Context clues


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Context clues

  1. 1. Context Clues
  2. 2. Building Word Awareness <ul><li>Context Clues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synonyms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restatement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inference </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is Context? <ul><li>Most Americans can speak only one ________. Europeans, however, ________ several. As a result, Europeans think ________ are unfriendly and unwilling to communicate with them. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to figure out the missing words. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Context? <ul><li>Most Americans can speak only one language . Europeans, however, speak several. As a result, Europeans think Americans are unfriendly and unwilling to communicate with them. </li></ul><ul><li>How did you do? How did you figure out the missing words? </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is Context? <ul><li>Use the words surrounding the unknown word to help determine the unknown word’s meaning. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Context Clues: Definition <ul><li>Unknown word is defined immediately following its use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>brief definition , synonym , or restatement using punctuation -commas, parentheses or dashes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Be” verb shows the two ideas are the same. X = Y </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Example: Tony noticed that the wallabies at the zoo looked like kangaroos . </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Many people have phobias, such as fear of heights, a fear of water, or a fear of confined spaces. </li></ul>What are wallabies? What is a phobia?
  8. 8. Synonyms <ul><li>A writer often choose a more familiar word or words with the same meaning to make the difficult word understandable </li></ul><ul><li>example </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Ballet students appear so lithe ; they are so limber and flexible. </li></ul><ul><li>The cataract was spectacular; the steep waterfall dropped abruptly eighty feet. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Restatement <ul><li>Close to a synonym, restatement differs in that a difficult word is usually restated in a simpler form—usually set of by commas . </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The poetry was sublime , lofty and moving, and brought tears to my eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>The village was depopulated , most of the residents dead or moved, but the livestock remained untouched. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Contrast <ul><li>Antonym , a word of opposite meaning (notice the restatement) </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast clue words: but, however , in contrast to, on the other hand </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The gentleman was portly , but his wife was thin . </li></ul><ul><li>The mayoral candidate praised the town council, but the mayor deprecated it. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Explanation <ul><li>Similar to a definition clue </li></ul><ul><li>Generally longer than a definition </li></ul><ul><li>Usually found in one or more different sentences </li></ul>
  15. 15. Context Clues: Explanation <ul><li>The chrome is beginning to corrode . It shows signs of pitting and of being eaten away gradually. </li></ul><ul><li>It was a martial parade: signs of the military were everywhere. Everyone was in uniform; guns, cannon and tanks were on display, and jets flew overhead. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Context Clues: Explanation <ul><li>NOTE: Sometimes the explanation is presented first. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The puppy was a complete bother and an annoyance to all the neighbors. It was a continual nuisance . </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Example <ul><li>Examples that the reader may know to help explain a new and unfamiliar concept or term </li></ul><ul><li>Note the punctuation clues: commas or hyphens </li></ul><ul><li>Signal words— such as, for example, for instance, to illustrate, specifically </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Legumes , such as peas and beans, produce pods. </li></ul><ul><li>Forest floors are frequently covered with fungi — molds, mushrooms, and mildews. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Inference <ul><li>Use reasoning and prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Your experiences provide common-sense clues to the meaning of a word </li></ul><ul><li>This context clue is often a little harder to spot. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Since Reginald was nervous, he brought his rabbit foot talisman with him to the exam. </li></ul><ul><li>His alibi was upheld when John’s friends offered personal testimony, letters of documentation, and three videotapes showing that he was present at the party. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Limitations of Context Clues <ul><li>Context clues only give the immediate definition for that particular context. </li></ul><ul><li>Context clues seldom lead to a precise, complete definition. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes the passage will not contain clues to the meaning of the unfamiliar word. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Applying What You Have Learned <ul><li>Can you define the unfamiliar word? </li></ul><ul><li>Name the context clue that helped you. </li></ul><ul><li>What was the signal word that helped? </li></ul><ul><li>He seemed quite free and easy with a few friends, but at large parties he was quite inhibited . </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>The definition of the unfamiliar word is “ controlled , restrained .” </li></ul><ul><li>The context clue was contrast . </li></ul><ul><li>The signal word was “ but .” </li></ul>Applying What You Have Learned
  24. 24. <ul><li>Can you define the unfamiliar word? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you name the specific context clue that helped you? </li></ul><ul><li>Embassies typically follow well-established protocols , or accepted procedures, for seating guests at a government dinner. </li></ul>Applying What You Have Learned
  25. 25. <ul><li>The definition of protocol is a set of rules or procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>The context clue is “ definition ,” with some help from the commas – restatement </li></ul>Applying What You Have Learned
  26. 26. <ul><li>Can you define the unfamiliar word? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you name the specific context clue that helped you? </li></ul><ul><li>Corona refers to the outermost part of the sun’s atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Facets -small flat surfaces at different angles- bring out the beauty of a diamond. </li></ul>Applying What You Have Learned
  27. 27. <ul><li>First: context clue is a straight definition . </li></ul><ul><li>Second: context clue is definition — restatement . Notice the punctuation helps. </li></ul>Applying What You Have Learned
  28. 28. Applying What You Have Learned <ul><li>Most condiments , such as pepper, mustard and catsup, are used to improve the flavor of foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you define the unfamiliar word? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you name the specific context clue that helped you? </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>A condiment is a flavor enhancer used to spice up foods. </li></ul><ul><li>The context clue was an example clue. Notice the signal phrase—such as. </li></ul>Applying What You Have Learned
  30. 30. <ul><li>Can you define the unfamiliar word? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you name the specific context clue that helped you? </li></ul><ul><li>Some city dwellers are affluent ; others live in poverty. </li></ul>Applying What You Have Learned
  31. 31. Applying What You Have Learned <ul><li>The definition of affluent is “ rich , wealthy .” </li></ul><ul><li>The context clue is contrast . </li></ul>
  32. 32. Thank you so much!