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African American Hair
 

African American Hair

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Physical properties of African American hair and its relative differences to Caucasian haur

Physical properties of African American hair and its relative differences to Caucasian haur

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    African American Hair African American Hair Document Transcript

    • African~American Hair Its physical properties and differences relative to Caucasian hair BycAlicN.Syed, Anna Kuhajda, Hassan Ayoub, Kaleem Ahmad quot; , Avlon Industries Inc., Chicago, It; USA Eugene M. Frank, Ph.D. Raani corp., Chicago, IL, USA 'l dentine innovations in chemical treatments that alter that tbquot; breaking stress of African·American hair (L24 gI S . the textllreof African-American hair, as well as a pletllora of style trends, have spurred phenomenal growth in this denier, a unit of fineness equal to the fineness of a yarn weigbing 0,05g for each 450m of length or 19 for each segment of the hair-care market throughollt the past three 9000n.) is less than that of Caucasian hair (L41 gldenier). clcc(<lcs.:JTlw, level or research & development by manufac- The yield stress for African-AnJerican hair, however, is lur<~rs ill t:Iw area of product fi:mnulaUon hus steadily el- slightly higher (0.46 gldenier VS c0.42 gldenicr). evated; yet, a great deal remains to be learned about the Kamath and Hornby studied the fractographic behavior unique physical properhes of African-American hair. Com- of Ali'ican-American hair to view both mHJor and minor rods pared to the vast body ol'research regarding Caucasian hair, at low levels of extension,quot; They examined the ellipticity of the study ofquot; African-American hair is at best limited. hair fIbers and reported ellipticity indices of LS9± OcOS3 and 1.0 to 1.4 for African-American and Caucasi~n hair, respec- A Reveiw of Research tively. In this study. thetheellipticityinclcxwas calculated hy r In published studies, Menkart et al.' Epps et ai' and dividing the mcior axis by the minor axis, whidl is the reverse Kamath d al li reveal that some important research has of the formula used by Menkmt ancl Wolfram. indeed been conducted on the physical properties of highly Combability:Epps and Wolfram' conducted combing curly hair. The efforts of these researchers and the resulls of comparisons between African-American a11u Caucasian hair th{'~ir studi(;s ~ervc as a startingpoint for the further study of using eombability techniques used by Garcia and Diaz.' .,.,Ali-icap,-AxneIican haiL OthCl::gf3Ileral.~?qse1VaU(mS ahmrt Garcia and Diaz repOlt that African-American hair, due to hair, such as those pertaining to static charge (Jachowicz5 its curliness, is much more difHcult to comb than Caucasian and C.n. HobbinsO) and theories about moisture content, hair. It was also determined that African-American hair is serve as a springboard for advancing the study of African- easier to comb wet than dry. American hair. Using a scanning electron microscope at a ma6'uIDcation of Shape: MenkartanclWolfram7 repOltthat African-AmeJi- about 300X, Kamath and Hornby also obselved tllat African- can hair has a physical shape resembling a twisted oval rod, Americ,mhairdisplayfrequent lVvists with random reversals in vllcreas Cauca.sian hair is more cylindrical. They ,lirection and pronounced Ilattcningc DUling fraetographic foundcvic1ellce of this when they made elliptiC cornparisons study, the break stress of Aflican-American hair was reported or hair cross-sections. Using a formula in which