Recent Advances in Treating Excessively Curly Hair

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Cationic Polyamines & Starch Hydrolysates

Cationic Polyamines & Starch Hydrolysates

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  • Caucasian Hair and Black Peoples Comb/Brush

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  • 1. Recent Advances in Treating Excessively Curly Hair Cationic polyamines and starch hydrolysates Ali N. Syed, Hasan Ayoub and Anna Kuhajda Avian Industries Inc.,Bedford Park, II USA n literature, innovation is defined as the I initiation or adoption of new products, pro- cessesorideas by organizations. I Such innova- In the early 1900s, Sarah Breedlove, later known as Madame C.J. Valkor, an African- American domestic worker, invented a po~ tions have taken place in the care of exces- made of various oils. It revolutionized the sively curly hair. These developments did not hair-styling practices of AfricanNAmerican catch the attention of the ma.1ises in the US women by rnakingexcessivclycurly hair softer, because a relatively small segment of the popu- shinier and somewhat easier to comh. 3 The lation possesses curly hair. On a worldwide pomade, however, did not straighten hair, scale, however, the number becomes larger therefore, African~AmeIicanwomen could not when we include individuals from Africa, the achieve styles like those worn by Caucasian Caribbean, South America, the Middle East, women. To address this need, Madame Walker Asia and North Amelica, According to some invented a straightening comb in 1905 that, estimates, this segment with excessively curly when heated on a stove and used in conjunc- hair has grown to equal a $1.5 billion (US) tion with her pomade, made hair shiny, silky industly. and temporarily straight. This method was first known as the Walker method, and later as A History quot;hair pressing.quot; Before discussing the history of the curly For the next 40-plus years, the prohlems of hair-care industry, it is necessary to under- extremely curly hair were not fully addressed stand the nature of excessively curly hair. by any of the existing hair-care businesses Compared to straight hair, exceSSively curly because of a technology void. In the '50s, hair is like a twisted tibbon in terms of its however, George E. Johnson founded Johnson physical configuration. It is difficult to comb Products Company. By 1965, the company both in its wet and dry states, is hard to style introduced an innovative permanent hair and ishighlyunmanageahle. More fragile than straightener for African-AmeJican consumers straight hair, excessivelycurly hairbreaks more that eliminated the need for temponny hair readily upon stretching, excessive cOIl1bing straightening by the Walker method. and brushing. 2 Thus, exceSSively curly hair Similarly. Childrey & Doty introduced a requires special handling and speciallyformuN hair~reJaxer cream in 1962 foJ' Summit Labs:1 bted products that are different from Cauca~ The relative advantages ofthis innovation over sian hair-care formulas. the Valker method were many, and the aclop- Reproduction in English or any other language of all or part of this article is strictly prohibited. Vol. 113, September 1998 0361-4387/98f0009-0047$03.001O-© 1998 Allured Publishing Corp. Cosmetics & Toiletries>: magazine/41
  • 2. lion of permanent hair straightening advanced rapidly_ The rated a conditioning, and softening qllatern;u;quot; ,lllllllOllilllll innmquot;ation of chemical hair straightening had social ramilka- polymer. Tilis innovation allowed easier comhing and deliv- tions, too: for the first time African-American women could ered cO!1cliliolling beneflts while sinlllltancollSly relaXing the wear style.s that were predominant in North American culture. hair. r, Although lquot;<ldical ill this latest hcnefiL the cream suffered Competitive forces hegan to address the weaknesses of this an inherent disadvantage: it created ('veil lllore scalp discom- first-generation relaxer cream in