Soil survey the quest for precision agriculture in bangladesh


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Bangladesh though a LDC have generated national database on Land and Soil Resources which is mainly used for agricultural development planning and farmers service. SOLARIS and OFRS are two systems dealing with the NR database to generate output needed by academicians, researchers, extentionists and farmers

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Soil survey the quest for precision agriculture in bangladesh

  1. 1. Soil Survey: The Quest for Precision Agriculture in Bangladesh Mohammad Altaf Hossain, PhD Principal Scientific Officer Soil and Land Survey Classification Section SRDI Presented in Review Workshop 2013-14 SRDI, HO
  2. 2. CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURE TO GDP The economy of Bangladesh is based on agriculture, industry and services. The gross domestic product (GDP) expressed as purchase power parity is US$209.2 billion, which is equivalent to more than BDT 14600 billion. The agriculture sector contributes a major share in the GDP, which is about 20.0% and employs about 48.07% of the working force. Services sector is also an important sector in the economy of the country about 50% of the GDP is generated through this sector and engages 43.28% of the work force. Again, among the sub-sectoral contributions of agriculture sector is dominated by crops (57 %), followed by fisheries (22%).
  3. 3. Soil Survey Soil survey, or soil mapping, is the process of classifying soil types and other soil properties in a given area and geo-encoding such information. It applies the principles of soil science, and draws heavily from geomorphology, theories of soil formation, physical geography, and analysis of vegetation and land use patterns. Primary data for the soil survey are acquired by field sampling and by remote sensing. Remote sensing principally uses aerial photography, but LiDAR and other digital techniques are steadily gaining in popularity.
  4. 4. Precision farming (PA) Precision farming (PA) or satellite farming or site specific crop management (SSCM) is a farming management concept based on observing, measuring and responding to inter and intra-field variability in crops. PA aims to optimize field-level management with regard to: • crop science: by matching farming practices more closely to crop needs (e.g. fertilizer inputs); • environmental protection: by reducing environmental risks and footprint of farming (e.g. limiting leaching of nitrogen); • economics: by boosting competitiveness through more efficient practices (e.g. improved management of fertilizer usage and other inputs).
  5. 5. ECONOMICS Changes in costs Changes in revenues Cash Flow Risk MANAGEMENT Data acquisition and analysis Decision support system Increased attention to management Learning curve ALLIANCES Accurate GPS availability Variable rate technology Site specific management services availability Financing ENVIRONMENTAL Decrease input losses Target nutrients to increase uptake efficiency Figure. Issues affecting adoption of precision agriculture management. (Davis, Undated)
  6. 6. Types Soil Survey carried out by SRDI and data generated Reconnaissance Soil Survey (RSS) Scale 1:100,000-1:250,000 During 1964-1975 Area covered 135 million ha (except Khulna Sundarbans and Reserve Forest) Data: Physiography, land type, soil series and phases, land use, land capability, profile description of major soil series along with chemical analyses data
  7. 7. Land capability classes of Bangladesh (extent in ha) Classes Area (million ha) percentage Good agricultural land 4.4 30 Moderate agricultural land 4.8 33 Poor agricultural land 4.4 14 Very poor agricultural land 1.1 08 Settlement and water bodies 2.2 15 Source: SRDI, 2013
  8. 8. Steps in Updated Survey • Interpretation APs and preparation of photointerpretative soil and landform map of the target upazila. • Ground truthing, collection of requisite soil samples for chemical analysis. • Finalization of soil and landform map • Report writing • Publication
  9. 9. Semi-detailed Soil Survey Scale: 1:50,000 During 1984-2002 Main product: Soil and Land Resource Utilization Guide for 459 Upazilas comprising of physical (physiography, land type, soil group) chemical data (14 parameters), soil fertility assessment, crop suitability assessment, crops and cropping pattern based fertilizer recommendation for farmers’ Updating survey: 2002 onwards
  10. 10. Nabaganga Integrated Land and Water Development Project Area, BWDB Ganges-Kopotakshi Irrigation Project Area, BWDB
  11. 11. Detailed soil survey (1975-2004) Seed Multiplication Farm, BADC 17 Regional Agricultural Research Station, BARI 20 Project area of BSFIC 30 Small Scale Irrigation Project, BADC 05 Sirajganj Integrated Village Development Project 100 Bangladesh Agricultural University Farm 01 Chittagong University Campus 01 Debiganj Potato Multiplication Farm 01 Pilot Thanas under Crop Diversification Program 20 Lalmonirhat Military Farm 01 BINA Sub-stations Farm 06
  12. 12. Soil Correlation
  13. 13. Soil monolith Soil monolith Soil correlation box