the rninor to be (0.12.1 ± 0,(16) 10' N/m' when dry (65% relative axis is divided by the major axis, Menkart and Volfram humidity [m'l]) and (0,119 ± Oe01m 10' N/m'when wet The determined that Africall-Amelican hair has a ellipticity breaking elongation for wet and dry (65% HU) fIbers IVas index of 0.56 and Caucasian hair has nn index 0.7.1. The or founcl to be 44% ± 3% and 27% ± 5%, respective1yc tensile-strength data gathered during this research sllows Jachowicz et al and CeI. Hobbins discuss static-charge Heproduction in EngHsl-1 or any otller language of all or part of this article is strictly prohibited. Vot. 110. Oclober 199~.i 0361t1:n7 N~!OD1nf().19)rr~(O;nF;, 19% !-'.!Iured Publishing Corp. Cosrnelics & 1o!l(~tr!0<;quot;quot; rnClgozlne/39
    • Table 1. Diameter of African-American hair FiberNo. Maximum (pm) Minimum 1m) o Effipticilyquot; C 88.62 47.12 1.8807 D 101.76 59_95 1.6974 E 98.73 53.76 1.8365 F 91.36 47.42 1.9266 G 96.10 57.44 1.6'731 H 111.04 5[l.OB 2.0 fiO I 84.76 48.99 1.7302 J 87.34 51.72 1.6887 K 120.55 57.71 2.0889 L 108.63 61.76 1.7589 Average = 1.8297 ± 0.1456 • Ellipticity =Maximum Diameter + Minimum Diameter determination of hair fibers and the fibers positive or nega- tive sign in detail. All examination of'African.. Allwrican hair, however, was not involved in the study. Chemists and obselvers ill the ethnic hair-care industry generally theorize that African-American hair llils less mois- ture (water) content than does Caucasian hair. ·uy little scientinc data, however, is available to suhstal1liatl' (Ilis cIaiin. prcdispersed micronizod titanium dioxide products To expand our knowledge or Ihe dj{T(~rcllces between Request Samples Today via Phone, Fax or E-Maill African-Amelican and Caucasian hair, we will review the (OLLAnOflATIVE telephone 516.689.0200 Hndings of scientific studies we conducted. SOl no of our LABORATOllIES facsimile 516.689.0205 investigations pertained to properlil:s that have already [>-Mail, colloblb@mail.lihlLorg received attention hom researchers, narnelv fiber diameter, 3 TE,chnology Drive· East Setauket, NY 11733 tensile strength, and ease ofwot and dry cO';lhi ng. To extend the body of research specific to Al'ricHll·i ll1(~ric<l11 hail', we abo analy;;ed static charge and moisture content. Compara- . tive studies like these may help hair-care manufacturers more sllccinctly idclltif)· dhnic COllsumer needs, paving the way for refinement o[existing product {ormlilatiolls and the conceptualization of more effective ones. Hair Diameter All of the African-American and Caucasian hair fibers studied in our current project were purchased from DeMeo Brothers of New York. Except where noted, all of the hair tested is untreated, virgin hair. Bulk samples of eaeh hair type purchased may represent a blend of fibers from more than one individuaL llair diameter via itlwge analysis: To determine Afri- can-American hair-fiber diameter, weselectcd 10 Imir fibers at random from the blend. Each hair fiber was Singly mounted between 2 glass slides and placed under a compound micro- scope. The microscope was connected to a video camera and used image analysis software. vVe took diameter measure- ments of each fiber at 1 rom intelvals from its root to end. We noted the maximum and minimum diameters and divided the maximum diameter by the minimum diameter to deter- mine an ellipticity measurement (Table 1). The ellipticity measurements for the 10 fibers wore averaged [or purposes of comparison against Caucasian fibers. 'rhe salllo proce- dure was used for Caueasiou hair Crable 2). Results: Fibers of African-American hair exhibit consid- erable vadations in diameter. The ellipticity index averages Crodn Inc 7 Century Or Pilrsippnlly NJ 07054 1.01-644-4900 1.8297 ± O.H56 I(Jr the 10 hairs studied, indicating a hi·gh -- 1 or <lcgrce irregularity in the diameter or Arrican-American o12jCosmot!cs & Toilo1riesquot; mO(j07iIVJ Vol. 110. October 1995