the early '70s. This reh:cr fort than the first generation of relaxers. This de fed hindered tended to ovcrproccss and diminish the strength of hair. the success or the ncw relaxer. irritate the scalp and he difficult to rinse. It also had a short Vhile most of the attention was being gin'll to sodillm shelf life because of the separation of oil and water phases hytlroxl(le-hased cream relaxers. Carson Pr(}(lucts (;t)lnpall) present in the rela,,>;('!' cream. Upon separation of the cream. introduced a Ilew patented. two-colllponent cream relaxer in the active ingredient (sodium hydroxide, a lye), heing soluble 1978 which was formulate<l witll the active ingredient guarli- in water., transferred to the water phase, therehy resulting in dine hydrOXide, protlnced by mixing a cream containing cal- inconsistent straightening of the hair. cium hydrOXide with a liquid activator containing gllanidine Hevloll seized the opportunity to introduce a crean) called carhonate,~ This innovation was significantly less irritating to a quot;textllrizing relaxer'quot; It was more :,Itable to heat and cold the scalp compared to other relaxers and was marketed as a no- temperatures and provided more scalp comfort by being less lye relaxer. Although it provided perceivahly more scalp com- irritating. The Hcvlon relaxer straightened hair slightly less fort. the Carson innovation did not meet market standards ill than the ]ohnson Products rel;uwr bllt was still acceptable to terms of case of combing and ('oIHlitioning. hairstylists and consumers. It rnanaged to create a sizeable In 1982, Johnson Products Company licensed the no-lye market share and segmented the market into two: the Johnson relaxer technology' from Carson and comhined it with their Products relaxer was preferred hy hairstylists who wanted 0'11 quaternary ammoniU1H polymer condithming lccl)llol~ much straighter hquot;ir and Hcdon's cream was preferred by ogy.~ This comhi nation or Carson and Johnson technologies hairstylists who wanted a lextul'('tL or Jess straight. look. In the pr()(luce{l a significantly hetter conditioning cream relaxer mid '70s, Hedon also introduced a conditioningldetangling (two-component) with maximum scalp comfort-. ease of wet shampoo which imparted tremclHlous ease ofcomhing. therehy and dry combing and the creation of a Silky-soft hair texture. reducillg combing force siglliflcantly,·' In lD84, Soft Shccn Prodllct.s. a newcomer to hair relaxing, By lUiS. the competition cost Johnson products Cornpany introduced a quot;textnrizingquot; relaxer cream. This new product a Significant loss or market share. Johnson fought hack by camcwith an after-relaxer (pre-neutraliZing) conditioner which illtrodw::ing its own version of tlHe' texhlrizing relaxer cream, In softened and conditioned h;)]r to the same degree as Johnson's 19S0. the company introdHccd <1 relaxer cream that incorpo- creme relaxer while limiting the scalp discomfort associated 4SfCosrnetics & Toiletries': rquot;flilgaline Vol. 1 D. September 1998
  • 3. with Johnson's relaxer with sodiulll hydroxide.) Although this In 19H5, Adon round a new conditioning polymer that not approach fepresented an advancement over Johnson 's relaxer, only rnade hail' comb easily and feel soft, hut also increased its the conditioning and softening properties of the new Soft elasticity and tensile strength. I:! Ultirnate1y, this relaxer sys- Sheen pr6duct weft' open for improvement. tem, comparcd to other relaxers. len 1110re elasticity and In 1985, Avlon Industries Inc. introduced a relaxer system tensile strength in the hair and minimized swelling. Thus, thi~ hased upon scalp t)T)(:. For a normal scalp, its creme relaxer innovation produced stronger hair with rcspect to stretchabil~ contained sodium hydroxide as an active ingredient. For the itv and cuticle erosion. sensitive scalp, the compimy introduced a creme relaxer (two~ component) containing guanidine as an active ingredient. The Chemistry Both rela:xers had a pre-relaxer conditioner with qu,lternm)' As noted above. there Iws heul a Significant degree of ammonium polyrncrs, a relaxer which straightens hair:' a achicvements in the area orh<1i1' straightening. Therefore. it is reconstructing conditioning agent!