Sustainable road maintenance strategies

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  • 1. Sustainable Road Maintenance Dragos Andrei, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE 45th Annual MSA Conference September 2013
  • 2. About Dragos • Associate Professor, Civil Engineering, California State Polytechnic University • Previous experience with Fugro and MACTEC • P.E. California, Texas • Ph.D. Arizona State University, M.S. University of Maryland • Director, Pavement Recycling and Reclaiming Center at Cal Poly Pomona • Principal Engineer and Partner, West Coast Engineering Consultants
  • 3. Outline • State of the Pavement • Sustainability and Sustainable Roads • “Green” Asphalt Maintenance/Rehabilitation Strategies • “Green” Strategies for Concrete and Other Pavements • Implementation of Sustainable Maintenance Strategies
  • 4. Section 1 STATE OF THE PAVEMENT
  • 5. Source: California Local Streets and Roads Needs Assessment, January 2013, http://www.savecaliforniastreets.org/
  • 6. 2011: Source: Caltrans State of the Pavement 2011, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/ maint/Pavement/Pavement_Progr am/PDF/2011_SOP.pdf 2007:
  • 7. Bottom Line • We inherited a vast road network: ~ 50,000 lane miles state roads ~ 200,000 lane miles local roads • More than 50% of these pavements are “at risk” • For local roads, the funding available for maintenance and rehabilitation is less than half the funding required to maintain the current condition. • Traffic (demand) will continue to increase • $$$ Needs will continue to increase
  • 8. How Did We Get Here? • Build, build, build … but how about the future? – Don’t think about the future, enjoy the present … • Who will maintain these pavements? – Not my problem … I will be retired by then • Who will pay for this? – Don’t worry, THEY will find money, things will never change … • How are THEY going to rebuild these pavements? – Don’t worry, there’s plenty of oil, cement, aggregate …
  • 9. Section 2 SUSTAINABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE ROADS
  • 10. Sustainability Paradigm
  • 11. Sustainable Roads: Key Features • • • • • • • • • Durability Low maintenance Low emissions/energy Recyclable Permeable Cool Smooth Quiet Complete, aesthetically pleasing.
  • 12. Pavement Condition Index (PCI) VERY GOOD GOOD FAIR POOR M&R Immediate Effect Without M&R, Pavements Will Fail … Life Extension due to M&R Original Service Life VERY POOR M&R Effect Do Nothing Curve Time/Traffic
  • 13. Long-Life, Low-Maintenance Roads
  • 14. Low-Emissions/Energy Construction and Maintenance • Energy = fuel consumption = fossil fuels = emissions • Greenhouse Gases (GHG): water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, CFC, other • Carbon Footprint: measure of carbon dioxide and methane emissions expressed in CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent for 100 years global warming potential)
  • 15. Source: The Environmental Road of the Future, Colas 2003
  • 16. Carbon Footprint Categories: • “Cold” M&R strategies: emulsion-based seals, cold recycling, full-depth reclamation, soil stabilization, etc. • “Warm”: warm mix asphalt, maintenance treatments with warm mix additive, etc. • “Hot”: hot in-place recycling, hot mix asphalt, etc. • “Big Foot”: portland cement concrete (due to the manufacturing of cement and steel)
  • 17. Road Recycling - Asphalt Store for later use in: Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Crushed Miscellaneous Base (CMB) Hot In-Place Recycling (HIR) Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR) Cold Central Plant Recycling (CCPR) Full Depth Reclamation (FDR)
  • 18. Road Recycling – Portland Cement Concrete Store for later use in: Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Crushed Miscellaneous Base (CMB) Rubblization: Break and Seat Crack and Seat
  • 19. RAP, RCA Management • Both concrete and asphalt are 100% recyclable • Avoid contamination of RAP/RCA stockpiles by using good management practices: – Use single-source stockpiles – Separate stockpiles by size (fractionating) – Ensure drainage and cover stockpiles to prevent excessive moisture – Use low slope to prevent segregation • More information: http://www.morerap.us/ http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/recycling/rca.cfm
  • 20. Recyclable Import • • • • • • RAS: Recycled Asphalt Shingles Crumb Rubber from Waste Tires Blast Furnace Slag Coal Ash Silica Fume Others
  • 21. Permeable Pavements • Reduce stormwater runoff • Filter pollutants from water • Permeable pavements are also “cool” pavements when wet! • More information: – Pervious concrete: http://www.perviouspavement.org/ – Porous asphalt: http://www.asphaltpavement.org/index.php?option=com_content&view= article&id=359&Itemid=863 – Permeable pavers: http://www.icpi.org/permeable
  • 22. Source: A permeable paver demonstration, Austin's Ferry, Tasmania, Australia, J.J. Harrison, 2011