    • Table 2. Diameter of Caucasian hair ~O ~. Fiber No. Maximum Oun) Minimum (pm) Ellipticity A 85.36 61.97 1.3774 13 77.10 65.47 1.1776 D 73.82 61.04 1.2094 E 89,75 6~i.47 1.3709 F 73.06 62.51 1.1688 G 73.48 65.25 1.1261 II 90.34 62.84 1.4376 1 81.50 65.88 1.2371 J 89.75 69.52 1.2910 1< 97.28 65.25 1.4909 , Avera9C ;-;: 1.2887 ± 0.1182 quot; DISTANCE (mm) • Ellipticityquot;quot; Maximum Diameter .,. Minimulll Diameter Figure 1. llair along a single strand. Tllis measurement is vel}' close to Comparison of Tensile Strength Properties Kamatl/s ami J lornhv's findings of' 1.89 ± 0.083. 'flw slight To find the tensile strength ofwet African-Arncricall hair, difTerence in fIle imli(;cs could lw due to the l~K~t that Kalllalh fihers were Ilrst cleansed with a J.2.5% solution o/quot; sodiutn Hnd Homhy studied fJbers [rolll one individual head, whereas lanr)'1 sulfate, rinsed for 30 minutes, allmvecllo dry and thell we usee! hair from Hlore thall one individual. eqUilibrated overnight at 659::, HH and 2.rC. Fibers of Caucasian hair is more reglllar compared vith i/quot;rican- visually similar diameters were selected and crirnpc'd at a American hair. The ellipticity index of Caucasian hair is 30.00 mrn length for mounting on a Dia-Slron MT'1''' tcnsile- 1.2887 ± 0..1182, demonstrating little variation between tll(' strength determination device. Each crimped fiber was ma:dmum and minimum hair··shalt diameters. These flnd- incHvi<-lual1yscanned at 1.0 mm intervals along the hairshaft. ingssuhst<ultiate thoseofKamatll ilild J-lornby, vhich rcllect The lnaximum and minimum diameters were dclennined in all ellipticity illdex of 1.0-1.4. Figore 1 graphically iilostratcs the manner described above. the lJigldy irregular diarneter or Afj'ican-American hair vs. th(~ lnon' COllsislent diameter of Callcasian hair. quot;Din-Stron M'IT lllanuhlctnred by Din-Stron, Andover, Hampshire, UK Vol. 110, Oclob8r 1995 Cosmetics & Toiletriesquot;) rnogazlnej43
    • Since African-American hair is highly elliptical (Table 1), dlc arca of a cross-section cannot be determined from the nhcr diameter as it could if the hail' nber was cylindrical. Therefore, we used the following fonnula: J A = D x d x nl4 Where A= Area of cross-section; D := Major axis; and d = Minor axis. VVa studied the breaking stress and breaking elongation of the nbers using the Diu-Stron MTT. Fibers similar ill cross-sectional area were selected for stress-strain deter- minations under wet conditions. Vhile keeping them im- mersed in water, the Ilbers were mounted singly between the quot;jawsquot; of the device. The stress and elongation at break point were determined nsing the following (onmth, (Table 3): Stress Load!A Stress at break point [(Breaking load in Kg) x (g)JI A The New Standard for [(Breaking load in Kg) x (9.81mN)]IA in 11l' Breaking stress in N!Jl19. Transparency & Breaking stress in Pascals UV I'rotection The parameters of the device are shown ill Tahle 4 I'd 1115 conla ining 45'1., pigment are Dry African-American hair: The same procedure was transparent on glass. used to find the tensile strength of dry Aftican-American For information on our Dispersions, please contact: hair, except that the stress-strain determination was made under dry eonditions at 65% lUI and 21°C Crable 3). KOBO Again, we used thesarne procedure to testvd