administration of agents

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  • 1. Administration of Pharmacologic Agents Prescription Elements/ Abbreviations Five Rights Dosage Routes & Forms The ALLERGY Reaction
  • 2. Compliance
  • 3. Prescription Orders
    • RX
      • Verbal orders
      • Telephone orders
      • Written orders
      • E-fill
  • 4. Prescription Elements ~~~
    • Patient’s name, address, phone #, dob
    • Date the Rx was written
    • Name of the drug/device
    • Strength, amount & refills
    • Signa – directions for use
    • Prescriber’s name, title, address, phone #
    • Calif. License #, DEA number
    • DAW (Dispense as Written)
    • Prescriber’s signature
  • 5. Pharmacy Abbreviations ~~~
    • Measurement (Amounts)
    • Bodily Functions (Conditions)
    • Route
    • Form (Delivery System)
    • Drug References
    • Time of Administration
    • Site of Administration (Part of the Body)
    • Pharmacy Instruction
  • 6. Five Rights of Drug Administration
    • Right M edicine
    • Right A mount
    • Right T ime
    • Right R oute
    • Right Patient
    • #6! Right Documentation
    MATR 'It matters to the patient'
  • 7. Reasons for Different Routes of Administration
    • Convenience
    • Preferred route is unavailable
    • Rapid onset of action is desired
    • Target delivery of drug to specific site of action
    • Prolong duration of action
  • 8. Dosage Routes Forms
    • Oral (by mouth)
      • Swallowed
      • SL
      • Buccal
    • Parenteral (injection)
      • IV,IM,SQ
    • Topical
      • Applied to surface of skin or mucous membranes
    • Tabs, caps, sol, elix, susp, lozenges, etc..
    • Solutions & suspensions
    • Ung, crm, ltn, otic, opth, inhalants, suppos
    • Rectal/vaginal
    • Nasogastral
  • 9.  
  • 10. The ALLERGIC Reaction 1st exposure No physical response BUT Memory Stage stimulated (IgG immunoglobulin on mast cell) 2nd exposure REACTION Minutes (rash, hives, nasal stuffiness) Delayed (coma, vascular collapse, coma)
  • 11. Four Type of Allergic Reactions
    • Type I (anaphylactic reaction)
      • Immediate reaction that occurs in a previously sensitized person.
      • sudden, severe bronchospasm & hypotension, followed by rapid death.
      • N/V/convulsions, cyanosis, vascular collapse, cardiac arrest.
      • Sample drugs: penicillins and cephalosporins.
      • TX: antihistamines, epinephrine & bronchodilators.
  • 12. Type of Allergic Reactions cont.
    • Type II (cytotoxic reaction)
      • Autoimmune response involving drug and IgG or IgM.
      • Drugs: methyldopa, PCN, quinidine, procainamide
      • TX- remove medication
    • Type III (immune complex-serum sickness)
      • Delayed fever, angioedema, swollen lymph nodes
      • Drugs: PCN, Sulfas, Phenytoin
    • Type IV (delayed hypersensitivity reaction
      • Direct skin contact inflammatory reaction
      • Poison ivy/oak
  • 13. The ALLERGIC Response Antigen (pollen) mast cell IgE/M/G plus antigen Activation ! Mast cell degranulates---releases histamine and other nasty mediators--domino effect
  • 14.  
  • 15. Natural Chemicals & Response Leukotrienes * edema *increase mucus secretions *10-1000 times more potent than Histamine Prostaglandins * uterine spasms *relax arterial smooth muscle *decrease BP *increase HR/CO/RBF *increase loss of H20 and Na+ *increase GI secretions *increase pain & inflammation Histamines *blood vessels dilate *increase capillary permeability/edema *uticaria/dermatitis *rhinitis *decrease vascular resistance/blood pressure *increase GI secretions *bronchial constriction
  • 16. Summary Slide
    • Understand the 5 /6 rights
    • Recognize common dosage forms
    • Know routes of administration
    • Factors that influence drugs effects
    • Natural chemicals action & response
    Rx Rememberal 10mg #365 i po qd