Straight Talk AVLON
• Discover the causes of hair damage and
The following series of four articles were
how to minimize it wrinen by Ali N. Syed, president and master
chemist of AvIan Indusuies, Inc. They
• Uncover the facts about the different types originally appeared in ShopTdk magazine to
of conditioners and what they do for hair<J~ - assist the professional hairstylisr in providing
the very bese in hair care.
.C:) This is the fust segment of an Avian
• Learn the proper way to protect, repatr Professional Education Series, with other
and create fabulous finishes! informative issues to follow. For easy reference,
you may want to plare this brochure, and the
others to come, in a notebook.
The Right Way to treatments,
any kind of
iog the hair to some extent. conditioning
by Ali N. Syed There are four basic causes of treatments.
hair damage: mechanical (comb- However, such
ing/styling), shampooing, weather damage can be minimized with
CAUSES of HAIR DAMAGE
and chemical treatments. Each of certain state-of-the-art conditioning
We, as hair care professionals, these causes will be discussed fur- relaxers and permanem wave sys-
are engaged in the art and science ther in future issues of ShopTalk. tems available in the marketplace.
of beautifying hair; a notable pur- Hair care professionals, whether
suit that has been around for cen- they're stylists or chemists, are PROPER CONDmONING
turies. Modern techniques of hair always trying to find
What is meant by
beautification range from the sim- ways of eliminating or Damage caused
ple acts of shampooing, combing at least minimizing the • the word quot;condition-
and brushing, to chemically treat- effects of hair damage. by chemIcal ing'quot; Basically, con-
ing hair with relaxers, permanent The most effective treatments...can
waves and/or h.3ir coloring. attempting to restore
Whenever excessively curly hair :~~~aon~cal, Sh:~~:~~ not be reversed or maintain the ten-
is modified to a relaxed (straight- ing and weather-related by... condition- sile strength of hair
so that it can with-
ened) or permanently waved state, hair damage is proper ing treatments. stand the effects of
we gain better control of hair; but conditioning. Damage
in the process, we end lip damag- caused by chemical combing, brushing,
(Continued on reverse side.. .)
SHOl'TALK/FEBRUARY/MARCH JOURNAL 1990
- Conditioning the Hair, Pan I con't.
shampooing, weather and, to only on fine, limp hair or badly when they can do the most good.
some extent, chemical treatments. damaged hair. Conditioners con- Even when the chemicals are
It also involves the giving of cer- taining softening agents, humec- first rinsed from the hair, the pH
tain cosmetic properties represen- tants and highly concentrated declines' only partially (down to
tative of healthy hair. emollients, such as creme condi- about 10.0 with relaxers and 7.0
The following properties of hair tioners and moisturizers, should be with permanent waves). The hair
are the goals and evidences of used on medium to coarse hair or is still alkaline and the cuticles
effective conditioning: Ease of wet hair that is very dry. remain partially open. This repre-
and dry combing; elimination of To achieve a maximized result, sents the second best opportunity
static electricity; minimal hair loss sufficient amounts of conditioning to condition the hair once again
during wet and dry combing; soft agents must penetrate deep into before completely closing the cuti-
and silky feel; minimization of the cortex of the hair. This occurs cles with neutralizing shampoos or
Conditioners porosity; extra only under one or a combination solutions. But remember, condi-
sheen (due to the of the following circumstances: an tioning at these times can only be
containing tight realignment elevated pH, heat and time. accomplished with systems that
excessive of cuticles); ELEVATED pH
provide such features.
amounts 01' improved body,
:J and enhanced The higher the pH level of hair, HEAT
proteins... manageability. the more widley open are the cuti-
As the temperature of hair is
should ...be Hair chemists cles. Although hair is in its most
increased, the greater the possibili-
have an ongoing vulnerable state under these con-
used on fine, mission to formu- ty of conditioners penetrating the
ditions, the opportunity for condi-
cortex. As shown in Figure 1> pen-
limp hair... late conditioners tioners to penetrate deep into the
etration is much greater when hair
that address these cortex layer of the hair is at its
greatest. (When cuticles are is about 60-degrees centigrade
than when it is at the normal envi-
It's important to keep in mind closed, it is difficult for condition-
ronmental temperature of 25-
that the conditioning needs of hair ers to penetrate in this way. If they
degrees centigrade. A temperature
fibers vary according to their tex- do, an extended amount of time is
of 60-degrees centigrade is easily
ture. For example, fine hair required.)