Caucasian PRODUCTS INC. hair except the fiber was twisted once at H'H)quot; while heing 690 Montrose Ave., South Plainfield, NJ 07080 USA mounted between the jaws of the Dia-Stroll jylTT to vicw Tel. (908) 757-0033 FAX (908) 757-0905 hoth major and minor axes. The average stress and elollga.. lion at break point is shown in Tahle 5. The same procedure was used Cor ,vet Caucasian hair as for dry Caucasian hair except the stress-strain determination was made under dry conditions (Table 5). Results: The break stress of wet, untreated African- Second generation distillers of fille c!,scntiaf oils American hail' is 0.089 109 N/m'± 0.025 lOquot;N/m', consider- ably lower tban that of the Kanwth and Homby Study.' Producers of IXlre, natlll,li CEDARWOOD oil, in Ule hemt of Break elongation is 42.04% ± 4.9%. Ihe Texas Hill COllnhy. Atolally quot;greenquot; 0llelalion. The break stress ofwet Caucasian hair is 0.165:1: 0.025NI Ill~', higher than that of wet African-American hair. The break elongation of wet African-American hair is OUf steam distilla1ion plant and on-site vacuum 42.04% ± 4.HO%, and break elOllgation ofweI: Caucasian hair refining capabilities enable us to supply perfumers and is 61.61 ± 4.1 %. When compareel, these values suggest that compounders with consistent qualities. We offer all wet African-American hair does not extend as lTlllch before grades and compositions of Texas cedarwood oils at breaking as does vet CaucHsiall Jlair (Tables:3 al1d 5). competitive prices. The break stress of dry African-American hair is (0.153 ± Order 1 kg or 100 drum quantities, and expect 0.015) 10quot;N/m' as comparcd to the break stress of 0.189 prompt shipment by UPS, air freight or ocean freight lOquot;N/m' ± 0.019 lOquot;N/mquot; for dry Caucasian bair (Tables .3 to any coulltry in the world, FOB Houstoll, Texas. and 5). Upon comparison oftheso values, it is clear that dry African-American hair breaks more readily tlran does dry Our Tcxaromc qualily is also available from stock Caucasian hair. at your favorite loctll broker & dealer. The break elongation ofdty African-American hair fibers is 3[1.35% ± 4.9% as compared to the break elongation of Ask fol' it by /lame. 49.57% ± 4.4% for dry Caucasian hair (Tables 3 and 5). Comparing these values, it is clear that dty African-Ameli- can hair does not extend as much before breaking as dly Cafl or fax youfofders directly fa tiS in English French, German or Spanish andexperience (rielldfy, personalizedservice, Texas style. Caucasian hair. Therefore, Aftican-American hair is more PO Box 157, Leakey, TX 78873 USA fragile in wet and <lry conditions tlran Caucasian Irair. Telephone 21 0-212-()079 • Toll-free 800-514-1363 r,lX 210-232-5716 Comparison of Wet and Dry Combing I'roperties lVet combing:African-American lurirwas assembled into a 1.5 g tress and cut to 12 em in length to test wet combing. 44/Cosrnolics & 1oiletrlct,) JT10o(uine Vol. 110, Oclober 1995
    • Table 3. Tensile strength properties Table 4. Dia-Stron MTT testing parameters of untreated African-American hair for breaking stress and elongation -·---···----·---··-----------·---·---1 Test Condition No. of Cross-SecUonaJ Break Stress Elongation at Range: 150.00 gram force RH (%) Specimens Area nr UP N/nf! break(%) Gauge: 2.00 gram force Sample Size: 30.00 mm Wei (100) 20 6.27 x 10' 0.089 ± 0.025 42.04 ±4.9 Phase 1: 100.00 % Dry (65) 20 6.74 x 10' O.153:tO.015 39.35 ±4.9 Pllase2: 0.00 sec _ _----- Lj .. .