> and an acidic agent with appropriate at this point to discuss the dwmistry orstraighten- conditioning polymers.quot; The rchxer system provides maxi- ing hair. mum conditioning before, dnring and after relaxing.'} Hair fibers arc made lip or keratin. a water-insoluhle pro- Over tlw years, Avlon received feedback about its relaxer tein which is comprised oj' polypeptide chains arranged paral- system from hairstylists. They said their clients' hair WilS lel and bonded together hy three types of cross linkaj.;cs: thinning and drying out after llsing the no-lye relaxers dllring cystine (or disulfide) bonds, hydrogen bonds ,HHI salt linkages. a three to fOIlJquot;~year period. Ivlo11 researchers discovered that A Simplified schematic of'keratin is shown in Figure 1. 1:1 hair fihers act- as a permeahle membrane wherehy liquids :vlodern hair relaxers contain alkali metal hydrOXides and could Oow into the inside of hair, swelling it to it ecrtain degree, guanidine as active straightening agents. 'Vhen hair is treated This swelling created pressllfc inside thc hair. known as quot;os- or exposed to these relaxers for 15 to 20 min, prim'lril)' one· motic pn~ssllre.·'l(l They also found that guanidine hydroxide third of the cystine hOlH!s are transformed to lanthionine swelled the hair slightly more than sodium hydroxide. conse- bonds, along with minor hydrolYSiS orpeptide honds, although qucntl:y creating a higher osmotic pressure inside the bail' til<' reaction JlH'chanism is not fully understood. shaf'L ll So rar, one possil)le 1l1cell:.lnism lias hC('Il!Jresent(·,(II)y'n)!h')'('si and Fangl~ in Figure 2. Afnrm Cream Hc!axer/Anlrlll S(~nsiti'(· Scalp. ,.h!rJII Industries, Bedford The treatment of hair fibers with relaxer {Teams for a Park. lI- fo Affirm Po.~ili·(' Link Conditioller/AffirlH .') in I. Avlon Iudllstri(~.~. duration of 1.5 to 20 min leaves h,'il' nhcrs consic!crahly dam- Bedford Park. IL aged, dry and rough in tactilc' feel. The damaging effects of Affirm Normalizing Shampoo. Adon llldllslrk.~. Bedford Park. ! l. relaxers iI' (lisCl1SS('(II)Clow. SO/Cosmetics & Toilelriesquot;; rnagazin8 Vol. 113. Seplernb01 1893
  • 4. Damaging Effects to a signifIcant loss in elasticity and tensile strength; they Most relaxer creams are comprised of active ingredients include other damages such as osmotic swelling. During this like sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydrox~ relaxing process, hair undergoes swelling by 50% or more and, ide or guanidine (two-component system), During the process upon linsing with water, abruptly swells another 20 to 30% of relaXing, one-third of the cystine bonds arc modified penna- ~thin the Hrst IS to 20 sec. 15 Generally, this swelling is out of nently to lanthionine bonds, which decrease the elasticity and control. The hair ruptures and develops cracks both longitudi- tensile strength along with cuticular damage done to the nally and radially as shown in the electron micrograph in surface of the hair. Figure 4.quot; Over a period of time, these cracks are furtherprone The stress-strain curves show the degree ofloss of elas- to insult by the bristles of the styling brush or teeth of the ticity and tensile strength in Figure 3d due to the treatment styling comb. of relaxer creams. The removal of cuticles is not only seen by SEM micro- The damaging effects of hair relaxer creams are not limited graphs but can also he qnantified by using a modified tech- nique of Sandhu et aI, where loss of cuticles is measured as hydrolyzed protein via the Lowl)' Spectrophotometric Assay.Hi quot; Reproduced hy permission of Avlon Industries. Tne, Bedford Park, IL. 111 rights reserved. Other damaging effects of relaXing creams are an increase in hair porOSity, a decrease in the moisture content of hair and a rough, tactile feel of hair after the relaXing process. The elimination or alleviation Sodium of all the various damabting effects 0_0 HydrOXide 0_0 have been the objective of thi!) --HCquot;cH study. The follOWing techniques --He-en I HH are employed to reduce these dam~ iH aging effects. 