Rethinking Library Resources: Print
Collections in a Digital Age
Drake University Faculty Forum
February 18, 2014
SCS Mission

To help libraries manage and share print
monographs

Sustainablecollections.com

2
SCS Experience
• Individual Library Projects
• Johns Hopkins University

• Boston College
• McGill University
• Amherst Co...
Today’s Specials
• The Why: The Changing Value of Local Print
Collections
• The How: Using Data to Inform Collections
Deci...
THE WHY: THE CHANGING VALUE
OF LOCAL PRINT COLLECTIONS
7
Evolution of the Library
Paradigm
Reader-centered: from monastic scriptorium and library;
dominated by light and reading t...
Collection Development Trends
• Mass digitization of historical print
• Journals: JSTOR, Portico, et al
• Books: Hathi Tru...
Lewis: From the Stacks to the Web…
• Deconstruct legacy print collections
• Slow current growth

• Print journals, governm...
Academic libraries need to…

move beyond defining themselves by their
distinctive collections and move to definitions
of e...
Meet users where they work…

13
Curate the local and unique

14
Issues facing print book collections
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Stacks are overcrowded
Use of print books is low and declining
Library...
Stacks are crowded and empty

16
Use of print books is low and declining
• 30 million books, 88 libraries
• 6% of books accounted for 80% of
circulation

•...
Circulation in Academic Libraries:
Declining Since 2004

37%
Decline

18
Space Requirements: Monographs
Volumes
100,000
250,000
500,000
1,000,000
2,700,000

Square Feet
20,000
45,000
80,000
150,0...
Library space is wanted
for other purposes…
“The crowding out of readers
by reading materials is one
of the most common an...
Lifecycle Costs: Monographs
• CLIR, June 2010

• Courant & Nielsen
• Estimated Annual Costs
 $4.26/ volume annually in
ce...
Print redundancy is significant…

Potential for shared print
And local reductions

24
The Case of Bertrand Russell…
Alternatives exist, but the data is scattered…

Just because it’s rational doesn’t mean it’s...
Sustainablecollections.com

26
WHAT TO DO?

Sustainablecollections.com

28
How else could we…?
• Preserve collection integrity
• Assure low-use content is available if/when
needed
AND
• Bear less u...
Share?

30
Store offsite?

31
Store Onsite: BookBot and Virtual Browse?

Sustainablecollections.com

32
Discard?

33
Create?

34
Benefit?

36
User space—NCSU Library

Sustainablecollections.com

37
Independent action in a collective context

Sustainablecollections.com

38
Shared print initiatives (Monographs)
• Michigan Shared Print Initiative (MI-SPI)
• Maine Shared Collection Strategy

• Co...
Sustainablecollections.com

40
Reasonable questions
• What to manage locally?

• What to manage above the institution?

Sustainablecollections.com

41
THE HOW: USING DATA TO INFORM
COLLECTIONS DECISIONS
43
Two functions of library print collections
• Preservation function
• “Dispensing” function: accounts for the “the
great pr...
‘Archive’ copies
• Digital Archives
• Secure, high-quality

• Hathi Trust, Portico
• CRL certification

• Print Archives
•...
‘Service’ copies
• Once content is securely archived, ‘dispensing’
function can be managed with fewer surplus
copies
• Foc...
Surplus copies
• Archiving requirements satisfied
• Sufficient service copies to meet anticipated
demand
• How many holdin...
Good Decisions Require Data
• How many holdings/copies?
• Where are they?
• Is the title secure?
• Can the title be access...
Title-Level Metadata

Sustainablecollections.com

54
Library-Level Collection Summary:
Total Uses Since 1992 (20 years)
3

Circulation: 0 Charges

138,415

145,559

43%

4

In...
Collection Summary: WorldCat Holdings Distribution
Titles

Items

Percent of
Filtered Item
Records

12

> 100 holdings in ...
SCS Monographs Index 2013

Sustainablecollections.com

59
SHARED PRINT MANAGEMENT:
GROUP PROJECTS
Sustainablecollections.com

60
SCS Group Projects to Date
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Michigan Shared Print Initiative (MI-SPI)
Maine Shared Collection Strategy
C...
CI-CCI group data

65
Recorded Uses
CI-CCI Title-Holding Counts
1

All Title Holdings - Filtered

All Libraries

%

1,048,251

100%

Recorded Us...
WorldCat™ Counts – US
WorldCat Counts - US - Specific Edition

Title Holdings

%

2

2,804

0%

4

2-4 Holdings in the US
...
WorldCat™ Counts – Iowa
WorldCat Counts - Iowa - Specific Edition

