Third largest country in the world in terms of area and total population
Borders: Yellow, East China and South China Seas
Coastline is about 12,000 km (7,500 mi) long
Official name: People’s Republic of China (Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo)
Republic was established in 1949.
The name CHINA is probably derived from the Qin (Ch’in) dynasty (221-206 BC) which first unified the nation.
Chinese used the name Zhonggua (Chung-kuo) which means Middle Country with their belief that China is in the Middle of the world.
China is divided into 23 provinces (including Taiwan) and 5 autonomous regions.
China’s written history began during the Shang dynasty.
In 1921, the long Civil war between the ruling nationalists or Kuomintang, led by Chiang Kaishek, and the Communists, led by Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-Tung) began.
Northwestern region Southwestern region Central region Eastern region Northern region Northeastern region Administrative regions
THINGS TO REMEMBER IN CHINA
THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA
The Great Wall of China is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in northern China, built originally to protect the northern borders of the Chinese Empire against intrusions by various nomadic groups.
The only figure on earth which is visible even on the moon.
The Chinese Dragon
Chinese dragons are legendary creatures in Chinese mythology and folklore. In Chinese art, dragons are typically portrayed as long, scaled, serpentine creatures with four legs.
Chinese dragons traditionally symbolize potent and auspicious powers, particularly control over water, rainfall, hurricane, and floods. The dragon is also a symbol of power, strength, and good luck. With this, the Emperor of China usually use the dragon as a symbol of his imperial power.
People throughout China drink tea daily. Because of the geographic location and climate, different places grow various kinds of tea.
Five classes of tea:
Green tea - Longjin
Scented tea - Jasmine tea
Buddha and Buddhism
It is widely believed that Buddhism was introduced to China during the Han period (206 BC-220 AD).
Buddhism, just like Confucianism and Taoism, guides people to behave, to be honest and responsible. It promotes harmony and peaceful mind, sharing and compassion. Buddhists never force people into their belief. Buddhism emphasizes in "awakening of mind". Through learning, one will develop intellectual capacity to the fullest so as to understand, to love and be kind to other beings.
Buddhism does not believe in God. It believes in People.
Chinese temples are usually red in color, although gold ones exist as well.
The architecture is traditionally Chinese in style, and they are decorated extensively with sculptures and sometimes traditional Chinese paintings.
Worship in Chinese temples usually consists of making offerings to the various gods, spirits and ancestors. The main act of worship is lighting incense or joss sticks.
Chinese Martial Arts
Kung fu or gongfu or gung fu is a Chinese term often used in the West to refer to Chinese martial arts .
In its original meaning, kung fu can refer to any skill. Gōngfu is a compound of two words, combining (gōng) meaning "achievement" or "merit", and (fū) which translates into "man", so that a literal rendering would be "human achievement". Its connotation is that of an accomplishment arrived at by great effort.
Chinese arts are influenced by three major religions: Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. Another major influence was nature. The three major kinds of subject they liked to paint were birds, flowers, and landscapes from the countryside. All the religions stress love for nature. All landscape painters tried to get a feeling of the human spirit and the strength of the wind, water, mist and mountains.
The Shēngxiào better known in English as the Chinese Zodiac , is a scheme that relates each year to an animal and its reputed attributes, according to a 12-year cycle.
Chinese National Costume
Traditional Chinese clothing is broadly referred to as hanfu with many variations such as traditional Chinese academic dress.
Most Chinese men wore Chinese black cotton shoes, but wealthy higher class people would wear tough black leather shoes for formal occasions. Very rich and wealthy men would wear very bright, beautiful silk shoes sometimes having leather on the inside. Women would wear bright, silk coated Lotus shoes under their bound feet. Male shoes were mostly less elaborate than women's.
Mon- Khmer Ural- Altaic Sino- Tibetan Indo- European Major Linguistic Families
Xia Dynasty About 1994 BCE - 1766 BCE
Shang Dynasty 1766 BCE - 1027 BCE
Zhou Dynasty 1122 BCE -256 BCE plus suppliment
Qin Dynasty 221 BCE - 206 BCE
Early Han Dynasty 206 BCE - 9 AD
Xin Dynasty 9 AD - 24 AD
Later Han Dynasty 25 AD - 220 AD
Three Kingdoms - Period of Disunion 220 AD - 280 AD
Sui Dynasty 589 AD - 618 AD
Tang Dynasty 618 AD - 907 AD
Sung Dynasty 969 AD - 1279 AD
Yuan Dyansty 1279 AD - 1368 AD
Ming Dynasty 1368 AD - 1644 AD
Manchu or Qing Dynasty 1644 AD - 1912 AD
CONFUCIUS 551-479 BC
First Sage of China
Also known as Kung Fu-Tzu
Known as the Great Teacher, statesman, philosopher, traditionalist, founder of Chinese literature
Books of Confucius
Book of Changes (Yi King)
Book of Ceremonies (Li King)
Book of Historical Documents (Shu King)
Book of Poetry (Shi King)
Book of Spring and Autumn (Ch’un Ch’iu)
Six Principles Taught:
Human nature is good and evil is essentially unnatural.
Man is free to conduct himself as he wills, and he is master of his choice.
Virtue is its own reward.
The rule for behavior is: what you do not want others to do to you, do not do to them.
A man has 5 duties: to his ruler; to his father; his wife; to his elder brother; and to his friends.
Man should strive to become a superior man.
Wang Wei (669-759) --- Chinese painter and poet; a figure of legendary stature; founder of the pure landscape style of painting; one of the masters of lyric verse in the T’ang dynasty
The Cold Mountain
Walking at Leisure
Li Po (701-62) --- Chinese poet; one of the greatest figures of Chinese literature; was born into the minor nobility in what is now known as Sichuan Province; drowned while drunkenly leaning from a boat to embrace the moon’s reflection on the water
Conversation in the Mountains
The Moon over the Mountain Pass
Drinking Alone in the Moonlight
Tu Fu (710-70) --- Chinese poet; raised according to Confucian tradition; influenced by Taoist philosophy and by the poet Li Po; elements of satire and expressions of somber feeling about the suffering of human kind entered his verse
The Empty Purse
Po Chu-i (772-864) --- Chinese poet and government official; one of the greatest writers of the T’ang Dynasty; much influenced by his predecessor Tu Fu; employed satire and humor in his work to protest against contemporary evils