Speech mechanism

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PARTS OF THE HUMAN BODY INVOLVED IN SPEAKING

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Speech mechanism

  1. 1. ENG THE SPEAKING103 PROCESS
  2. 2. Stages of the Speaking Process:Breathing stage Phonation stage Resonation stage Articulation stage
  3. 3. BREATHING STAGE
  4. 4. Breathing, which isprimarily concerned with maintaining life, is secondarily a forceassisting in vocalization.It consists of two phases --- inhalation and exhalation.
  5. 5. LUNGS• Serve as the reservoir of air• As you inhale, fill the lungs comfortably in preparation for speaking.
  6. 6. Diaphragm• A large sheet of muscle separating the chest cavity from the abdomen• Forms the floor of the chest and the roof of the abdomen• Gives pressure to the breath stream
  7. 7. BREATHING EXERCISE:• 1. Sit up straight. Exhale.• 2. Inhale and, at the same time, relax the belly muscles. Feel as though the belly is filling with air.• 3. After filling the belly, keep inhaling. Fill up the middle of your chest. Feel your chest and rib cage expand.• 4. Hold the breath in for a moment, then begin to exhale as slowly as possible.• 5. As the air is slowly let out, relax your chest and rib cage. Begin to pull your belly in to force out the remaining breath.• 6. Close your eyes, and concentrate on your breathing.• 7. Relax your face and mind.• 8. Let everything go.• 9. Practice about 5 minutes.
  8. 8. PHONATION STAGE
  9. 9. Phonation takes place whenvoice is produced in speaking as the expiratory air stream from the lungs goes up through the trachea or windpipe to the larynx.
  10. 10. Larynx• Principal organ of phonation• Found at the top of the trachea• Protuberance is known as the “Adam’s apple”
  11. 11. Vocal Cords• A pair of bundles of muscles and cartilages• Open and close at various degrees
  12. 12. Trachea• Also known as windpipe• Passageway of air going up from the lungs
  13. 13. PHONATION EXERCISE• Think about blowing out birthday candles.• Begin to blow and then turn the breath into an "ooo" sound on a comfortable pitch. Feel the tone begin in the breathing muscles.• Repeat
  14. 14. RESONATION STAGE
  15. 15. The voice produced in phonation is weak. It becomes strong and rich only when amplified and modified by the human resonators. Resonation isthe process of voice amplification and modification.
  16. 16. Pharynx• Common passageway for air and food• Located behind the nose and mouth and includes the cavity at the back of the tongue• Divisions of the pharynx: – Nasal pharynx – Oral pharynx – Laryngeal pharynx
  17. 17. Nose• Consists of the external and internal portions• Nostrils – openings of the external nose• Nasal cavity – internal nose; directly behind the external nose through which the air passes on its way to the pharynx• Septum – divides the external and internal nose into two separate passageways
  18. 18. Mouth• Divided into the vestibule and the oral cavity proper• Vestibule – felt by placing the tongue tip outside the teeth but inside the lips• Oral cavity – felt by retracting the tongue, closing the jaws and moving the tongue about
  19. 19. rESONATORS: Upper part of the larynx Oral pharynx cavity Nasal cavity
  20. 20. RESONATION EXERCISE: Pronounce the letters according to its size. (biggest letters mean loudest sounds)a a e e o uo b i i m nu m m b p pb p t l n oa k h h b v
  21. 21. RESONATION EXERCISE: Read the black syllables softest and the red syllables loudest.Pa pa pa pa pa pa pa pa paMa ma ma ma ma ma ma ma maLa la la la la la la la laTa ta ta ta ta ta ta ta taBa ba ba ba ba ba ba ba baFa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa faVa va va va va va va va va
  22. 22. ARTICULATION STAGE
  23. 23. Articulation occurs when thetone produced in the larynx ischanged into specific sounds. This is the result of themovement of the articulators towards the points of articulation.
  24. 24. Lips• Highly flexible• Can be moved into numerous positions essential to articulation
  25. 25. Teeth• Serve as important surfaces in articulation• Embedded in the alveolar ridge or gum ridges of the oral cavity
  26. 26. Dome• Also known as the hard palate• Bony roof of the mouth• Serves as an important surface against which the tongue makes contact
  27. 27. Uvula• Small nub on the lower border of the soft palate• Movable tip at the midline of the free border of the soft palate
  28. 28. Velum• Also known as the soft palate• Separates the nasal pharynx from the oral cavity• A flexible curtain attached along the rear border of the hard palate
  29. 29. Tongue• Flexible organ consisting of muscles, glands and connective tissues• Parts of the tongue: – Apex or tip – Blade • Front • Center • Back • root
  30. 30. articulators Lower jawUvula Lower lip Velum Tongue
  31. 31. Upper lip Upper teeth Points of Upperarticulation alveolar ridge Hard palate Soft palate
  32. 32. ARTICULATION EXERCISE
  33. 33. ARTICULATION EXERCISE

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