When relaxers or permanent
achieved at the medium setting of
requires increased body, while
an electric heat cap.
coarse hair can use added soft- wave solutions are applied to hair,
ness. It's apparent, then, that one the pH becomes very high (about
13.0 with relaxers and 9.5 with TIME
type of conditioner cannot be
used on all hair textures with the permanent waves). Some premium As the time of contact between
best results. brands have protective and hair and the conditioner increases,
Conditioners containing exces- restorative conditioners built right the degree of conditioner penetra-
sive amounts of proteins, such as into the chemical systems so that tion into the cortex increases. As
reconstructors, should be used they can go to work in the hair, Figure 2 illustrates, the condition-
TUIPER.Tl:RE YS ,.,101::-''-
iog action continues to
be productive up to
Of CO:quot;lJITlo;~.;n O.·c,O'quot;lJl·... ONF.K
ADSOIUlED l~ TilE !lAIR ,HSOIWt:llINTm; U,l1I 25-30 minutes. After
that time, absorption
reaches its maximum.
It is safe, therefore, to
11 conclude that condi-
tioners should be left
on the hair, with a
plastic cap, for 25-30
minutes. The use of a
hood dryer will
quot; 'quot; .. quot;
enhance the condition-
TI.lE IN MI:-'·l:Tf.S '
Ali N. Sycd is president and mas-
ter chemist, Avian Industries, Inc.
FIGURE I FIGURE 2
SHOI'TALK/FEBRUARY/MARCH JOURNAL 1990
Conditioning the Hair,
How conditioners can
help alleviate combing-
by Ali Syed, AvIan industries, inc.
n Part One of quot;Conditioning the Hair,quot; four hairdress on dry hair, prior to styling.
I basic causes of hair damage were mentioned. In
Part Two of this series, we will discuss two of
those causes-<combing and the weather-and
what you can do as a stylist to prevent/eliminate these
types of damage from occuring.
You'll be able to gauge breakage by examining the
hair left in the comb.
The heat and ultraviolet rays from the sun have
devastating effects on the hair. The heat generated by
Combing Damage the sun dries out hair fibers and ultraviolet (UV) rays
Human hair is elastic but not perfectly so. Its elas- alter some of the cystine bonds, changing them to
ticity allows it to sustain a certain degree of pulling cysteic acid bonds. This results in a weakening of the
force exerted by hair fiber and a small degree of color bleaching.
...heat generated by combing (or To combat sun-related damages, advise your
the sun dries out hair brushing). Many clients to stay out of the sun as much as possible or
cover the hair with a silk scarf when outside.
fibers.... times, the pulling
Other remedies include using an oil moisturizer or
or combing force
applied during creme hairdress to help alleviate and replenish the
regular and normal styling, stretches the hair beyond loss of moisture from the hair or UV-absorbing or sun-
its limits causing breakage. screening prod-
Combing force can be minimized by: using deep ucts formulated ...always use a
penetrating conditioners to detangle the hair and especially for hair, wide-tooth comb,
mend broken areas along the hairshaft, which can containing such particularly while hair
snag on one another during combing; applying auxil- ingredients as
Iary products, such as leave-in conditioners if funher
detangling is needed to comb wet hair prior to blow zoic acid. Some oil
drying or setting; always using a wide-tooth comb, moisturizers or cream hairdressings contain UV
particularly while hair is wet and most vulnerable; absorbers. Ask your manufacturer if the brand you use
gently combing through the hair section by section contains sunscreening agents.
staning at the nape and proceeding upwards towards AH Syed is president and master chemist for AvIan Industries,
the crown; and applying a dab of oil moisturizer or Bedford Park, IL.
SHOPTALK/MAY JOURNAL 1990 -3-
Hair, Part IV
II shampoos and condition-
ers are not created equally,
by Ali Syed, Avian Industries, Inc.
In Conditioning the Hair, Part Ill, we discussed 1. It must contain very mild detergents such as coco
how conditioners can help repair chemical-related amphocarboxy propionate in order not to strip natural
damage. In the last of this four-part series, we take an oils from the hair and especially from the scalp.
indepth look at the various shampoos and condition- 2. It must minimize combing damage by effectively
ers available and their effect on excessively curly hair. detangling the hair.
Some say, quot;A shampoo is a shampoo is a shampoo.quot; 3. It must have a pH range of 4.5 to 5.5 in order to
This is definitely not true, particularly when it comes maintain the natural pH balance of the hair and scalp
to excessively curly hair. Shampoos formulated for nat- which is in the same range.
urally straight hair are typically very drying to exces- Detangling shampoos which are mild to the hair
sively curly hair. A top quality shampoo for this hair and scalp and have a pH range of 4.5 to 5.5 are there-
type must possess the following qualities: fore the best choices for excessively curly hair.
THE VARIOUS KINDS OF CONDITIONERS AND WHAT THEY DO FOR THE HAIR
TYPE BENEFITS WHEN TO USE
Creme Rinse Dcrangles; reduces static charge; adds shim: Not recommc::nded (Insufficient 2-(lives for excessively curly hair.)