0_0 0-0 Loss of elasticity/tensile _ _ HC.cH _ _ HC.CH strength: Here, a rela.-.:er formula I / containing cationic polyamines of HH HH high molecular Weight (600,000 to 0-0 Gua-nadine Cquot;'O Oquot;C Relaxor 1,000,0(0) was compared to a con- / - - HC.cH HC·CH, - - - - S - - - HC.CIl trol formula without the cationic HH / HH .,; polyamines. The {<)l'Jmtlas are shown in Table 1. Cystine Lanthlonlnc Twelve-inch long hair fibers of Bond Bond similar diameter (71-80 microns) Figure 1, Chemical structure of keratin showing peptide, cystine and salt linkages were obtained from De Meo Broth- ers, New York. These dark brown Caucasian fibers were cleansed with a 10% solution of sodhuH lau~ I I . ----quot; Lanthionine Lysinoalanine . . . Cystme ~ (Cross Link) + (Cross Link) + il-Ammoalanme reSidue Figure 2, Possible reaction mechanism for the transformation of cystine bonds to 0'l sulf~lte, rinsed thoroughly for Reproduced by permission of 1'1011 Industries. Inc.. Bedrord Park. 11...:11 Lanthlonine bond~__. .. _ d~hts reserved. Str(lss-slraln CUtvO of Hair Tmated with Relaxer 100 ,~ ~~ ~~~-~--~--.------ --.~- . - .. ~ .. _---~~.. ~ ~ . 90 ao 70 ~ 60 50 ~ ~~ ~~~ 20 I~:::::.__-_....:;;;; 10 I, o ~.~ .. ,'quot;~~_~_~ .... ~u _ _ . . . ~ . . ~ •• _~ ••• __~~ ~ ... _,_. 0371013172023273033374043475053576063677074 Percent ExtensIon -Untreated -.Relnxed Figure 3. Stress-strain curve of hair treated with relaxer Figure 4, Radical cracks In the hair Vol. 113, September 1998 Cosmetics & Toitetries'i~ magazine/51
  • 5. :30 min and allowed to dry overnight. Each fibcr W<IS th('n ('ut These results indicate that the cxpcrinwntal group treated in half and crimped into :30mm sections llsing <I crimp press.! with relaxer containing polyamine exhibits a lower loss of The hair section dosesl to the root was designated as the tensile strength (/VI =- 0..528, SD 'quot; 0.085) as compared to the control. ,J'ld the section downstn~am was used for the experi- control group (Nt ~o -0.6:35. SD quot;quot; O.m)4). This difference is mental rela.xer. The tensile strength of the treatcd fibers with Significant at t(40) quot; -:J.903, P < 0.000. two-tailed. control rchl-xcr (without cationic polyamine) was determined Swelling: The swelling studies were done Ilsing a laser under wet conditions Ising a tensile testeLY. lllicf{)111cter that meaSllres tl1(, major and minoraxis oftllP fiher The strength was determined hy the amount of work re- silllllltaneomly. Again, Caucasian hair [rom DeivIeo Brothers quired to extend the flhers to 20';f, of their original length at a was used because of its relative uniformity compared to exces- rate of] 0 mm/min. The l>xlwrinwntal group was treated with sively C'lIrl)' hair, which tends to he highly irregular in its relaxer containing cationic polyamine. The tensile strength of diameter as shown in previols studies by Syed ct quot;P In this these fibers was determined in exactly the same mannE'r as in study, Caucasian bail' with a diameter range of7] ~HO mkrons the control group. The data for both groups of nhcrs is shown W,S .selected and (,(ptilihrated at ()5% relative hllmidity at 2] °C in Tables 2a and 2b. for 24 hr. These nbers were then immersed in relaxer fix 18 min. Alter] k min, excess relaxer was gently removed, tlHl the ! I)i,l-stron Crimp Press. Dia-Stron Ltd .. AndovCf, UK diameter measured again. The diameter measurements were ~ Db-Sholl 1iniatllrt' T<'IlSih, Tc'skr. Di;l-Stron. Ltd. Andover, UK. continued through the rinsing phase. Figure 5 shows a graph comparing hair fiber swclling in hair relaxer withollt any de- Table 1. Hair relaxers with and without swelling ingredients V$.. hair relaxer containing de-swelling cationic polyamine ingredients, Tllese de-swelling ingredients