• Sonnet --- a lyric poem having fourteen rhymed lines usually written in iambic pentameter PETRARCHAN / ITALIAN• Has an 8-line beginning SHAKESPEAREAN /called OCTAVE, and a 6-line ENGLISHconclusion called SESTET•Feelings presented in the • a lyric poem of lines writtenoctave often contracts with in iambic pentameter with 3the sestet quatrains and a concluding•Rhymes abba – abba – cde - coupletcde •Rhymes abab - cdcd – efef - gg
ON HIS BLINDNESS (John Milton) When I consider how my light is spent Ere half my days, in this dark world and wide, And that one talent which is death to hideLodged with me useless, though my soul more bent To serve therewith my Maker, and present My true account, lest He returning chide; “Doth God exact day labor, light denied?” I fondly ask. But Patience, to prevent That murmur, soon replies, “God doth not need Either man’s work or his own gifts. Who bestBear his mild yoke, they serve him best. His state Is kingly: thousands at his bidding speed, And post o’er land and ocean without rest; They also serve who only stand and wait.”
SONNET 18 (William Shakespeare) Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer’s lease hath all too short a date; Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimmed; And every fair sometime declines,By chance, or nature’s changing course, untrimmed. But thy eternal summer shall not fade Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest;Nor shall death brag thou wanderest in his shade, When in eternal line to time thou growest --- So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
ELEGY• A lyric poem which expresses mourning, usually over the death of an individual• May also be a lament over the passing of life and beauty, or meditation on the nature of death• Usually formal in language and structure, and solemn or even melancholy in tone• Mostly long• Another word for this is epitaph.
Excerpt from “ELEGY” (Gene Derwood) Gone, gone is Gordon, tall and brilliant ladWhose mind was science. Now hollow his skull, A noble sculpture, is but sunken bone, His cells from water come, by water laid Grave – deep, to water gone. Lost, lost the hope he had,Washed to a cipher his splendour and his skill.
ODE• A complex and often lengthy lyric poem written in a dignified formal style on some serious subjects• Has no definite pattern
SONG ---A short lyric poem intended to be sung; Can be secular or non-religiousSIMPLE LYRIC --- A short descriptive pictorial or meditative poem
NARRATIVE•A poem that narrates a story•Can be long or short
EPIC BALLADDRAMATIC DRAMATIC POETRY MONOLOGUE FORMS OF NARRATIVE POEMS
EPIC• A narrative poem that usually centers on a single important character who embodies the values of a particular society
BALLAD• A narrative poem that depends on a regular verse patterns and strong rhymes for its effect• Most have lost of action and adventure• Mostly tragic
• Originated as FOLK anonymous songs and are passed orally before being written down •Composed by knownLITERARY writers and it may or may not be sung Kinds of ballad
DRAMATIC POETRY• Poetry in which one or more characters speak• Allows the writer to reveal characters directly through dialogue, just as a playwright does• Has many of the characteristics of a play; a definite setting; a dramatic situation, emotional conflict, with vigorous and natural long rhythms
DRAMATIC MONOLOGUE• A special kind of dramatic poem• In dramatic monologue, one character speaks to one or more characters, whose replies are not given in the poem.• The speaker in a moment of great personal crisis, reveals his or her deepest thoughts and feelings.
FICTION• Any work of literature that includes material that is invented or imagined, that is not a record of things as they actually happened
1. Short Stories --- a fictional narrative written in prose which is shorter than a novel2. Novel --- a long fictional narrative written in prose usually having many characters and story plots3. Satire --- a literary work which mocks or ridicules the stupidity or vices of individuals, groups or society in general4. Parable --- a short tale for which a moral or religious lesson is drawn5. Romance--- deals with love and adventures
historicalgothic psychological Types of Novels
1. Gothic novel --- creates an atmosphere of mystery and danger in a picturesque setting, usually involving a threat combined with love, intrigue for a romantic young heroine2. Historical novel --- creates the atmosphere, customs, and events of an actual historical period, and may even include actual historical figures3. Psychological novel --- explores the complex emotional lives of the characters
DRAMA• A Story written to be acted out on stage• The playwright usually emphasizes characters, conflicts and actions which are developed by the use of a dialogue.• Stage direction is provided to help actors and directors.• Additional elements such as set, props, and lighting effects are used .
FORMS OF DRAMA1. Comedy --- a literary work generally amusing which usually ends happily because the hero or heroine is able to overcome obstacles and get what he or she wants2. Tragedy --- a literary work dealing with very serious and important themes, in which a dignified tragic figure meets destruction
NON-FICTION• A prose that deals with real events and people• Characters, setting and action must conform to what is true.• Cannot be manipulated by the imagination of the writers
Forms of non-fictionAUTOBIOGRAPHY ESSAY•Someone’s account •A brief examination of aof his or her own life subject in prose, usually expressing personal or•A narrative account, limited view of the topicoften chronological, of •Another form tothe important events entertain, and to explainof the person’s life and to persuade
SCIENTIFIC NARRATIVE INFORMATIVE REFLECTIVEDESCRIPTIVE EDITORIAL SOCIO- SPECULATIVE POLITICAL NATURE CHARACTERDIDACTIC OR SKETCHAPHORISTIC FORMS OF ESSAY