Title Holdings

%

18

105,880

10%

20

2-4 Holdings i...
CI-CCI Overlap
Based on SCS Matching
Overlap within the 5 CI-CCI member libraries

Title Holdings

%

2

526,526

50%

3

...
18,333 titles are held by all 5 CI-CCI Libraries
Pub
Year

CI-CCI
Recorded Uses

The Interpreter's Bible : the Holy Script...
Overlap with other IPAL Libraries
Overlap with other IPAL libraries – specific editions

Title Holdings

%

29

170,962

1...
Overlap with other Iowa Universities
WorldCat Counts

Title Holdings

%

36 Holding set by the Univ of Northern Iowa

47%
...
CI-CCI Title-Holdings by Publication Year

74
Average number of CI-CCI
library holdings per title
by publication year
1985 = 1.54 (peak value)
2012 = 1.15

75
SHARED RESPONSIBILITY, SHARED
BENEFIT
78
CI-CCI Title Holdings by Holding Level
526,526 uniquely held titles
50%

280,360 titles
27%

154,351 titles
15%
68,681 tit...
CI-CCI Title Holdings by Holding and Circulation Levels
600,000

500,000

0 Circs
1-3 Circs
400,000

253,849

4+ Circs
300...
Shared Withdrawal Scenarios within the CI-CCI 5
Titles Published and Acquired before 2000
0 Circulations

1 or fewer
circu...
October 24, 2013
Final Withdrawal/Retention Candidate Criteria
Keep 1 title holding within CI-CCI
At least 1 non-CI-CCI li...
CLOSING THOUGHTS

83
CI-CCI: A Model Shared Print Project
• CI-CCI: entrepreneurial effort
• Evolved from ‘independent action in a
collective c...
CI-CCI: A Model Shared Print Project
• Potentially scalable more broadly to IPAL?
• Regents libraries play an foundational...
Strong preferences: print, self-sufficiency
Hathi Trust or
other digital
surrogate
Print in
Collective
Collection

Print i...
Q & A / DISCUSSION

Sustainablecollections.com

87
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

2014 02-18 drake univ faculty forum

142

Published on

Rick Lugg's presentation to the Cowles Library Liaison meeting, 18 Feb. 2014.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
142
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • We also run seminars aimed at educating stakeholders on these issues
  • Others:If it is available for sale
  • Others:If it is available for sale
  • Others:If it is available for sale
  • Others:If it is available for sale
  • Others:If it is available for sale
  • Others:If it is available for sale
  • Need to update graph:2010 circs are 136,003,396 2002-2010 =
  • 21,675 bib records filtered out
  • The first peak was in 1970 with 19,433 title-holdingsPeak year 2000 with 21,761 title-holdingsLast full year 2011 there were 11,132 title-holdings
  • 1.3 is the average across all titles
  • Keep 1 - Eligible Pre-2000 Titles Held by 2 or more libraries ~ 416K Title-HoldingsKeep 2 - Eligible Pre-2000 Titles Held by 3 or more libraries ~ 193K Title-HoldingsKeep 3 - Eligible Pre-2000 Titles Held by 4 or more libraries ~ 69K Title-Holdings
  • 2014 02-18 drake univ faculty forum