  14. 14. Soil Classification (US Soil Taxonomy & FAO-UNESCO Legend) Soil series identified through RSS, according to US soil taxonomy comfortably fit into five orders, such as: Inceptisols, Entisols, Ultisols, Histosolsand Mollisols. There were 12 suborders, 21 great groups and 56 subgroups in this country (Hussain, 1992). According to FAO-UNESCO legend of soil classification system, the soil series identified through RSS has been categorized mainly into 35 FAO-Unescosoil units. These occur mainly as Fluvisols, Gleysols, Leptosol, Arenosol, Cambisol, Luvisol, Planosol, Alisol, Histosoland Anthrosol. Soils of Bangladesh needs to be classified at the ‘Family Level’
  15. 15. Utilization/Application of Soil Survey database
  16. 16. AEZ: Agro-ecological Zones Soils Physiography Hydrology Agro-climatic data
  17. 17. GIS at SRDI (BARC, VISSION 2030) • Soil Resources Development Institute (SRDI) in collaboration with CEGIS developed a massive 2GB database that stores soil data using primary information from Upazila Nirdeshika. • The system is called 'The Soil and Land Resource Information System' or SOLARIS. • Customized GIS software SOLARIS is also developed to map soil data based on classification (Soil Texture, Land type, Landform, Drainage, Slope, Surface Water Recession) and application (Crop Suitability, Land Zoning, Nutrient Status and Fertilizer Recommendation). • The system can analyze data at the Upazilla, District, and national level. Given the current context of Bangladesh, the system has a wide range of potential use and benefits. • These satellite based precision maps can assist the farmers to determine the optimal use of fertilizer for each type of crops in each season and thereby reducing the cost for the farmer and limit environmental hazards from unplanned usage. • Additionally, the system can be used to assess drought for each soil map units and the associated 'Drought Assessment Framework' (DRAS) can be used for assessing the irrigation water requirements (when and how much). The DRAS was developed by CEGIS and BARC (UNDP, 2007)
  18. 18. Soil and Land Resource Information System (SOLARIS) Soil and Land Information System (SOLARIS) developed on the soil and land resources data of Soil Resource Development Institute (SRDI) and it was presented by Mr. J.U. Shoaib at SRDI, February 2007.
  19. 19. SOLARIS Startup Window Solaris-DI Solaris-GIS
  20. 20. SOLARIS Menu System Menu System and Toolbar
  21. 21. • Analysis is integrated with the SOLARIS Data Interpreter • User can analyzeand give feed back to the GIS unit for updating • User can view, print reports and charts SOLARIS DI- Analysis Tool
  22. 22. Soil Texture –Top soil, Sub soil, Substratum Soil Group Land type classification Landform Surface Water Recession characteristics Drainage Available moisture Slope classification SOLARIS - GIS Classified Analysis: Mapping unit based
  23. 23. SOLARIS-GIS Classified Analysis HYV Boro suitability District- Sherpur
  24. 24. Topsoil fertility Sherpur District Nitrogen
  25. 25. Available Moisture- Sherpur District
  26. 26. Net Irrigation Requirement for T. Aman crop Royganj Upazila
  27. 27. Online Fertilizer Recommendation System (OFRS), SRDI Objective: To increase crop production, reduce misuse of fertilizer, reduce crop production cost by reducing current practice of using excessive fertilizer and maintaining soil fertility. The system is capable of generating location specific fertilizer recommendation for selected crops by analyzing the national nutrient database developed by the institute. The software needs only location, land type, crop type, crop (variety) information to generate crop specific fertilizer recommendation.
  28. 28. Data updating and processing Lat-long District Upazila Union Physiography Land Type Texture Drainage Sampling point
  29. 29. Fertilizer Recommendation User Page
  30. 30. Fertilizer Recommendation for a particular crop
  31. 31. Union wise Fertilizer Recommendation Report
  32. 32. One stop Service for Stakeholders Agriculture Cloud Service
  33. 33. Land cover type 1976 2000 2010 Area (ha) % of total Area (ha) % of total Area (ha) % of total Agricultural land 133030654 91.83 12742274 87.69 12176904 83.53 Non-agricul tural land 1183605 8.17 1788307 12.31 2400867 16.47 Total 14487259 100.0 14530581 100.0 14577771 100.0 Source: Hasan et al. 2013 Agricultural Land Availability in Bangladesh
  34. 34. Soil is wealth If the wealth of a nation can be viewed as its accrued assets and inherent property, the income is the yearly money that is derived from that wealth. The soil is an obvious factor in the wealth and income of a nation and may have a clear relation to a nation’s wealth. So we are to use the soil and land resources of Bangladesh rationally for ensuring food security of the nation and conserve for future generation.
  35. 35. Future Program of Survey Division • Renovation of Soil Museum • Classify the soils of Bangladesh according to USDA and FAO-UNESCO • Updated Nirdeshika survey Supervise Tungibari, Saturia, Araihazar and Dohar undated field survey
  36. 36. THANKS