  • 23. Cool Pavements • Reduce the “heat island” effect by: – Shading – Increasing Solar Reflectance (Albedo) • Painting/Coating low albedo materials • Use high albedo materials • Apply thin maintenance treatments with high albedo materials: e.g. microsurfacing and whitetopping – Increasing Thermal Emittance • Use permeable pavements, water retentive pavements – More Info: http://www.epa.gov/heatisland/mitigation/pavements.htm
  • 24. Quiet Pavements • Reduce the tire-pavement noise • Methods: – Open-graded friction course asphalt (+ rubber) – Diamond grinding concrete pavements – Noise barriers, sound walls – Lowered alignment • Challenges: – Texture wears off with time and needs maintenance/replacement
  • 25. Source: Washington DOT Quieter Pavement Research, http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Business/materialslab/quieterpavement
  • 26. Complete Streets Source: Complete Streets, http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/completestreets/complete-streets-fundamentals/complete-streets-faq
  • 27. Section 3 ASPHALT RECYCLING IN-PLACE
  • 28. In-Place Asphalt Recycling Techniques •Milling •Micro Milling •Surface Recycling (Resurfacing) •Remixing •Repaving •Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR) •Cold Central Plant Recycling (CCPR) •Pulverization •Mechanical Stabilization •Bituminous Stabilization •Chemical Stabilization
  • 29. Cold Planing/Milling Process
  • 30. Cold Planing Applications • Remove existing asphalt concrete surface before overlay or for cold recycling (in-place or central plant) • Correction of longitudinal profile and crossslopes • Restore pavement smoothness or help achieve better smoothness upon resurfacing • Restore surface friction (micro-milling)
  • 31. CP Pattern Comparison • Tool spacing and pattern, drum speed and advance rate, will influence the final milled pattern: Source: Milling for Smoothness, Eric Baker, Roadtec 2013, http://www.arra.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=510&Itemid=157
  • 32. CP Equipment
  • 33. CP Project Selection Pavement Condition Index (PCI) VERY GOOD FAIR Cold Planing POOR Hot In-Place Recycling GOOD Cold Recycling Full Depth Reclamation VERY POOR Time/Traffic
  • 34. More CP Resources • Basic Asphalt Recycling Manual, ARRA and FHWA, Second Edition: expected January 2014 • Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming Association, http://www.arra.org/presentatio ns/cold_planing.pdf
  • 35. Hot In-Place Recycling (HIR): Remixing
  • 36. Hot In-Place Recycling (HIR): Repaving
  • 37. HIR Methods • Recycling: add rejuvenating agent, no additive • Remixing: add rejuvenating agent and additive: – Virgin aggregate – Asphalt cement – Plant mix HMA • Repaving: remixing + HMA overlay • Stages: – Single: up to 2 inch depth – Multiple: up to 3 inch depth
  • 38. HIR Applications • Purpose: rejuvenate/renew/improve the asphalt concrete surface, up to 2-3 inches deep • Use to address raveling, weathering, bleeding, other types of distress confined to the pavement surface. • Will not mitigate structural problems • Can be covered with chip seal or other thin maintenance treatment
  • 39. HIR Equipment • • • • Heating units Milling/Scarifying unit Drying/Mixing unit Paver • Rollers • Rejuvenating Agent • Admixture truck Source: Martec, http://martec.ca/2010/11/november-2010-ar2000-super-recycler-at-tradeshow/
  • 40. HIR Train Source: Brian Hansen, Dustrol, Inc.
  • 41. HIR Equipment
  • 42. HIR Project Selection Pavement Condition Index (PCI) VERY GOOD FAIR Cold Planing POOR Hot In-Place Recycling GOOD Cold Recycling Full Depth Reclamation VERY POOR Time/Traffic
  • 43. More HIR Resources • Basic Asphalt Recycling Manual, ARRA and FHWA, Second Edition: expected January 2014 • Construction Inspection Checklist #11 Hot In-Place Asphalt Recycling Application, FP2 and FHWA http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/preservation/ppcl00.cfm a second edition of this checklist is available in print and will soon be available online. • Caltrans Maintenance Technical Advisory Guide (MTAG) Volume I Flexible Pavement Preservation Second Edition, Chapter 13: InPlace Recycling, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/maint/MTA_GuideVolume1Fl exible.html • Hot In Place Asphalt Recycling, Brian Hansen, Dustrol, Inc., http://www.savemyroad.com/cir_hir/files/Ho t-In-Place-Asphalt-Recycling.pdf
  • 44. HIR Construction Checklist Contents • • • • Document Review Project Review Materials Checks Preconstruction Meeting • Pavement Preparation • Equipment Inspections • • • • • • Weather Requirements Mix Design Traffic Control Project Inspection Opening to Traffic Common Problems and Solutions
  • 45. Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR)
  • 46. CIR Applications • Restore the structural integrity of the top 2-4 inches of the asphalt concrete • Cover with HMA overlay or thin maintenance treatment • Effective in treating distress confined to the pavement surface as well as thermal cracking. • CIR is generally softer than HMA and may delay reflective cracking.
