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Speech mechanism

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organs of speech

organs of speech

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  • 1. THE SPEAKING PROCESS ENG 132
  • 2. Stages of the Speaking Process: Breathing stage Phonation stage Resonation stage Articulation stage
  • 3. BREATHING STAGE
  • 4. Breathing, which is primarily concerned with maintaining life, is secondarily a force assisting in vocalization. It consists of two phases --- inhalation and
  • 5. LUNGS • Serve as the reservoir of air • As you inhale, fill the lungs comfortably in preparation for speaking.
  • 6. Diaphragm • A large sheet of muscle separating the chest cavity from the abdomen • Forms the floor of the chest and the roof of the abdomen • Gives pressure to the breath stream
  • 7. BREATHING EXERCISE: • 1. Sit up straight. Exhale. • 2. Inhale and, at the same time, relax the belly muscles. Feel as though the belly is filling with air. • 3. After filling the belly, keep inhaling. Fill up the middle of your chest. Feel your chest and rib cage expand. • 4. Hold the breath in for a moment, then begin to exhale as slowly as possible. • 5. As the air is slowly let out, relax your chest and rib cage. Begin to pull your belly in to force out the remaining breath. • 6. Close your eyes, and concentrate on your breathing. • 7. Relax your face and mind. • 8. Let everything go. • 9. Practice about 5 minutes.
  • 8. PHONATION STAGE
  • 9. Phonation takes place when voice is produced in speaking as the expiratory air stream from the lungs goes up through the trachea or windpipe to the larynx.
  • 10. Larynx • Principal organ of phonation • Found at the top of the trachea • Protuberance is known as the “Adam’s apple”
  • 11. Vocal Cords • A pair of bundles of muscles and cartilages • Open and close at various degrees
  • 12. Trachea • Also known as windpipe • Passageway of air going up from the lungs
  • 13. PHONATION EXERCISE • Think about blowing out birthday candles. • Begin to blow and then turn the breath into an "ooo" sound on a comfortable pitch. Feel the tone begin in the breathing muscles. • Repeat
  • 14. RESONATION STAGE
  • 15. The voice produced in phonation is weak. It becomes strong and rich only when amplified and modified by the human resonators. Resonation is the process of voice amplification and modification.
  • 16. Pharynx • Common passageway for air and food • Located behind the nose and mouth and includes the cavity at the back of the tongue • Divisions of the pharynx: – Nasal pharynx – Oral pharynx – Laryngeal pharynx
  • 17. Nose • Consists of the external and internal portions • Nostrils – openings of the external nose • Nasal cavity – internal nose; directly behind the external nose through which the air passes on its way to the pharynx • Septum – divides the external and internal nose into two separate passageways
  • 18. Mouth • Divided into the vestibule and the oral cavity proper • Vestibule – felt by placing the tongue tip outside the teeth but inside the lips • Oral cavity – felt by retracting the tongue, closing the jaws and moving the tongue about
  • 19. rESONATORS: Upper part of the larynx pharynx Nasal cavity Oral cavity
  • 20. RESONATION EXERCISE: Pronounce the letters according to its size. (biggest letters mean loudest sounds) a a e e o u o b i i m n u m m b p p b p t l n o a k h h b v
  • 21. RESONATION EXERCISE: Read the black syllables softest and the red syllables loudest. Pa pa pa pa pa pa pa pa pa Ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma La la la la la la la la la Ta ta ta ta ta ta ta ta ta Ba ba ba ba ba ba ba ba ba Fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa Va va va va va va va va va
  • 22. ARTICULATION STAGE
  • 23. Articulation occurs when the tone produced in the larynx is changed into specific sounds. This is the result of the movement of the articulators towards the points of articulation.
  • 24. Lips • Highly flexible • Can be moved into numerous positions essential to articulation
  • 25. Teeth • Serve as important surfaces in articulation • Embedded in the alveolar ridge or gum ridges of the oral cavity
  • 26. Dome • Also known as the hard palate • Bony roof of the mouth • Serves as an important surface against which the tongue makes contact
  • 27. Uvula • Small nub on the lower border of the soft palate • Movable tip at the midline of the free border of the soft palate
  • 28. Velum • Also known as the soft palate • Separates the nasal pharynx from the oral cavity • A flexible curtain attached along the rear border of the hard palate
  • 29. Tongue • Flexible organ consisting of muscles, glands and connective tissues • Parts of the tongue: – Apex or tip – Blade • Front • Center • Back • root
  • 30. articulators Lower jaw Lower lip TongueVelum Uvula
  • 31. Points of articulation Upper lip Upper teeth Upper alveolar ridge Hard palate Soft palate