•.._ - - - - - _ ... Phase 3: 0.00% Phase 4: 0.00% , Speed: 15.00 mm/min Table 5. Tensile strength properties No. of Cycles: 1 of untreated Caucasian hair Test Condition No. of Cross~Sectlonal Break Stress Elongation at Table 6. Dla-Stron MTT testing parameters Rft (%) Speclmons Areanr UPNlm'l break(%) for dry and wet combing Wet (100) 20 6.25 x 10'9 0.165 ± 0.025 61.61 t 4.1 Dry (6.'quot;5) 20 6.72 X 10.9 0.189±0.019 49.57 ± 4.4 Range: 2,000.00 gram force ----_... .. __.._ - - - - - - - - - Gauge: Sample Size: 0.00 20.00 gram force mm The tres!'i was then soaked in lap water at room temperatnre for 15 Phase 1: 600.00 %., minutes and mounted on a Dia-Stroll MTT combing device using the Phase 2: 0.00 sec Phase 3: 0.00% paramelers in Table 6. Phase 4: 0.00% The teeth of the hard-rubber comb were spaced 2.0 mm apart. The Speed: 60.00 mrn/min No. of Cycles: 1 work dOllC (ill joules) to pass the COlllb through the hair tress reflects an average or three combings. The Sil!nc procedure and parameters used ahove were used fl.H' vet Table 7. Combing work for untreated combing of Caucasiall hair (Figure 2 and Table 7). African-American hair and Caucasian hair Dry combing: Tile same proccchlre vas used for (hycombing both African-Amcrican and Caucasian hair, except that the hair tress was _~~1!!:!?!'!JL~?~~.!~!._~'!!-'~~_ equilibrated and combed at G5% HI-l (Figure 3 and Table 7). Hair Type Wet Hair Dry Hair lkRrtltH: The -vork of combing wet black hair is almost 5 times that African-American 0.0392 0.3017 of combing wet Caucasian hair Crable b). lilorcovcr, the work or Caucasian 0.0082 0.0057 JJ~ For marketing & technical information on Evening Primrose Oil and Storflower Oil (Boroge Oil), the high purity sources of GLA contact The Cosmetic & Specialty Chemicals Group f10che Vitamins & Fine Chemicals Division Nutley, NJ 07110 Phone it 201/909-8332 Fax II 201/909-5592 quot;%quot;quot;quot;;;m=_quot;,,,,.3lquot;.,;'T'!.,:,;]quot;quot;i.t))J:'i::&i§iquot;quot;4E;.<jW§rnJ;k;':i:;;quot;';'~~§9«':;;«tquot;»i';;d:;quot;quot;quot;,mquot;iii<ki'i'£m'h<4)A?lquot;;./:ci:;;s>!;;>Ji~J,,,x,>'.iM¥,'quot;m,mquot;,.:,quot;· · quot;quot;.~m'i;,,,,,,m;s,mm~1ii%!quot;quot;'!l!!!l~,,,,,,,miilll!iWJl;;;rrnmgmmm_!1!Ilil1JIDj!1ffP~ Vol. 110, October 1995 CosmetIcs & Tolletrles~ mogozine/45
    • hetween the teeth. The tress was then placed at a pre- determined distance in Trek ESD 425 Modelh and static charge was llleasured. An average static charge of three tresses is shown in Table 8 and Figure 4. quot;Va used the same procedure to dderlllilH~ the static charge on Caucasian hair. An average slat ic charge or three tresses is shown in Table 8 and Figure 4. Hesults: Aftican-American hair develops a highly nega- tive electrostatic charge (~2,5.4 KV/m) (Table H).In contrast, Caucasian hair develops a velY low positive c1ectrostalic charge (+6.6 KV/m). The relatively high negative charge acquired by dry AfricaIl~American hair during combing COMBING DISlANCli (mm) may be <lIte to the extraordinarily lligh degree oi'pulling figure 2. force required to pass the comb through the entangled hair fibersY The combing of chemically straightened blaek hair re- I sults in a positive electrostatic charge (+25.9 KVlln). This revrrsaJ is thought to be attributable to a f.;rcater case of combing and rninimal hair-fiber entanglemcnt. I quot;Vhether untreated or chemically straightencd, A [l'ican- Arnerican hair develops a signiHcantly higllCr electrostatic I charge than does Caucasian hair. The relatively high electro- static charges could produce a quot;balloon effectquot; and contrib- ute to the higher degree of umnanagcability.f1 COm(larison of Moisture Contents I To determine moisture content or African-American I 11,lir, African-American hair fibers were clealIS{,d alld equili- COMBIIlG IlISTIINCE (mm) brated