  • 47. CIR Equipment • • • • • • Tankers Milling machine(s) Crushing and screening units Mixer Paver Rollers
  • 48. Cold Central Plant Recycling (CCPR)
  • 49. CIR Project Selection Pavement Condition Index (PCI) VERY GOOD FAIR Cold Planing POOR Hot In-Place Recycling GOOD Cold Recycling Full Depth Reclamation VERY POOR Time/Traffic
  • 50. More CIR Resources • Basic Asphalt Recycling Manual, ARRA and FHWA, Second Edition: expected January 2014 • Construction Inspection Checklist #12 Cold In-Place Asphalt Recycling Application, FP2 and FHWA http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/preservation/ppcl 00.cfm a second edition of this checklist is under final review by ARRA and FHWA. • Caltrans Maintenance Technical Advisory Guide (MTAG) Volume I - Flexible Pavement Preservation Second Edition, Chapter 13: In-Place Recycling, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/maint/MTA_Guid eVolume1Flexible.html
  • 51. Full Depth Reclamation (FDR)
  • 52. FDR Methods • Pulverization • Stabilization – Mechanical = with aggregate or RAP – Bituminous = with emulsified or foamed asphalt – Chemical = with cement or other pozzolanic materials • No. of Passes: – Single pass – Multiple pass
  • 53. FDR Application • Restore the structural integrity of the pavement over the entire treated depth • Produce a uniform, stabilized, crack-free material by mixing asphalt concrete with underlying materials • Cover with thin maintenance treatment, asphalt concrete or other surfacing material.
  • 54. FDR Equipment
  • 55. FDR with Emulsified Asphalt
  • 56. Grading and Compaction
  • 57. FDR Project Selection Pavement Condition Index (PCI) VERY GOOD FAIR Cold Planing POOR Hot In-Place Recycling GOOD Cold Recycling Full Depth Reclamation VERY POOR Time/Traffic
  • 58. More FDR Resources • Basic Asphalt Recycling Manual, ARRA and FHWA, Second Edition: expected January 2014 • FDR Construction Checklist, PRRC – FHWA ARRA available in print, it will be soon available online • Full Depth Reclamation, ARRA: http://www.arra.org/presentations/fulldepth_reclamation.pdf
  • 59. Section 4 IMPLEMENTATION
  • 60. Green Up! • Use a pavement management system – Include sustainable maintenance and rehabilitation strategies in the PMS (see article in August 2013 APWA Reporter) – Keep the PMS data up to date • Add or include a pavement preservation program – Define pavement preservation triggers/criteria – Establish default frequency for preservation treatments
  • 61. Green Up! • Manage your resources better: – Even when damaged, pavements have value: aggregate, asphalt, cement, steel, etc. – Use RAP/RCA best management practices – Reuse materials as much as possible • Require minimum three design/rehabilitation alternatives for each project of which at least one should specifically address sustainability
  • 62. Green Up! • Don’t forget the 4 R’s: Right treatment, Right pavement, Right time, Right contractor. • Learn more about sustainability and green rating systems for pavements: – LEED/Green Building Council – Greenroads – Invest – Green Up
  • 63. “Green Up” • Software application to compare pavement rehabilitation alternatives in terms of sustainability; not a rating system; • Under development at Cal Poly Pomona; • Includes: – Materials – Technologies – Surface Properties – Life vs. Cost Analysis
  • 64. Green Up: Materials
  • 65. Green Up: Technologies
  • 66. Green Up: Surface Properties and Life/Cost
  • 67. Green Up: Alternative Comparison Mill and Fill Mill, CIR and Overlay
  • 68. Thank you Dragos Andrei, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Director, Pavement Recycling and Reclaiming Center CAL POLY POMONA dandrei@prrcenter.org www.PRRCenter.org