Rules In Capitalization And PunctuationPresentation Transcript
Rules in Capitalizationand Punctuation
RULE NO. 1Capitalize the first word of a quoted sentence.
• He said, "Treat her as you would your own daughter.“ • "Look out!" she screamed."You almost ran into my child."
RULE NO. 2Capitalize a proper noun.
• Golden Gate Bridge • Dr. Jose P. Rizal• Pasig Catholic College
RULE NO. 3Capitalize a persons title when it precedes the name. Do not capitalize when the title is acting as a description following the name.
• Chairperson Petrov• Ms. Petrov, the chairperson of the company, will address us at noon.
RULE NO. 4Capitalize the persons titlewhen it follows the name onthe address or signature line.
• Sincerely, Ms. Haines, Chairperson• Yours truly, Dr. Rolando P. Castro, Dean
RULE NO. 5 Capitalize the titles of high- ranking government officials when used before their names. Do not capitalize thecivil title if it is used instead of the name.
• The president will address Congress. • President Noynoy Aquinodelivered his SONA last week.
RULE NO. 6Capitalize any title whenused as a direct address.
• Will you take mytemperature, Doctor?• Do you have a court hearing, Attorney?
RULE NO. 7Capitalize points of the compass only when they refer to specific regions.
• Go south three blocks and then turn left. • We live in the southeast section of town.
RULE NO. 8Always capitalize the first and last words of titles of publications regardless of their parts of speech. Capitalize other words within titles, including the short verb forms Is, Are, and Be. Do not capitalize little words within titles such as a, an, the, but, as, if, and, or, nor, or prepositions, regardless of their length.
• The Day of the Jackal• What Color Is Your Parachute? • A Tale of Two Cities
RULE NO. 9Capitalize federal or state when used as part of an official agency name or in government documents where these terms represent an official name. If they are being used as general terms, you may use lowercase letters.
• That is a federal offense.• The Federal Bureau of Investigation has been subject to much scrutiny and criticism lately.• We will visit three states during our summer vacation.
RULE NO. 10 Capitalize the first word of asalutation and the first word of a complimentary close.
• Dear Ms. Pedroza:• My dear Mr. Sanchez: • Very truly yours,
RULE NO. 11After a sentence ending with a colon, do not capitalize the first word if it begins a list.
• These are my favorite foods: chocolate cake, spaghetti and adobo. • These are my skills:programming, driving and multi- tasking.
RULE NO. 12Do not capitalize names of seasons.
• I love autumn colors and spring flowers.• Philippines has summer and rainy seasons.
Top Ten Rules inPunctuation
10. COMMA (,)• Use commas to separate independent clauses in a sentenceExample:1. The game was over, but the crowd refused to leave.2. Yesterday was her brother’s birthday, so she took him out to dinner.
10. COMMA• Use commas after introductory words, phrases, or clauses that come before the main clauseExamples:1. While I was eating, the cat scratched at the door.2. If you are ill, you ought to see a doctor.
10. COMMA• Use a pair of commas to separate an aside from the main body of the sentence.Example:1. John and Inga, the couple from next door, are coming for dinner tonight.
10. COMMA• Use commas to set off all geographical names, items in dates (except the month and day), addresses (except the street number and name), and titles in names.Example:1. Birmingham, Alabama, got its name from Birmingham, England.2. July 22, 2011, was a momentous day in his life.
10. COMMA• Use a comma to shift between the main discourse and a quotation.Example:1. John said without emotion, “I’ll see you tomorrow.”2. “I was able,” she answered, “to complete the assignment.”
9. Period (.)• The primary use of a period is to end a sentence.Example:1. Business English is very important for your professional growth.
9. Period (.)• Its second important use is for abbreviations.Examples:1. Jesus Christ was born c. 4-6AD2. Mr. Jose was happy to see his wife.
8. Question Mark (?)• It goes at the end of a sentence which is a question.Examples:1. What can you do for the company?2. How can you be an asset?
7. Exclamation Point (!)• This is used in ending extreme emotions expressed in a sentence.Example:1. Ouch!2. Fire! Fire!
6. Quotation marks (“”)• are used to quote another person’s words exactly, whether they be spoken, or writtenExamples:1. John said, “We are going shopping.”2. As D. H. Nachas explains, “The gestures used for greeting others differ greatly from one culture to another.”
6. Quotation marks (“”)• used to denote irony or sarcasm, or to note something unusual about itExample:1. The great march of “progress” has left millions impoverished and hungry.
5. Colon (:)• used after a complete statement in order to introduce one or more directly related ideas, such as a series of directions, a list, or a quotation or other comment illustrating or explaining the statementExample:1. The daily newspaper contains four sections: news, sports, entertainment, and classified ads.
5. Colon (:)• used to separate chapter and verse from the bible or to separate hours, minutes, and secondsExample:1. John 1:212. 09:25:12
4. Semicolon (;)• Use a semicolon to join related independent clauses in compound sentencesExample:1. Jim worked hard to earn his degree; consequently, he was certain to achieve a distinction.2. Jane overslept by three hours; she was going to be late for work again.
4. Semicolon (;)• used to separate items in a series if the elements of the series already include commasExample:1. Members of the band include Harold Rostein, clarinetist; Tony Aluppo, tuba player; and Lee Jefferson, trumpeter.
3. Apostrophe ( ’)• to form possessives of nounsExample:1. the boy’s hat2. three day’s journey
3. Apostrophe ( ’)• to show the omission of lettersExample:1. He’ll go = He will go2. could’ve = could have
3. Apostrophe ( ’)• to form pluralsExample:1. Mind your p’s and q’s.
2. Parentheses ( )• occasionally and sparingly used for extra, nonessential material included in a sentenceExample:1. Before arriving at the station, the old train (someone said it was a relic of frontier days) caught fire.
1. Hyphen or dash (-)• Use a hyphen to join two or more words serving as a single adjective before a nounExample:1. chocolate-covered peanuts2. Two-storey house
1. Hyphen or dash (-)• Use a hyphen with compound numbersExample:1. Forty-five2. Sixty-two
1. Hyphen or dash (-)• Use a hyphen with the prefixes ex- (meaning former), self-, all-; with the suffix -elect; between a prefix and a capitalized word; and with figures or lettersExample:1. ex-husband2. T-shirt
1. Hyphen or dash (-)• Use the dash to emphasize a point or to set off an explanatory comment; but don’t overuse dashes, or they will lose their impact; typically represented on a computer by two hyphens with no spaces before, after, or between the hyphensExample:1. To some of you, my proposals may seem radical -- even revolutionary.
1. Hyphen or dash (-)• used for an appositive phrase that already includes commasExample:1. The boys–Jim, John, and Jeff–left the party early.