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THE SPEAKING
PROCESS
ENG
132
Stages of the Speaking Process:
Breathing stage
Phonation stage
Resonation stage
Articulation stage
BREATHING
STAGE
Breathing, which is
primarily concerned
with maintaining life,
is secondarily a force
assisting in
vocalization. It
consis...
LUNGS
• Serve as the
reservoir of air
• As you inhale, fill
the lungs
comfortably in
preparation for
speaking.
Diaphragm
• A large sheet of
muscle separating
the chest cavity
from the abdomen
• Forms the floor of
the chest and the
ro...
BREATHING EXERCISE:
• 1. Sit up straight. Exhale.
• 2. Inhale and, at the same time, relax the belly muscles. Feel as thou...
PHONATION
STAGE
Phonation takes place when
voice is produced in speaking as
the expiratory air stream from
the lungs goes up through the
t...
Larynx
• Principal organ of
phonation
• Found at the top
of the trachea
• Protuberance is
known as the
“Adam’s apple”
Vocal Cords
• A pair of bundles
of muscles and
cartilages
• Open and close
at various
degrees
Trachea
• Also known as
windpipe
• Passageway of
air going up
from the lungs
PHONATION EXERCISE
• Think about blowing out birthday
candles.
• Begin to blow and then turn the breath
into an "ooo" soun...
RESONATION
STAGE
The voice produced in
phonation is weak. It
becomes strong and rich
only when amplified and
modified by the human
resonato...
Pharynx
• Common passageway
for air and food
• Located behind the
nose and mouth and
includes the cavity at
the back of th...
Nose
• Consists of the external and
internal portions
• Nostrils – openings of the
external nose
• Nasal cavity – internal...
Mouth
• Divided into the vestibule
and the oral cavity
proper
• Vestibule – felt by placing
the tongue tip outside
the tee...
rESONATORS:
Upper part
of the larynx
pharynx
Nasal
cavity
Oral
cavity
RESONATION EXERCISE: Pronounce the letters
according to its size. (biggest letters mean
loudest sounds)
a a e e o u
o b i ...
RESONATION EXERCISE: Read the black
syllables softest and the red syllables
loudest.
Pa pa pa pa pa pa pa pa pa
Ma ma ma m...
ARTICULATION
STAGE
Articulation occurs when the
tone produced in the larynx is
changed into specific sounds.
This is the result of the
moveme...
Lips
• Highly flexible
• Can be moved
into numerous
positions
essential to
articulation
Teeth
• Serve as
important
surfaces in
articulation
• Embedded in the
alveolar ridge or
gum ridges of the
oral cavity
Dome
• Also known as the
hard palate
• Bony roof of the
mouth
• Serves as an
important surface
against which the
tongue ma...
Uvula
• Small nub on the
lower border of
the soft palate
• Movable tip at
the midline of
the free border
of the soft palate
Velum
• Also known as the
soft palate
• Separates the nasal
pharynx from the
oral cavity
• A flexible curtain
attached alo...
Tongue
• Flexible organ
consisting of muscles,
glands and connective
tissues
• Parts of the tongue:
– Apex or tip
– Blade
...
articulators
Lower
jaw
Lower lip
TongueVelum
Uvula
Points of
articulation
Upper lip
Upper teeth
Upper
alveolar ridge
Hard palate
Soft palate
Speech mechanism
Speech mechanism
Speech mechanism
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Speech mechanism

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organs of speech

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Transcript of "Speech mechanism"