(TYPtCALLY DOES NOT REPAIR.)
Instant Conditioners Saves time; (TYPICALLY DOES NOT When time is very limited.
Deep Penetrating Dcrangks; strengthens; moisturizes; repairs; After non-conditioning chemical services; as maintenance
Conditioner eliminates static charge. product following regular shampoo.
ReconstruClor Contain fillers such as proteins to strengthen Use on damaged, chemically processed hair for 15-20 minutes.
and repair split ends. (MAY HARDEN HAIR.) (If hair hardens, follow with deep conditioner immediately
and detangle hair. Some modern reconSlructors combine both
reswrative and deep penetrating conditioners in one product.
Such a product is recommended right after chemical services on
Moisturizer Hydf2tes dry hair; cotrects moisture imbalances. On dry, brinle hair following shampoo.
Leave·in Blow Detangles; eliminates static charge; adds shine; After shampoos; prior to blow drying 2nd curling.
Drying Conditioner helps protect hair during thermal styling.
Pre-Chemical Deep conditions hair before and during chemical Applied to hair before chemical services and left in. Chemicals
Conditioner services; eliminates combing and shampoo are applied on top.. of them.
(Le2ve-in) dam2ge. Adds shine; repairs.
After-Chemical Deep conditions hair after chemicals; eliminates Applied to hair after relaxer treatment or after color tre2tment
Creme Conditioner relaxer traces; balances the pH of hair. for 5-10 minutes.
hair ~.~rior to daily styling or whenever needed.
* Finishing Conditioner
ImpartS sheen and enhances manageability.
Lubricates dry hair & scalp.
* This ~ectio'n was added since the ShopTalk printing.
Conditioning by Ali Syed,
Avton Industries, Inc.
the Hair, Therefore, 15·20 percent of reduced
(broken) cystine bonds never reform,
Part III thus causing dryness to permanently
Permanent hair colors contain
How Conditioners Can Help hydrogen peroxide as one of the active
Repair Chemical-Related ingredients at 20-tO-40 volume concen-
Damage tration. As the color of the hair is per-
n quot;Conditioning the Hair, Part II,quot; cent loss in tensile strength. manently altered, cystine bonds are
I we discussed how combing and
the weather can damage the hair
and how conditioners can help.
Here, we take a look at chemicals, in
part three of this four-part series.
Permanent waves contain ammoni-
um thioglycolalc as an active ingredient
and have a pH of 9.0·9.5. (The pH level
is attained when ammonium or
changed to cysteic acid. This process is
also extremely drying [0 the hair.
In each of the chemical processes
described above, it is imponant that
hair be well conditioned before, during
Relaxers contain sodium hydroxide, to the ammonium thioglycolate creme and after the procedure and that any
potassium hydroxide, lithium hydrox- rearrangers or boosters during manu- existing damage be repaired. Auending
ide or guanidine hydroxide as aClive facturing.) Ammonium thioglycolate to the hair in this way. while it's being
ingredients. (To date, sodium hydrox- cremes reduce (or break) 20-40 per- chemically treated, will also help elimi-
ide and guanidine hydroxide are thequot; cent of cystine bonds intO cysteine (or nate combing damage. Be sure to
most effective slraigthening agents.) 1/2 cystine) bonds before the hair is select chemical systems that incorpo-
Relaxers work by changing a third of rodded. During neutralization process, rate such complete conditioning fea-
the cystine bonds into lanthionine the reduced bonds are oxidized with tures.
bonds, and in the process, the hair the help of sodium bromate, reforming Ali Syed is president and master chemist of
experiences a lwelve-to·founeen per- 80·85 percent of 1 he broken bonds. Avlon Industries, Inc., BcdforU Park, II..
About The Author
Ali N. Syed is a master chemist, possessing a wealth of experience in the formulation of hair
care products. He has an impressive 22-year career as a research chemist, with a rotal of five published
patents to his credit.
Since 1984, Mr. Syed has served as president of Avlon Industries which is located in the Chicago
metropolitan area. From that time, Avlon has remained solidly committed to the manufacture of
superior-quality hair care products and to the exclusive sale of those products to salon professionals.
Among the wide array of Avlon products are the state-of-the-art Affirm@ Conditioning Relaxer,
Ferm@ Conditioning Curl & Body Perm and the KeraCare™ line of cleansing, conditioning and
With an abiding affinity for chemistry,Ali Syed personally manages each and every research &
development project undertaken by Avlon's expert team of chemists. Equal to his regard for
chemistry, is the respect he holds for the professional hairstylist. Always positive towards the ideas
and opinions of stylists, Mr. Syed considers cosmetologists to be an important part of the Avlon
company team. His on-going goal is to provide t~e very best products that advanced research and
innovative thinking can offer, and always with an eye towards continual upgrading.