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Diarrhoea prevention and control Diarrhoea prevention and control Presentation Transcript

  • DIARRHOEA: PREVENTION AND CONTROL
    DR AJAY TYAGI
    DEPTT. OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE
    PGIMS, ROHTAK
  • CONTENTS
    • INTRODUCTION
    • PROBLEM - WORLD - INDIA
    • CLASSIFICATION
    • CAUSES
    • DEHYDRATION
    • CLASSIFICATION OF DEHYDRATION
    • PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
  • CONTENTS
    • ROLE OF ZINC
    • ROLE OF PROBIOTICS
    • DDCP
    • IMNCI
    • F-IMNCI
  • INTRODUCTION
    • Diarrhoea is defined as passage of unusually loose or watery stools usually at least three times in a 24 hour period. (WHO)
    • However it is the consistency of the stools rather than the number that is more important.
    • Passage of even one large watery stool in young child is diarrhoea.
    • Frequent passage of normal stool is no diarrhoea.
  • INTRODUCTION
    • 6-12 months of age are affected severely & account for high mortality.
    • Dehydration occurs when water & salts are not replaced adequately -may lead to shock & death.
    • Diarrhoea also produces under nutrition and growth failure.
    • Diarrhoeal disease constitute one of the important “nutritional leak” in young children.
    • Even a brief episode of diarrhoea leads to the loss of 1-2 % of body weight in children.
  • MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM: WORLD
    • Diarrhoeal disease is the 2nd leading cause of death in children under 5 yrs of age.
    • Globally, there are about 2 Bn cases of diarrhoeal disease every yr.
    • Diarrhoeal disease kills 1.5 Mn children every yr.
    • African and South-East Asian regions together account for nearly 78% of them.
    • India alone contributes about 20% of all global under-5 diarrhoealdeaths.
    • It is both preventable and treatable.
  • MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM: WORLD
    • In developing countries, children under three years old experience on an average three episodes of diarrhoea every year
    • Each episode deprives the child of the nutrition necessary for growth
    • As a result, diarrhoea is a major cause of malnutrition, and malnourished children are more likely to fall ill from diarrhoea. It makes a vicious cycle
  • Leading causes of deaths in children under 5 yrs
    Malaria*
    Measles*
    5%
    7%
    Other
    32%
    Diarrhoea*
    19%
    Malnutrition*
    54%
    Perinatal
    19%
    ARIs*
    18%
    * Based on data taken from The Global Burden of Disease 1996, edited by Murray CJL and Lopez AD, and Epidemiologic evidence for a potentiating effect of malnutrition on child mortality, Pelletier DL, Frongillo EA and Habicht JP, AmJ Public Health 1993;83:1130-1133
  • CAUSES OF DEATH IN CHILDREN IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, 2002*(in thousands)
    Rank Cause Numbersdeaths %
    1. Perinatal conditions 2375 23.1
    2. Lower resp. inf. 1856 18.13. Diarrhoeal Diseases 1566 15.2
    4. malaria 1098 10.7
    5. Measles 511 5.4
    6. Congenital anomalies 386 3.8
    7. HIV/AIDS 370 3.6
    8. Pertussis 301 2.9
    9 Tetanus 185 1.8
    10. PEM 13 1.3
    11. TOTAL 10263 100
    * Source: World Health Report 2003
  • MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM: INDIA
    • NFHS-3 data projected morbidity profile of children <3yr:-
    • Fever - 27%
    • Acute respiratory infections -17%
    • Diarrhoea -13%
    • Underweight - 43%
  • Classification of Diarrhoea
    • Based on clinical syndromes
    • Acute watery diarrhoea
    • Dysentery
    • Persistent diarrhoea
  • Acute watery diarrhoea
    • Start suddenly
    • Most episodes recover or self limiting within 3-7 days. These may last up to 14 days
    • >75% of all episodes are of acute watery diarrhoea.
    Dysentery
    • Diarrhoea with visible blood & mucus in the faeces.
    • Also abdominal cramps, fever, anorexia and rapid weight loss.
  • Persistent Diarrhoea
    • Diarrhoea which lasts for > 14 days
    • Incidence is around 5% i.e. 5% of acute diarrhoea may persist beyond 2 weeks
  • ORGANISMS PRODUCES ACUTE WATERY DIARRHOEA
    • Bacteria- Account 1/3rd of total causes
    • E. Coli
    • V. Cholera
    • V. Parahaemolyticus
    • Shigella- bloody diarrhoea or dysentery
    • S. Typhi
    • Staph. Aureus
    • Clostridium perfringens
    E. coli
    • Viruses- 1/3rd of total causes
    • Rotavirus
    • Astroviruses
    • Calciviruses
    • Coronaviruses
    • Norwalk group viruses
    • Enteroviruses
    • Rotavirus causes 15-25% diarrhoea cases in developing countries
    Rotavirus
    • Parasites-
    • E. histolytica- Dysentery
    • Giardia intestinalis
    • Trichuriasis
    • Cryptosporidium parvum
    • 1/3rd causes can’t be pin pointed
  • RISK FACTORS OF DIARRHOEA
    • Bottle fed babies have more chances to develop diarrhoea because of unclean bottles
    • Flies can also bring germs to uncovered food
    • Drinking contaminated water
    • Unclean food, milk, unclean hands & unclean utensils
  • SIGNS OF DEHYDRATION
  • DEGREE OF DEHYDRATION
    • Degree of dehydration is rated on a scale of three
    • Early dehydration – no signs or symptoms.