are starel} h)'<lrol)'- sat(·'s, sugars, sorhitoL glycerin and other salts. Hair nhers treated with the control rehLxer without any de. Ingredient Experimental Control svelling ingredient exhibited a swelling of 45.2% at 18 min in Petrolatum 30.00 30.00 relaxer and peaked at KO.8 C when rinsed with water. Hair ki Fatly Alcohol 10.00 10.00 fibers Ilsing cream relaxer ·ith starch hydrolysates swelled to Emulsifiers 3.50 3.50 19))<;'(1 heI,)rc rinsing and 3B.5 C upon rinsing. /(; Dirnethicone 0.01 0.Q1 Therefore, hair fibers treated with relaxer containing star('h Lanolin 0.50 0.05 hydrolysatcs and other de-swelling ingredients exhihited sig- Water Deionized 47.79 48.79 nillcantly less sV('lIjn~ compared to relaxer Vithollt (Jp-s'el1- Propylene Glycol 5.00 5.00 ing ingredients. Cationic Polyamine 1.00 An example' ofrchL:ers with and without de-swelling ingn'- Sodium HydrOXide 2.20 2.20 dients is shown in Table:3. ----_._.. __ .quot;.~----------- _ .._~._quot;_._ .. Table 2a. Control fibers treated with relaxer Table 2b. Experimentailibers treated with relaxer without cationic polyamine containing cationic polyamine ------ Hair Fiber Before After F20 Hair Fiber Before After F20 No_ Treatment Treatment Difference No. Treatment Treatment Difference 1 1.15 0.54 -0.61 1 1.04 0.51 -0.53 2 1.39 0.89 -0.70 2 1.64 0.95 -0.69 3 1.50 0.71 -0.79 3 1.44 0.82 -0.62 4 1.47 0.66 -0.81 4 1.19 0.87 -0.52 5 1.47 0.79 -0.68 5 1.43 0.84 -0.59 6 1.37 0.61 -0.76 6 1.29 0.64 -0.65 9 1.27 0.60 -0.67 9 1.27 0.71 -0.56 10 1.40 0.77 -0.63 10 1.25 0.76 -0.49 11 0.94 0.43 -0.51 11 0.82 0.43 -0.39 12 1.18 0.46 -0.72 12 1.11 0.56 -0.55 13 1.09 0.52 -0.57 13 1.01 0.59 -0.42 14 1.43 0.69 -0.74 14 1.37 0.77 -0.60 15 1.17 0.61 -0.56 15 1.07 0.68 -0.39 16 1.30 0.73 -0.57 16 1.16 0.65 -0.51 17 0.92 0.41 -0.51 17 0.98 0.45 -0.51 18 0.99 0.50 -0.49 18 0.99 0.62 -0.37 19 1.29 0.68 -0.61 19 1.21 0.68 -0.55 20 1.22 0.83 -0.59 20 1.24 0.69 -0.55 22 1.17 0.61 -0.56 22 1.10 0.62 ·0.48 23 1.41 0.73 -0.68 23 1.09 0.51 -0.58 25 1.12 0.54 -0.58 25 1.05 0.52 -0.53 Average -0.64 Average -0.53 Standard Deviation 0.09 Standard DeViation 0.08 N ~ 21 521Co$metic$ & Tojl(~lriesi.: magazine Vol. 113. Sep18ml)81 1988
  • 6. 'hell cationic po!yamill('s alHl sblr(~h hydrolysates are Ilsed using tIl(' combing device. The area IInder the comhing curve !(wdher in hair r('h),:('rs, tlwv It'aye hairvisihlv and measurahh- ~ , - quot; ,- was calculated for determining the work done in Jpules to healthier. T!l(' tensile-strcllgth results or hair treated witb comb hair in each ease. The ahove experiment was repeated rdaxl'r cofltaininp: these ill g,redit'll ts vs, , control withOI It t hes{' for the experimental hair relaxer, which contained 1.2'k <leU'(' ingredients ,-IIV showll in Tahles 4a antl4h. cationic polyamine. The results of this experiment are shown These n'sults indicate that the experimental grOllp treated in Tahle G. witll rehlxnull1taining polyalllilw and de-swl'1ling ingredients The hair relaxer containing cationic polyamine makps hair exhibits a lowcr loss in !t'llsik s{n'llgth livt quot;quot; -0,45. SI) 'quot; n,OH) comhing e<l:-iY, a:-i evident from the percent deereaw in comb as compared 10 tht, control group (1'1,'1::: -0,,57. SD::: O. 10). This work shown in the last colulllll of tlw Tahle 6. differcnc{' is significant at t(2G) ~:H)OS. P < O.OOG. 0'; Pm'osity: The porosity of hair is the hailquot;s ahility to ahsorh Figuf<> GI. shows a scanning electron micrograph or a hair a specifk Hlllonnt or water. If it is chemically damaged, it fiher treated with rel<l:('r containing polyamille and h.ydrog{'~ ahsorhs more' waler as compared to !leaH-hy. undamaged hair. nat{'{lstareh hyclrolysatt'. The cuticles lay fbI. and there arc no Man)-' swciillbts ()fhair e<lrc eqllate the degree of d<llna~e with visible cr(cks in the upper Sllr/~lce of thc hair due to de~ tile magl)illlt!t' or porosity ofllair. One widely Iisetiinetllod l(lf s'(·lling. determining porosity is descri!