    1. 1. Rethinking Library Resources: Print Collections in a Digital Age Drake University Faculty Forum February 18, 2014
    2. 2. SCS Mission To help libraries manage and share print monographs Sustainablecollections.com 2
    3. 3. SCS Experience • Individual Library Projects • Johns Hopkins University • Boston College • McGill University • Amherst College • Group Projects • Michigan Shared Print Initiative • Connect New York • WRLC (Washington Research Library Consortium) • VIVA (Virtual Library of Virginia) Sustainablecollections.com 3
    4. 4. Today’s Specials • The Why: The Changing Value of Local Print Collections • The How: Using Data to Inform Collections Decisions • Shared Print Monographs Sustainablecollections.com 6
    5. 5. THE WHY: THE CHANGING VALUE OF LOCAL PRINT COLLECTIONS 7
    6. 6. Evolution of the Library Paradigm Reader-centered: from monastic scriptorium and library; dominated by light and reading tables Book-centered: collection growth; unrelenting need for more shelving Learning-centered: digital content; information commons; learning spaces; information literacy Source: Scott Bennett, Libraries and Learning: A History of Paradigm Change (2003) 8
    7. 7. Collection Development Trends • Mass digitization of historical print • Journals: JSTOR, Portico, et al • Books: Hathi Trust, Early English Books Online, ECCO • Access supplanting ownership • Patron-initiated selection and acquisition (PDA) • Shared regional and consortial collections • Integration with teaching and learning • Increased focus on usage/space considerations • Curating a discovery environment 9
    8. 8. Lewis: From the Stacks to the Web… • Deconstruct legacy print collections • Slow current growth • Print journals, government documents, books • Move from item-by-item selection to purchaseon-demand or subscriptions • Manage the transition to Open Access journals • Curate the unique 10
    9. 9. Academic libraries need to… move beyond defining themselves by their distinctive collections and move to definitions of excellence based on distinctive services.” Scott Walter, “Guest Editorial: ’Distinctive Signifiers of Excellence’: Library Services and the Future of the Academic Library,” College & Research Libraries 72(January 2011) 11
    10. 10. Meet users where they work… 13
    11. 11. Curate the local and unique 14
    12. 12. Issues facing print book collections • • • • • • • Stacks are overcrowded Use of print books is low and declining Library space is wanted for other purposes Print redundancy is significant The cost of keeping books on shelves is high Alternatives exist, but data is scattered Traditional approaches to deselection are costly and time-consuming Sustainablecollections.com 15
    13. 13. Stacks are crowded and empty 16
    14. 14. Use of print books is low and declining • 30 million books, 88 libraries • 6% of books accounted for 80% of circulation • ‘help reduce unnecessary duplication’ • ‘determine how many copies of books are desirable’ Sustainablecollections.com http://www.oclc.org/research/publications/library/2 011/2011-06r.htm 17
    15. 15. Circulation in Academic Libraries: Declining Since 2004 37% Decline 18
    16. 16. Space Requirements: Monographs Volumes 100,000 250,000 500,000 1,000,000 2,700,000 Square Feet 20,000 45,000 80,000 150,000 405,000 Source: Stephen R. Lawrence, Lynn Silipigni Connaway, and Keith H. Brigham, “Life Cycle Costs of Library Collections” College & Research Libraries, November 2001, p. 546. 20
    17. 17. Library space is wanted for other purposes… “The crowding out of readers by reading materials is one of the most common and disturbing ironies in library space planning.” --Scott Bennett Sustainablecollections.com 21
    18. 18. Lifecycle Costs: Monographs • CLIR, June 2010 • Courant & Nielsen • Estimated Annual Costs  $4.26/ volume annually in central stacks  $0.86/volume in highdensity facility 22
    19. 19. Print redundancy is significant… Potential for shared print And local reductions 24
    20. 20. The Case of Bertrand Russell… Alternatives exist, but the data is scattered… Just because it’s rational doesn’t mean it’s easy… 25
    21. 21. Sustainablecollections.com 26
    22. 22. WHAT TO DO? Sustainablecollections.com 28
    23. 23. How else could we…? • Preserve collection integrity • Assure low-use content is available if/when needed AND • Bear less unnecessary cost • Free more space for users and other purposes 29
    24. 24. Share? 30
    25. 25. Store offsite? 31
    26. 26. Store Onsite: BookBot and Virtual Browse? Sustainablecollections.com 32
    27. 27. Discard? 33
    28. 28. Create? 34
    29. 29. Benefit? 36
    30. 30. User space—NCSU Library Sustainablecollections.com 37
