For Obesity ….
Healthy life style
BMI ˂27 + comorbidity
If no weight loss after (3-6 months) of life style
BMI ˃35 + Co
BMI ˃ 40.
Study in Americans:
Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings
from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.J Am Med Assoc 2002;287(3):356–
Maggi S, Noale M, Gallina P, et al. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in an
elderly Caucasian cohort: the Italian longitudinal study on aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
Patel A, Huang KC, Janus ED, et al. Is a single definition of the metabolic syndrome appropriate? A
comparative study of the USA and Asia. Atherosclerosis 2006;184(1):225–32.
Study in Sweden:
Halldina M, Rosella M, de Fairea U, et al. The metabolic syndrome: prevalence and association to
leisure-time and work-related physical activity in 60-year-old men and women. Nutr Metab
Cardiovasc Dis 2007;17(5):349–57.
Study in Saudi Arabia:
Bahijri SM, Al Raddadi RM. The importance of local criteria in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome
in Saudi Arabia. Saudi: Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab; 2013;4(2) 51–59. Available from:
Study in India:
Sawant A, Mankeshwar R, Shah S, Raghavan R, Dhongde G, Raje H, et al. Prevalence of Metabolic
Syndrome in Urban India. India: Hindawi Publishing Corporation; 2011. Available
South Asian Countries:
P. Nestel, R. Lyu, P. L. Lip et al., “Metabolic syndrome: recent prevalence in East and Southeast
Asian populations,” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 362–367, 2007.
D. Eapen, G. L. Kalra, N. Merchant, A. Arora, and B. V. Khan, “Metabolic syndrome and
cardiovascular disease in South Asians,” Vascular Health and RiskManagement, vol. 5, pp. 731–743,
Yasein N, Masa'd D. Metabolic syndrome in family practice in Jordan: a study of high-risk groups.
Jordan: East Mediterr Health J; 2011 Dec;17(12):943-8.