>etl by E, I. V,llko. For this Combing fm-ce: An exact aliHHlllt (6 g) of' hair relaxer stnd):, the Valko & Barnett method, with SOBle modifications, withont ('alionic polY<IJllinc was applied to 2 g or hair for J Ii was llsed to {letennine porosity ofhair treated with hair relaxer min. The Iress W,IS next rinsed with water 'ltHI !e,sled for ease containing cationic polyamine and hydrogenated starch h}'- of wet comhing using a combing dequot;ict>i set at pnram('('rs drolysates vs. conventionally relaxed hair and virgin hair. l ·: descril)('d in Tnble .3, 1quot;01' each treatmenL three tresses of blended, pn>-c1caned Tllis tress'as t 111'll Sll<llllPl){)(,(lllsinp; I tnlof'non-delaJlgling, Cal1(',1sion hair ,elquot;{' equilibrated at 2] 0(; and 0:3% r('!ali,(, neutralizing .shi.lmpo() and tested again for ease ofwet comhing hUllliditv j()' two weeks. Three tresses were treated with hair rcL!xprcolllaiuingcationic polyamine and hydrogcnated starch Hl'l)lquot;()(bln'd h~'l)('nllissi()n of Ad 011 Indnslri{'s. Inc. BI,dronlI'Ollquot;k. I!quot; :11 ri.ghls ft'sN'(·d Table 3. Relaxer formulas with and without l)ia,Slroll I'1T (:ollllJillg ])(''iCl', Diaquot;Stron IJd .. :lldoH'lquot;. l! 1 the de-swelling Ingredients 100 Ingredient Experimental Control (willi de-swellIng (without (Ia-swelilog r~~ 80 lngredianlsl ingledlcllls) Relaxer Petrolatum 30.00 30.00 if==-- 60 Fatty alcohol 10.00 10.00 ~quot;----quot;- 40 Emulsifiers 3.50 3.50 20 Dimethicone 0.01 0.01 Lanolin 0.50 0.05 o o 1 8 23 Water, deionized 46.79 49.24 TIME (MINUTES) Propylene glycol 5.00 5.00 - CONTROL··· _.. NON·IONIC POLYMER Hydrogenated starch hydrolysate 2.00 Figure 5_ Hair swelling by relaxer with non·ionic Sodium hydroxide polymer vs. control (or other metal hydroxide) 2.20 2.20 ._-- ._---- Table 4a. Control fibers freated with relaxer Table 4b. Experimental fibers treated with relaxer without cationic polyamine containing cationic polyamine Hair Fiber Before After F20 Hair Fiber Before After F20 No. Tratment Treatment Difference No. Treatment Treatment Difference 2 1.24 0.65 -0.59 2 1.24 0.66 ·0.58 5 1.16 0.61 ·0.55 5 1.18 0.68 ·0.50 6 1.33 0.7 -0.63 6 1.24 0.69 -0.55 7 0.87 0.37 -0.50 7 0.77 0.41 -0.36 8 1.1 0.6 -0.50 8 0.99 0.61 ·0.38 9 0.8 0.41 ·0.39 9 0.81 0.49 -0.32 12 1.27 0.73 -0.54 12 1.23 0.83 ·0.40 15 1.36 0.68 -0.68 15 1.4 0.81 -0.59 16 1.33 0.64 ·0.69 16 1.39 0.8 ·0.59 20 1.08 0.54 ·0.54 20 1.13 0.68 ·0.45 21 0.98 0.57 ·0.41 21 0.97 0.55 -0.42 22 1.03 0.46 ·0.57 22 0.98 0.64 ·0.34 23 1.29 0.58 -0.71 23 1.16 0.69 -0.47 25 1.07 0.44 -0.63 25 0.93 0.47 ·0.46 Average ·0.57 Average ·0.45 Standard Deviation 0.10 Standard Deviation 0.09 Vol 113, Septernt)or 1998 COSmetics & Toiletries:quot; magar:inc/53
  • 7. Table 5. Combing device parameters -_._--------------- Range == 600 9 force Phase 3 :::: 0.0'% Gauge == 2.0 9 force Phase 4 :::: 0.0 Sample Size == 30 mm Speed == 120 mm/min Phase 1 =: 280% No. of cycles == 1 Phase 2 =. 0.0 sec Comb Specifications: Bone Rattail Comb (with teeth 1.0 mm apart, American Comb. Patterson, NJ) Figure 6. Hair fiber treated with relaxer containing polyamine and hydrogenated starch hydrolysate ,-------------_._------------, the experimental hair relaxer had Table 6. Hair relaxer (sodium hydroxide) with and without cationic polyamine the same porosity (M:::31.402, SDd)'()6) as the virgin untreated Control Relaxer Relaxer with Cationic % Decrease hair(M =31.245. SD=O.22). Therquot; Properties without Cationic Polyamine In Combing is no significant difference; 1(2)= ~ Polyamine 130·53 (Joules) Work 1.163.1'<0.365. 1st Combing: Cuticle erosion: Untreated Initial Detangling right 0.02933 0.00412 85.95 African hair was utilized to pre~ after rinsing relaxer pare three tresses Weighing 1.5 g each. The tresses were cleansed 2nd Combing: wilng 12..5 eft:, sodium lauryl sulfitIc Ease of Wet Combing 0.02297 0.00458 80.06 solution and rinsed for 30 min. after rinsing relaxer Tress no. 1 was designated as the 3rd Combing: untreated control.: tress no. 2 was Initial Detangling right the recipient of the conventional after rinsing Nonquot;Detangling 0.01793 0.00240 86.61 hair relaxer without cationic Neutralizing Shampoo polyamine and hydrogenated starch hydrolysate. It was treated 4th Combing: with control hair rela.'