    31. 31. Independent action in a collective context Sustainablecollections.com 38
    32. 32. Shared print initiatives (Monographs) • Michigan Shared Print Initiative (MI-SPI) • Maine Shared Collection Strategy • Connect New York Shared Print Archiving • Central Iowa Collaborative Collections Initiative • Washington Research Library Consortium • Virtual Library of Virginia • Academic Libraries of Indiana Sustainablecollections.com 39
    33. 33. Sustainablecollections.com 40
    34. 34. Reasonable questions • What to manage locally? • What to manage above the institution? Sustainablecollections.com 41
    35. 35. THE HOW: USING DATA TO INFORM COLLECTIONS DECISIONS 43
    36. 36. Two functions of library print collections • Preservation function • “Dispensing” function: accounts for the “the great preponderance of operating costs. Source: Michael Buckland, Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto (Chicago: American Library Association, 1992). Sustainablecollections.com 44
    37. 37. ‘Archive’ copies • Digital Archives • Secure, high-quality • Hathi Trust, Portico • CRL certification • Print Archives • Failsafe for technological or natural disaster • New digital surrogates or re-digitization • Dark, dim, or light? 48
    38. 38. ‘Service’ copies • Once content is securely archived, ‘dispensing’ function can be managed with fewer surplus copies • Focus on distribution, convenience, speed of delivery • Borrow or re-purchase; print, electronic (including PDA, DDA, Short-term Loan); POD 49
    39. 39. Surplus copies • Archiving requirements satisfied • Sufficient service copies to meet anticipated demand • How many holdings/copies remain? • Are all of them needed? Sustainablecollections.com 50
    40. 40. Good Decisions Require Data • How many holdings/copies? • Where are they? • Is the title secure? • Can the title be accessed quickly? • Can the title be re-obtained if needed? • What options are available for each title? Sustainablecollections.com 51
    41. 41. Title-Level Metadata Sustainablecollections.com 54
    42. 42. Library-Level Collection Summary: Total Uses Since 1992 (20 years) 3 Circulation: 0 Charges 138,415 145,559 43% 4 In-House Uses: > 0 47,394 48,542 14% 129,933 139,573 41% 58,916 60,463 18% 35,459 35,976 11% 23,472 23,730 7% 78,786 80,482 24% 50,610 51,592 15% 92,521 97,824 29% Total Uses: 0 (charges and in-house uses combined) Total Uses: 1 6 (charges and in-house uses combined) Total Uses: 2 7 (charges and in-house uses combined) Total Uses: 3 8 (charges and in-house uses combined) Total Uses: > 3 9 (charges and in-house uses combined) Total Uses: > 5 10 (charges and in-house uses combined) 5 11 Circulation: last charge date > 2002 56
    43. 43. Collection Summary: WorldCat Holdings Distribution Titles Items Percent of Filtered Item Records 12 > 100 holdings in USA - WorldCat (includes Drake's Holding) 266,495 279,752 82% 13 > 50 holdings in USA - WorldCat (includes Drake's Holding) 289,583 304,612 90% 14 < 5 holdings in USA - WorldCat (includes Drake's Holding) 10,178 10,834 3% 15 > 5 holdings in Iowa - WorldCat (includes Drake's Holding) 152,556 160,149 47% 28,062 30,560 9% 16 Unique in Iowa - WorldCat 57
    44. 44. SCS Monographs Index 2013 Sustainablecollections.com 59
    45. 45. SHARED PRINT MANAGEMENT: GROUP PROJECTS Sustainablecollections.com 60
    46. 46. SCS Group Projects to Date • • • • • • • • • Michigan Shared Print Initiative (MI-SPI) Maine Shared Collection Strategy Connect New York Shared Print Archiving California State University System Central Iowa Collaborative Collections Initiative Tri-University Group (Canada) Washington Research Library Consortium Virtual Library of Virginia Academic Libraries of Indiana Sustainablecollections.com 61
    47. 47. CI-CCI group data 65
    48. 48. Recorded Uses CI-CCI Title-Holding Counts 1 All Title Holdings - Filtered All Libraries % 1,048,251 100% Recorded Use Counts 2 448,173 43% 3 Total Recorded Uses = 1 208,568 20% 4 Total Recorded Uses = 2 119,039 11% 5 Total Recorded Uses = 3 73,754 7% 6 Total Recorded Uses 4-9 150,156 14% 7 Total Recorded Uses > 10 48,651 5% 14 Last charge after 2010 104,933 10% 15 Last charge after 2007 211,842 20% 16 66 Total Recorded Uses = 0 Last charge after 2005 272,626 26%
    49. 49. WorldCat™ Counts – US WorldCat Counts - US - Specific Edition Title Holdings % 2 2,804 0% 4 2-4 Holdings in the US 7,327 1% 6 5-9 Holdings in US 10,822 1% 8 10-19 Holdings in US 19,452 2% 10 20+ Holdings In US 1,007,213 96% 12 50+ Holdings in US 953,539 91% 14 100+ Holdings in the US 875,579 84% 16 68 Unique in the US 200+ Holdings in the US 728,019 69%