    • Moderate dehydration:
    • thirst
    • restless or irritable behaviour
    • decreased skin elasticity
    • sunken eyes
    • Severe dehydration: -symptoms become more severe
    • shock, with diminished consciousness,
    • lack of urine output,
    • cool, moist extremities,
    • a rapid and feeble pulse,
    • low or undetectable blood pressure, and
    • pale skin.
    • Death can follow severe dehydration if body fluids and electrolytes are not replenished, either through the use of ORS solution, or through an intravenous drip.
  • SIGNS OF DEHYDRATION & TREATMENT PLAN
    • Reflected by the following signs in addition to above signs
    • Lethargic or unconscious , difficult to wake
    • Floppy
    • Refusal for feed/breastfeed in young infant and Unable to drink.
  • SIGNS OF DEHYDRATION & TREATMENT PLAN
    • Reflected by the following signs in addition to above signs
    • Lethargic or unconscious , difficult to wake
    • Floppy
    • Refusal for feed/breastfeed in young infant and Unable to drink.
  • PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE DIARRHOEA
    • In early stages of diarrhoea when ORS packets are not immediately available, HAF is given and continue feeding
    • CONTINUE BREAST FEEDING
    BUT
    -Soft drinks
    -Sweetened fruit juices
    -Sweetened tea should not be used.
    • These have high osmolarityand can lead to worsening of diarrhoea and further leading to dehydration.
  • PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE DIARRHOEA
    • Rationale use of drugs
    • ORS is the drug of choice for all cases of diarrhoea
    • It is life saving when used timely, in adequate quantities
    • Only a small proportion of cases of diarrhoea (dysentery, cholera and associated illnesses) need specific antimicrobials
  • PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE DIARRHOEA
    • Drugs Like
    - Anti-motility drugs
    - Stimulants
    - Steroids
    MUST NOT BE USED
    • as they provide pseudo sense of protection among mothers and distract their attention from correct treatment
    • Their marketing has been banned in India
  • ORAL REHYDRATION SALT(ORS)
    • It is a balanced mixture of glucose and electrolytes
    • Almost all deaths from diarrhoea can be prevented by ORS
    MECHANISM OF ACTION
    • Sodium promotes absorption of water from the intestine
    • Glucose promotes the absorption of sodium and water from the intestine
  • Cases with No Signs of Dehydration
    Plan A
    • In early stages, when fluid loss is <5% of the body weight, children may not show any clinical signs of dehydration
    • Give HAF or ORS
    • Plan A involves counselling the child's mother about the 3 Rules of Home treatment.
    • GIVE EXTRA FLUID (as much as the child will take)
    • CONTINUE FEEDING
    • WHEN TO RETURN
  • Cases with signs of Some Dehydration
    • Children who have dehydration should be kept under observation in the hospital/ health center for a few hours and given prepared ORS solution during the period
    Purpose:
    • Correct fluid deficit and ongoing fluid losses
  • Cases with signs of Some Dehydration
    Plan-B
    REHYDRATION THERAPY
    Amount of ORS to be given in first 4 hrs
  • Cases with signs of Some Dehydration
    • Use the child’s age only when we do not know the weight.
    • The approximate amount of ORS required (in ml) can also be calculated by multiplying the child’s weight (in kg) × 75
    • For infants who are not breastfed, also give 100-200 ml of clean water during this period. The breastmilk and water will help prevent hypernatraemia in infants.
    • Show the mother how to give ORS solution
    • After 4 hours
    • Reassess and classify the child for dehydration
    • Select the appropriate plan to continue treatment
    • Begin feeding the child in clinic
  • Cases with signs of severe dehydration
    Plan-C
    • 1% diarrhoea may develop severe dehydration.
    • Children with severe dehydration must be admitted.
    • Child is rehydrated quickly by using I/V infusion.
    I/V infusions recommended :
    • R/L solution
    • N/S when R/L is not available
    • 1/2 N/S with 5% dextrose is acceptable
    • Plain glucose is unsuitable solution
  • Cases with signs of severe dehydration
    Plan-C
    Rate & Quantities of I/V infusion for severe dehydration
  • Cases with signs of severe dehydration
    Plan-C
    • Reassess the infant every 15-30 min. until a strong radial pulse is present.