. (cr for 18 Ease of Wet Combing after min, then shampooed twice with a rinsing Non-Detang!ing 0.02273 0.00306 86.54 neutralizing shampoo and rinsed ~:_~.!~~I~~_~~_~,-~~~~-~~_. __. thoroughly with water. The third Source: Adopted from Avlon R&D Report No.3. Table. 1994. tress was treated with hair re1a_'_Xer containing cationic polyamine and hydrolysate for 18 min each. These tresses were Jinsed with tap hydrogenated starch hydrolysate (expcJimental relaxer) for 18 water for:3 min, shampooed vith acidic shampoo for 3 min and min. The tress was then rinsed, shampooed twice with a rinsed with water for 1 min. Each tress was immersed in water neutralizing shampoo and rinsed again thoroughly with water ({Jr 30 min and then transferred to 28 m] plaStiC tubes contain- in a manner identical to tress no. 2. All of th'e tresses were ing stainless steel mesh about 15mm ahove the hot'tmH of the illlowed to equilihrate at 21°C and 65% relative humidity. tube in order to keep the hair away from the drained water. Each tress was cut into small pieces and 0.3 g were Weighed They were immediately placed in a centrifuge) The paramquot; in ,50 ml plastiC disposahle centJiflige tubes which were eters used for the centrifuge were HPM quot;quot; 0.7 x 10. ~mdllated. Exactly 15 mlof:waterwere added to each tube, and After 20 min of centrifuging, tresses were removed from samples were shaken in a shakerk at350 rpm for4 hr. The tubes the test tubes and Weighed immediately, Using the Valko & were set parallel to the shaking platform to maximize shaking. Barnett method. the percent poroSity at 100 (J1J relative humid- After4 hI', 0.5 Ill! of supernatant was extracted and mixed vit-h ity was determined. The above experiment was repeated using 0.5 m] of 1.325 molar sodium hydrOXide solution to dissolve the control hair relaxer without cationic polyamine and ~tarch cnUdes. These samples were incuhated at room temperatl1r<:~ hydrolysate. The experiment was also repeated for virgin (21°(;) for 30 min. untreated hair fihers. The results of all three types are shown A solution of bovin serum alhumin was prepared with a in Tahle 7. concentration of 1.38 mg/ml using a spectrophotometer at 280 These rest! Its indicate that virgin hair had less porosity nm of'wavelenbrth. This standardized solution Vas utilized in Uvl=31.245, SDquot;;:().22) than hair treated with the control hair preparing the standard curve for detennination of the un· relaxer Uvh:32.SI0. SD=O/lO). This dirfe,rquot;nce is significant; known coneentrations in the supernatant. t(2)= -:3.28. 1'<!l.()77. Iwo-tailed. However. hair treatquot;d with After :30 min of incubation, 1 ml of copper carhonate l Centm4 HotorH2D Centrifllge, lntelllational EqUipment Co, Damon, !vlti I Gyrotory Shake!quot;, New Bnlll~'vi(;k SdcntiMe Comp;my. Inc.. r~;dis()n. NJ USA 54/Costnelics &, Toilelriesquot;quot; magazine VoL 113. September 1998
  • 8. Table 7. Porosity of virgin hair and hair treated with control and I experimental relaxer: percent porosity at1 00% RH Virgin hair Hair treated with Hair treated with hair relaxer (%) control hair relaxer (°/0) containing cationic polyamine and hydrogenated starch hydrolysate ('Yo) 31.543 32.197 31.460 31.017 32.217 31.400 31.175 33.706 31.345 33.706 Average 31.245 32.810 31.402 (lanthionizing) process, thereby rC(hlcing Table 8. Concentration 01 cuticle loss the swelling of hair fihers sigllil1ci1ntly. The m<~jor benefit of this reduction is the Sample no. Average concentration of cuticles preventiOl onon~tudina] and r<l(lial cracks in the hair fihers. along with a decrea.se in Untreated control 0.270 mg/g the loss of elasticity and tensile strength. Therefore, this comhination ofstarch h)'- Control hair relaxer without cationic (lrolysatcs amI cationic polyamines reslllts polyamine and hydrogenated