to GS91 un at room tempnratllm as in the above 0 Figure 3. procedure for determining tensile strength. The root end of caell llair nbcrwas eut into small pieces and placed ill a prc- weidlCc1 alumInum pan using a Cahn MicrobalaIlccquot;. Tile :---------'~------1 allll;linum pan containing the {utiI' salnplewas then placed in an analyzer (DSCd) and a moisture isothenn was obtained :g using the following parameters in Table 9. g IU 10 After tlle run is complete, the aluminum pan cOlltaining quot; quot; < r the hair sample was transferred to a desiccator for 2 hours quot; ' quot; and then weighed again using a balance. The moisture ~ content was determined as follows: quot;.10 ~ % Moisture content = [(weight ofhair sample ~ ro before healing) - (weight of hair sample after heating)]/ [(weight orhair before heating) x 100] Again, the same procedure was used to determine the moisture content of Caucasian hair. figure 4. Hesults: The moisture content of African-American hair tends to be less than that of Caucasian hair. African-Ameri- C'olll)ing is almost 50 times greater [or African-Ameli.can hair can hair contains 17.69% moisture by weight vs. 18.66% for thall Caucasian bairwllcn dry. Arrican~AJllerican hair is allnost Caucasian hair. The Aflican-American hair has 5.20% loss 8 times more difficult tocombwct than cIty, The relatively high moisture content than Caucasian hair (Table 10). degree ofwork required to comb the assemhlyof dlY African- An;etican hair is due to its extwmelycurly conBguration and Conclusions consequential entanglement. Figures 2 and 3 depict the African-American hair fibers, when compared with Cau- combing curves ofwet and dry hair ofbotb Iypes. casian hair fibers, exhibit the follOWing properties: Comparison of Static·Charge Properties • Irregular diameter along the hair shaft. This phenom. enon may well be a major contributor to the compara- African-American hair fibers were assemblec1into a 1.0 g. tive weakness of African-American hair. tress cut to 20.0 em in length. The background static charge of the tress was measured before combing. 11I measure- Ic['rck Industries, Medina, NY ments were cOlHl11cted at 21quot;C ancl38% BH. The tress was cCalm Microbalance, ATI Orion, Boston, lvlA combed 10 times with a harc1-ruhher comh vith 2.0 mm <I])igilnl Scanning Calorimeter (1)5C), Jl('rkln-EllllGr Corp, Norwalk, CT t16/Cosrnetics & Toilclries0 mog01ine Vol. 110, October 1995
    • o A relative low break stress and break elongation hI bOtll Table 8. Static charge on African-American hair wet a)l(I dry stales. Thus, African-Americ~lnhairgener- and Caucasian hair using hard rubber comb ally has le;.;s tcnsile strength amI breaks more easily thall Caucasian hair does. Thus, AfticClu-Amcrican hair Hair Type Static Charge in KiloVolts/meter tends to be the Inure delicate of the two hair types. Black - 25.4 (I A relatively high resistance to combing in the wet: state Relaxed black 25_9 all(1 even mom so when dry. The likelilJood ofeffecling Caucasian 6.6 mcchanica[ damage by simple grooming is, therefore, lllllCh great {'Iquot; Cor African-Illlcricatl llair Iwc<luse of its lligltly cnrly cOllfiguralion. Table 9. Digital Scanning Calorimeter (I A bigh stalic charge when combed in a dry state. This testing parameters finding indicates that normal styling and grooilli lit-; can Heating rate lOge/minute make AfricalHmcrican hair conSiderably less man- Starting Temperature 40QC ageable since static causes fly-away Gbers. Ending Temperature 260'C It A lower kn·l or Illoisture. The 10v8r rnoisture content '-----------------------' orAfricall-Alllcrican hair may be asignil1cantcontril)ll- [or to its relative fragility. Table 10. Moisture content of untreated The results of' this research have parUudar relevance 1'01' African-American hair and Caucasian hair chemists and new-product development specialists who work ill the ethnic hair··care market. It is clear that- ArrIean- _Com!!.