatives or methylxanthines </li></ul><ul><li>Caffeine </li></ul><ul><li>Theophylline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divine Leaf </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Caffeine <ul><li>Most popular drug in the world </li></ul><ul><li>“ Caffeine is useless since it serveth neither Nourishment nor Debauchery.” --Anonymous, 1650 </li></ul><ul><li>Plants of 28 genera in 17 families </li></ul><ul><li>Most common sources are coffee, tea, chocolate, and kola </li></ul><ul><li>Coffea arabica and Coffea robusta </li></ul>
  4. 4. Pharmacokinetics <ul><li>Oral administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beverages: Coffee, tea, cocoa, chocolate milk, cola (fortified) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chocolate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complete absorption from GIT in 30-60 minutes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elimination half-life ranges from 3 to 10 hrs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulation Dosing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer late in pregnancy, in utero , elderly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrated in breast milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter in smokers </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Pharmacodynamics: Effects <ul><li>Cortex at normal doses (100-200 mg): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewarding effect: Feel competent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alertness, sustained attention, faster thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced fatigue, lower need for sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine motor coordination, timing accuracy, and arithmetic may be impaired </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heavy dosing (1.5 grams a day) may produce agitation, anxiety, tremors, panting, and insomnia </li></ul>
  6. 6. Medicinal Effects OTC <ul><li>Stimulants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No-Doz 100mg/tab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vivarin 200mg/tab </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analgesics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caffeine synergizes ASA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anacin 32 mg/tab </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excedrin 64.8 mg/tab </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Diuretics and cold preparations </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchodilation </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Cardiac Effects <ul><li>Indirect Stimulation of Catecholamines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epinephrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elevated BP, HR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Spinal cord stimulated at toxic doses (2 - 5 grams); cardiac arrhythmias at 10 - 20 grams </li></ul><ul><li>Dilates coronary arteries; constricts cerebral arteries </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pharmacodynamic Mechanisms <ul><li>Caffeine and Theophylline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Block GABA receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate calcium release with in the cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blockade of adenosine receptors results in caffeine induced behavioral stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A normal dose blockades 50% of receptors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Adenosine– neuromodulator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adenosine is linked to sleep inducing effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adenosine, and thus caffeine, act on NE, DA, ACh , glutamate, and GABA </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Caffeinism <ul><li>Caffeine-induced disorders from DSM-IV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerance and Dependence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal effects due to increased adenosine receptor density and thus increased adenosine sensitivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High doses >1000mg/day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychiatric effects </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Conflicting data on reproductive effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May slow growth in utero , especially high dose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caffeine may be harmful prior to conception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May increase the risk of spontaneous abortion </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. How much caffeine? 5oz 5oz 5oz 1oz 1oz 12oz Tab- Anal- Diur- Coffee Tea Cocoa Choc. C.Milk Cola lets gesics etics
  12. 12. The REAL Thing – Coca-Cola <ul><li>Active ingredient is phosphoric acid. </li></ul><ul><li>pH of 2.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolves a nail in 4 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolves a tooth in 24-48 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Trucks carrying Coca Cola syrup (the concentrate) must use Hazardous Material placards. </li></ul><ul><li>The distributor of Coke use it to clean the engines of their trucks. </li></ul>
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