starch 4.244 mg/gram in healthier rehxed hair. Other benefits of simultanemls (h,. Hair relaxer containing cationic polyamine and hydrogenated starch hydrolysate (experimental) 2.025 mg/gram swelling and strengthening are a('erued in the form oftremendoHs'et·· and dry- combing ease. redut:cd porosity of n~­ solution was added and mixed into each sample. These samples !axed hair and minimal erosion of relaxed hair fiher cuticles. were further incubated for another 15 min and 3 ml of O.2N These new innovations have, indeed, revolutionized the relax· folin-phenol reagent vas added to each sample and mixed ing of excessively cllrly hair by significantly decreasing the immediately. All samples were incubated for 40 min, and extent of damage during the relaxing process. absorbance was read at 750 nm. From the absorbance for each sample, the concentration of cuticle loss in each sample was References determined (Table 8). Address correspondence to Ali N. Syed clo Editor, Cosmetics & It is clear from these results that the experimental hair Toiletries magazine, 362 S. Schmale Road, Carol Stream, IL 60188· relaxer corrodes cuticles Significantly less than the control hair 2787 USA relaxer. 1. EM Rogers. Diffusion ofinnovations, 5th ed. New York: The Free Press (1995) Conclusions 2. AN Syed , A Kuhajda . H Ayoub. K Ahmad and EM Frank. In the last 20 years, many innovations have taken place in African American Hair: its physical properties and differences relative to Caucasian hair. Cosm Toil 11039-48(1995) the area of hair relaxing and permanent waving. However, the 3. C Parks. Living legends in cosmetology, Shop Talk 12 (1) 14·17 last five years have proven to be even more fruitful, as new (1993) innovations in this time period have revolutionized the hair- 4. US 3.017,328 Summit Labs USA relaXing technology. 5. US 3.990,991 Revlon Inc. USA 6. US 4.175,572 Johnson Producls Co. USA In this study, a series of cationic polyamines and starch 7. US 4,304,244 Carson Products Co. USA hydrolysates have been llsed at various levels, separately and in 8. US 4.390.033 Johnson Products Co. USA combinations, to <..'ontrol the swelling of hair dUJin~ rela..:ing and 9. US 4.579.131 AN Syed j.JSA to enhance the strenbrth of rel<l.<'cd hair. It is now clear that dllrlng 10. A Shansky. The osmotic behavior of hair during the permanent the relm..ing process. hair swells to a maximum degree and the waving process as explained by swelling measurement. J Soc Cos Chem 420 (1963) entide layers open idel)'. The cationic polyamines arc able to 11. US 5.641,477 AN Syed and K Ahmad USA penetrate into the cOliex, and even upon rinsing hair with water. 12. US 5,639,449 AN Syed and K Ahmad USA the cationic polyamines remain trapped in the cortex of the lmir 13. AN Syed. Etl1nic hair care products. Hair and Hair Care. OH as the hair de-swells. They arc also ionically honded to the Johnson, ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. (1997) negative sites on the hair surf~tce while impmiing a tremendous 14. E Tolgyesi , F Fang. Action of nucleophilic agents on hair keratin. Hair Research: Status and Future Aspects, CE Organos, W degree of combing ease. Because cationic polyamines are elastic, Montagna, G StOttgen, eds. Berlin: Springer·Verlag (1981) the trapped cationic polyamines improve the elasticity and tensile 15. US 5,348,737 AN Syed and K Ahmad USA strength of the rela..xcd hair fibers. 16. S8 Sandhu, CR Robbins. A simple and sensitive technique, Vhile cationic polyamines are busy penetrating the hair, the based on protein loss measurements, to assess surface damage hydrogenated starch hydrolysates present in high concentration to human hair. J Soc Cos Chem 44 163-175 (1993) around and outside the hair fibers are able to reduce the ever- 17. El Valko, G Barnett. A study of the swelling of hair in~- mixed aqueous solvents. J Soc Cos Chem 3 108-117 , huilding osmotic pressure inside the hair during the reb.xing (1952) .- 56/Cosmetics & Toiletries,r, magazine Vol. 113. September 1998