~~~ryy9.!'~J~'~C!.ules Hair Type mglg of Iwir % American bail' difJers fmm Caucasian hair in a number of African-American 176.9 17.69% i mporl<tnt ways, suggesting that the products formulated f(.H· Caucasian 186.7 18.66 Caucasian hair and sold ill the general market may not adequately address the special hair-care needs of the Afri- AfIican-Amedcan hair, makeitpainfullyapparcnt thatt-here can-American COllSttmer. It may well be that smIle the or are many more questions to be ansvered before we have an products and practices now used in the ethnic market arc adequate knowledge of this hair lype, Those of us who are inappropriate alld ineffective, given that African-American professionally mId/or academically involved with ethnic hair llair lends to h{~ relatively fragile and diHlcult to comb and as are beckoned to delve even further into its nnique a lligh sialic ('[large and lower moisture content. characteristicsand how it reacts with various products, Th i:_,; n~.'il·'lrcil, aiulig with other studies cOlldllctcd on treatments, temperatures. environmental conditions and styling/grooming practices. As the body of scientific knowledge broadens, the consumer is suquot;re t.o be better served and the entire ethnic hair-care industIy will be OUR CREDO TO enormously enriched. FLAVOR AND References FRAGRANCE Address correspondence to Ali N. Syed, c/o Editor, Cosmetics & BUYERS Toiletrle#magazine, 362 South Schmale Road,' Carol Stream, IL 60188-2787 USA 1, J Epps and LJ Wolfram, Letter to the Editor, Journal of Society of Cosmetic Chemists 34 213-214 (JUly 1983) NO ORDER TOO LARGE 2. ML Garcia and J Diaz, Combability Measurements on Human NO ORDER TOO SMALL Hair, Journal of Sociely of Cosmetic Chemists 27 379 398 (1976) 8 3. K Gieck and R Geick, Engineering Fonnu{as, 6th ed, New York: We don't set minimum require- McGraw-Hili p 83 (1990) ments because we have found that 4. Ibid, P 267 quot;tc,t ordersquot; often lead to long 5. J Jachowicz, G Wls-Surel and ML Garcia, Relationship between term relationships. This is a Triboelectric Charging and Surface Modifications of Human Hair, policy we have adhered to for Journal of Society of Cosmetic Chemists 36 189-212 (May/June over 110 years. So let us have the 1985) Alan P.llirnbaum, Presidelll 6. YK Kamath and S. Hornby, Mechanical and Fractographic Behavior opportunity of bidding on your next order, no matter it's size. of Negroid Hair, Journal of Society of Cosmetic Chemists 35 21- 43 (January/February 1984) 7. J Menkart, LJ Wolfram and I Mao, Caucasian Hair, Negro Hair, and Wool: Similarities and Differences, Journal of Society of Just say: quot;CHAUVETquot; Cosmetic Cllemists 17 769-787 (1966) 8. WE Morton and JWS Hearle, Static Electricity, Physical Properties Since 1881 of Textile Fibers, Manchester, UK: The Textile Institute 529(1986) 9, CR Robbins, Physical Properties and Cosmetic Behavior of Hair, PIERRE C1IAUVET_oc (!I$lIbSidiilryol ri~rrc ChalJvcl, SA Fr,ll1t~ Tel: 9-175%,03 Fax9-U6.%1G) 3IlEUTElI [JRquot; CLOSTEfl, fU 07624 TEL: 201.784.9300 FAX: 201.784.0604 Cllemical and Physical Behavior of /-Iuman Hair, New York: Springer-Veriag (1988), p 268 10. AN Syed, EthnicHairCare: History, Trends and Formulation, I . Cosmetics & Toiletries 108 99·107 (September '1993) 48/Cosrnellcs & ToilntrlesSl m(l{~Jmjne Vol. 110, October 1995