    • Thereafter, reassess the infant by skin pinch and level of consciousness at least every 1-hour
    • Also give ORS (about 5 ml/kg/hour) as soon as the infant can drink: usually after 3-4 hours
    • Reassess the infant after 6 hours & classify dehydration then choose the appropriate plan (A,B, or C) to continue treatment
  • Cases with signs of severe dehydration
    • After signs of severe dehydration disappear & child is able to drink, further therapy should be continued with ORS as per plan A or B
    • Before the mother leaves the hospital two packets of ORS must be given.
  • Recommendations for use of zinc in clinical management of acute diarrhoea :
    WHO/UNICEF Joint statement (2001), IAP 2003, GOI 2007
    • 20 mg per day of Zn supplementation for 14 daysstarting as early as possible after onset of diarrhoea
    • 10 mg per day for infants 2-6 months
  • Factors Suggesting Zinc Deficiency in a Population
    • High phytate staple foods
    • Low intake of “flesh” food
    • High prevalence of stunting
    • High rate of diarrhoea
    • Nutritional iron deficiency
  • Role of Probiotics
  • Probiotics:
    • - means "for life" and is currently used to name bacteria associated with beneficial effects for humans and animals.
    • Coined in 1960 to name substances which promoted the growth of other organisms.
  • Effect of probiotics in diarrhoea-
    • The strongest evidence of a beneficial effect has been for the following probiotics - Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12
    • These probiotics are effective for both treatment and prevention of acute diarrhoea caused mainly by rotavirus in children
    • Antibiotic associated diarrhoea has also been found to respond when probiotics have been used as prophylaxis and also for therapy
  • Probiotic strains
    - Can inhibit the growth and adhesion of a range of entero-pathogens
    - Animal studies have indicated beneficial effect in Salmonella.
    • Traveler's diarrhoea due to bacterial infection has been benefited
    The most highlighted beneficial effect of probiotics has been on acute diarrhoea caused by rotavirus in children.
  • POTENTIAL USES OF PROBIOTICS
    • -diarrhoea
    • -Helicobacter pylori infection
    • -Inflammatory bowel disease
    • -Cancers
    • -To increase Immunity
    • -Allergy
    • -Heart disease
    • -Urogenital tract infections
  • FEEDING IN DIARRHOEA
    • Children should continue to be fed during diarrhoea.
    • Milk should not be diluted with water during any phase of acute diarrhoea.
    • Milk can also be given as milk cereal mixture e.g. dalia, milk-rice mixture.
    • This technique reduces the lactose load & preserving energy density.
  • FEEDING IN DIARRHOEA
    • To make foods-energy dense some of preparation are:-
    - Khichri with oil
    - Rice with curd & sugar
    - Mashed banana with milk or curd
    - Mashed potatoes with oil.
    • Breast feeding should be continued uninterrupted even during rehydration with ORS.
  • Dysentery
    • Requires antibiotic therapy
    • However if there is only mucus, child should be treated as for acute diarrhoea without antibiotics
    • Shigellae responds to cotrimoxazole
    1 Tab BD x 5 days for < 2 months.
    2 Tab BD x 5 days for 2-12 months.
    3 Tab BD x 5 days for 1-5 years of age.
    OR
    • Nalidixic acid 55 mg/kg/day in 4 doses x 5 days.
  • Cholera:-
    Antibiotics used are:
    • Doxycycline- 6 mg/kg/day a single dose x 3 days or
    • Tetracyline - 50 mg/kg/day 4 doses x 3 days or
    • Erythromycin -30 mg/kg/day 3 doses x 3 days.
    • Acute Amoebiasis:
    • Metronidazole -30 mg./kg/ day 3 doses x 5-10 days.
    • Acute Giardiasis:
    • Metronidozole -15 mg/kg/day 3 doses x 5days.
  • Persistent diarrhoea:-
    • The treatment for persistent diarrhoea requires special feeding and giving vitamin A and zinc
    • The mother of a child with persistent diarrhoea will be advised on feeding her child
    • Diet:- Cereals + legumes
    - Cereal+ milk or curd or some oil are considered good foods.
    - Eggs (boiled & mashed added to the basic cereals).
    • In case, if diarrhoea persists after 6 days of treatment, these children should be admitted for further treatment.
  • Prevention of Diarrhoea:
    • Exclusive Breast Feeding
    • Bottle feeding should be avoided
    • Wash Hand
    • Eat clean Food
    • Drink clean water
    • Immunization e.g. Measles, Rota virus
    • Vit. A - Prophylactic doses
    • Nutrition
  • Rota virus vaccination
    • Rotashield vaccine -1999
    • Withdrawn because of its association with intussuscption
    • Two new oral, live attenuated rotavirus vaccines were licensed in 2006 with very good safety and efficacy
    • The first dose administered between ages 6-10 weeks .