    50. 50. WorldCat™ Counts – Iowa WorldCat Counts - Iowa - Specific Edition Title Holdings % 18 105,880 10% 20 2-4 Holdings in Iowa 322,899 31% 22 5-9 Holdings in Iowa 347,872 33% 24 69 Unique in Iowa 10+ Holdings in Iowa 268,032 26%
    51. 51. CI-CCI Overlap Based on SCS Matching Overlap within the 5 CI-CCI member libraries Title Holdings % 2 526,526 50% 3 Title-holdings in 2 libraries 280,360 27% 4 Titles-holdings in 3 libraries 154,351 15% 5 Titles-holdings in 4 libraries 68,681 7% 6 70 Unique in group Titles-holdings in all 5 libraries 18,333 2%
    52. 52. 18,333 titles are held by all 5 CI-CCI Libraries Pub Year CI-CCI Recorded Uses The Interpreter's Bible : the Holy Scriptures in the King James and Revised standard versions with general articles and introduction, exegesis, exposition for each book of the Bible 1951 362 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix by J.K. Rowling 2003 280 Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince by J.K. Rowling 2005 278 Denying the Holocaust: the Growing Assault on Truth and Memory by Deborah 1994 Lipstadt 135 The Catcher in the Rye by JD Salinger 1951 126 Ethnicity and Family Therapy edited byMonica McGoldrick, Joe Giorano … 1996 118 Bury my heart at Wounded Knee; an Indian history of the American West by Dee Brown 1971 116 A thousand splendid suns by Khaled Hosseini 2007 106 Gilead by Marilynne Robinson 2004 99 71 The great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald 1991 96 Title/Author
    53. 53. Overlap with other IPAL Libraries Overlap with other IPAL libraries – specific editions Title Holdings % 29 170,962 16% 30 WorldCat holding set in 2-4 other IPAL libraries 293,053 28% 32 WorldCat holding set in 5-9 other IPAL libraries 155,259 15% 34 72 WorldCat holding set in 1 other IPAL Library WorldCat holding set in 10+ other IPAL libraries 33,678 3%
    54. 54. Overlap with other Iowa Universities WorldCat Counts Title Holdings % 36 Holding set by the Univ of Northern Iowa 47% 38 Holding set by the University of Iowa 684,025 65% 40 Holding set by Iowa State University 73 490,738 621,218 59%
    55. 55. CI-CCI Title-Holdings by Publication Year 74
    56. 56. Average number of CI-CCI library holdings per title by publication year 1985 = 1.54 (peak value) 2012 = 1.15 75
    57. 57. SHARED RESPONSIBILITY, SHARED BENEFIT 78
    58. 58. CI-CCI Title Holdings by Holding Level 526,526 uniquely held titles 50% 280,360 titles 27% 154,351 titles 15% 68,681 titles 7% 18,333 titles 2% Number of CI-CCI libraries holding title
    59. 59. CI-CCI Title Holdings by Holding and Circulation Levels 600,000 500,000 0 Circs 1-3 Circs 400,000 253,849 4+ Circs 300,000 116,928 200,000 88,920 192,177 109,096 100,000 80,500 94,699 54,336 57,746 2 3-5 - 1
    60. 60. Shared Withdrawal Scenarios within the CI-CCI 5 Titles Published and Acquired before 2000 0 Circulations 1 or fewer circulations 3 or fewer circulations Keep 1 Title-holding 101K withdraw 315K retain 150K withdraw 266K retain 194K withdraw 221K retain Keep 2 Title-holdings 36K withdraw 157K retain 51K withdraw 142K retain 65K withdraw 128K retain Keep 3 Title-holdings 10K withdraw 59K retain 14K withdraw 56K retain 17K withdraw 52K retain 81
    61. 61. October 24, 2013 Final Withdrawal/Retention Candidate Criteria Keep 1 title holding within CI-CCI At least 1 non-CI-CCI library in Iowa also holds the title (any edition) Published before 1991 Zero recorded uses since 2005 CI-CCI FINAL Allocation Tallies Allocated SCS Withdrawals Institution ID Titles Institution Central Drake Grand View Grinnell Simpson Total 760 761 762 763 764 Allocated Withdrawals Items Allocated Retentions Titles Allocated Retentions Items 29,802 51,324 16,845 51,806 24,272 31,197 54,372 17,926 55,969 25,928 26,401 45,229 14,934 45,718 20,375 28,073 48,635 16,027 52,549 22,828 174,049 185,392 152,657 168,112 82
    62. 62. CLOSING THOUGHTS 83
    63. 63. CI-CCI: A Model Shared Print Project • CI-CCI: entrepreneurial effort • Evolved from ‘independent action in a collective context’ to full collaboration • All titles held in Des Moines area now subject to formal long-term retention commitments • 126,000 surplus holdings/copies eligible for withdrawal • Built on existing trust network 84
    64. 64. CI-CCI: A Model Shared Print Project • Potentially scalable more broadly to IPAL? • Regents libraries play an foundational, but not exclusive role • Influence on prospective collection development • An early success in shared print • Mirrors the pattern we have seen in other projects…. 85
    65. 65. Strong preferences: print, self-sufficiency Hathi Trust or other digital surrogate Print in Collective Collection Print in state Print within group Sustainablecollections.com 86
    66. 66. Q & A / DISCUSSION Sustainablecollections.com 87
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×