  1. 1. THE SPEAKING PROCESS ENG 132
  2. 2. Stages of the Speaking Process: Breathing stage Phonation stage Resonation stage Articulation stage
  3. 3. BREATHING STAGE
  4. 4. Breathing, which is primarily concerned with maintaining life, is secondarily a force assisting in vocalization. It consists of two phases --- inhalation and
  5. 5. LUNGS • Serve as the reservoir of air • As you inhale, fill the lungs comfortably in preparation for speaking.
  6. 6. Diaphragm • A large sheet of muscle separating the chest cavity from the abdomen • Forms the floor of the chest and the roof of the abdomen • Gives pressure to the breath stream
  7. 7. BREATHING EXERCISE: • 1. Sit up straight. Exhale. • 2. Inhale and, at the same time, relax the belly muscles. Feel as though the belly is filling with air. • 3. After filling the belly, keep inhaling. Fill up the middle of your chest. Feel your chest and rib cage expand. • 4. Hold the breath in for a moment, then begin to exhale as slowly as possible. • 5. As the air is slowly let out, relax your chest and rib cage. Begin to pull your belly in to force out the remaining breath. • 6. Close your eyes, and concentrate on your breathing. • 7. Relax your face and mind. • 8. Let everything go. • 9. Practice about 5 minutes.
  8. 8. PHONATION STAGE
  9. 9. Phonation takes place when voice is produced in speaking as the expiratory air stream from the lungs goes up through the trachea or windpipe to the larynx.
  10. 10. Larynx • Principal organ of phonation • Found at the top of the trachea • Protuberance is known as the “Adam’s apple”
  11. 11. Vocal Cords • A pair of bundles of muscles and cartilages • Open and close at various degrees
  12. 12. Trachea • Also known as windpipe • Passageway of air going up from the lungs
  13. 13. PHONATION EXERCISE • Think about blowing out birthday candles. • Begin to blow and then turn the breath into an "ooo" sound on a comfortable pitch. Feel the tone begin in the breathing muscles. • Repeat
  14. 14. RESONATION STAGE
  15. 15. The voice produced in phonation is weak. It becomes strong and rich only when amplified and modified by the human resonators. Resonation is the process of voice amplification and modification.
  16. 16. Pharynx • Common passageway for air and food • Located behind the nose and mouth and includes the cavity at the back of the tongue • Divisions of the pharynx: – Nasal pharynx – Oral pharynx – Laryngeal pharynx
  17. 17. Nose • Consists of the external and internal portions • Nostrils – openings of the external nose • Nasal cavity – internal nose; directly behind the external nose through which the air passes on its way to the pharynx • Septum – divides the external and internal nose into two separate passageways
  18. 18. Mouth • Divided into the vestibule and the oral cavity proper • Vestibule – felt by placing the tongue tip outside the teeth but inside the lips • Oral cavity – felt by retracting the tongue, closing the jaws and moving the tongue about
  19. 19. rESONATORS: Upper part of the larynx pharynx Nasal cavity Oral cavity
  20. 20. RESONATION EXERCISE: Pronounce the letters according to its size. (biggest letters mean loudest sounds) a a e e o u o b i i m n u m m b p p b p t l n o a k h h b v
  21. 21. RESONATION EXERCISE: Read the black syllables softest and the red syllables loudest. Pa pa pa pa pa pa pa pa pa Ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma La la la la la la la la la Ta ta ta ta ta ta ta ta ta Ba ba ba ba ba ba ba ba ba Fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa Va va va va va va va va va
  22. 22. ARTICULATION STAGE
  23. 23. Articulation occurs when the tone produced in the larynx is changed into specific sounds. This is the result of the movement of the articulators towards the points of articulation.
  24. 24. Lips • Highly flexible • Can be moved into numerous positions essential to articulation
  25. 25. Teeth • Serve as important surfaces in articulation • Embedded in the alveolar ridge or gum ridges of the oral cavity
  26. 26. Dome • Also known as the hard palate • Bony roof of the mouth • Serves as an important surface against which the tongue makes contact
  27. 27. Uvula • Small nub on the lower border of the soft palate • Movable tip at the midline of the free border of the soft palate
  28. 28. Velum • Also known as the soft palate • Separates the nasal pharynx from the oral cavity • A flexible curtain attached along the rear border of the hard palate
  29. 29. Tongue • Flexible organ consisting of muscles, glands and connective tissues • Parts of the tongue: – Apex or tip – Blade • Front • Center • Back • root
  30. 30. articulators Lower jaw Lower lip TongueVelum Uvula
  31. 31. Points of articulation Upper lip Upper teeth Upper alveolar ridge Hard palate Soft palate
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