    • subsequent doses at intervals 4-10 weeks.
    • Vaccination should not be initiated before 6weeks and after 12 weeks of age.
    • All doses should be administered before 32 weeks.
    • -
  • WHO Recommendation for Rota virus vaccination
    • Geneva and Seattle, June 5, 2009 — WHO has recommended that rotavirus vaccination be included in all national immunization programmes
    • The new recommendation by the WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE),extends an earlier recommendation made in 2005 on vaccination in the America and Europe, where clinical trials had demonstrated safety and efficacy in low and intermediate mortality populations.
  • Challenges for ORT
    • ORT reduces mortality but does not decrease episode duration or their consequences, such as malnutrition
    • Adherence to ORT is poor because caregivers want to reduce illness duration
    • This leads to use of antibiotics or other treatment of no proven value
    • Unfortunately, knowledge and use of appropriate home therapies, including ORT, may be declining in some countries
  • SEARCH FOR ADJUNCT THERAPIES
    • 12-59 months old Indian children with zinc deficiency had 1.5 times more diarrhoea and 3.5 times more ALRI than non zinc deficient children.
  • NATIONAL DIARRHOEAL DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMME
    • NDDCP was launchedin 1981
    • Main objective were reduction of mortality through introduction of ORT.
    Goals were:
    • Reduce diarrhoeal associated mortality in children <5 years by 30% by 1995 and by 70% by 2000 A.D.
    • Reducing CFR to less than 1%.
    • Improvement in water and sanitation facilities was the long term goal of NDDCP
  • NATIONAL DIARRHOEAL DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMME
    • National ORT Programme was incepted in 1985- 86
    • From 1992-93 the programme has become a part of CSSM Programme.
    • CSSM programme become a part of RCH programme in 1997
    • In RCH Programme, policy of IMCI was adopted
    • Strategy of IMCI was to address all children and not only sick children
    • IMCI focused on life threatening illnesses-diarrhoea, Pneumonia, Measles, Malaria etc.
    • Contd.
    • Indian version of IMCI guidelines renamed as IMNCI.
    • Since 2003 - DDCP included in IMNCI which includes
    - Neonates of 0-7 days
    - Incorporating national guidelines on diarrhoea, ARI ,Malaria, Anaemia, Vit. A supplementation & Immunizations.
  • STRATEGIES OF IMNCI
    • Ensure standard case management of diarrhoea by training of medical and other health personnel.
    • Promote standard case management practices among private practitioners through IMA and IAP.
    • Improve maternal knowledge on home management and recognition of danger signs of diarrhoea for immediate medical care.
    • Increase availability of ORS by providing free ORS packets at health facilities and outreach depots.
    • Increase accessibility by marketing ORS through the PDS and commercial outlets.
    • Monitor hospital based data on ORS use rate, CFR & other parameters.
    • Promote exclusive breast feeding for the first 6 months, proper weaning, infant immunization including measles immunization and Vit A prophylaxis.
  • Case management strategy
    CLASSIFICATION:
    PINK:
    • Child needs referral ( Inpatient care)
    YELLOW :
    • Child needs specific treatment, provide it at home (e.g. Antibiotics, ORS)
    GREEN :
    • Child needs no medicine, give home care
  • Limitations of IMNCI
    • Outpatient Facility Based
    • Community activities not given adequate focus
    • Vertical initiatives in Non IMNCI districts sorely lacking
  • F-IMNCI 
    • From November 2009 - IMNCI has been re -baptized as F-IMNCI, (F -Facility) with added component of:
    • Asphyxia Management and
    • Care of Sick new born at facility level, besides all other components included under IMNCI
  • DIARRHOEA CAN BE PREVENTED
    • Promote exclusive breastfeeding
    • Immunization against measles
    • Using sanitary latrines
    • Keeping food and water clean
    • Washing hands before eating & after defecation.
    • MESSAGES:
    • ORS is best drink.
    • A child with diarrhoea needs more food and frequent breast feeding.
    • A child who is recovering from diarrhoea needs an extra meal every day for at least 2 weeks.
    • Medicine other than ORS should not be used except on medical advice.
  • REFERENCES
    • MODULES of IMNCI 2003
    • K.PARK , TEXTBOOK OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE
    • SUNDER LAL, TEXTBOOK OF COMMUNITY MADICINE.
    • HARRISONS PRINCIPLES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE 17th edition
    • IAP GUIDELINES FOR MANAGEMENT OF DIARRHEA
    • WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) GUIDELINES ON TREATMENT OF DIARRHEA (2005
  • Thanks