“Teaching today is a far more complicated profession than it was a couple of decadesago… Today, we not only test the measure the cognitive development but also the affective and psychomotor development of the learners, as well.” - Dr. Roberto N. Padua
The teacher must assess the students in three domains: Cognitive Psychomotor Affective
What is a TEST?• According to Posner (1995), test is a set of questions with an accepted set of presumably correct answers, designed to gather information about some individual characteristics, like scholastic achievement.
TEST• a device used to indirectly measure the intangible aspects of students’ life• A device used to gather information about students’ learning progress• Compels students’ to give their responses
NON - TEST• a device that do not force students to give their responses• Usually based on teacher’s direct observations as students perform the assigned tasks
TESTING• Administration and use of the test and its results in order to make educational decisions (Kubiszyn and Borich, 2000)
EDUCATIONAL DECISISONS1. To promote or to retain a student in a particular grade/year level2. To proceed to the next objective or to reteach the lesson3. To revise or to continue an existing curriculum
Kinds of Educational Decisions• Instructional Decisions• Grading Decisions• Diagnostic Decisions• Selection Decisions• Placement Decisions• Guidance and Counseling Decisions• Program or Curriculum Decisions• Administrative Policy Decisions
MEASUREMENT• Process of quantifying test results• Begins when the teacher compares student’s responses with the presumably correct responses in the scoring key
ASSESSMENT• Process of gathering, analyzing and interpreting data (Angelo, 1995)• Process of gathering information about student’s learning and then analyzing and interpreting them for the purpose of making decisions (Lucas and Corpuz, 2007)• Uses a variety of instruments to collect necessary data to enhance its validity
TRIANGULATION• Practice of checking information supplied by assessments
Testing vs. assessment TESTING ASSESSMENT• Tests, usually paper and • Paper and pencil tests pencil tests, are scored and other measurement independent of context instruments are and other relevant administered, scored and information. evaluated contextually.• Tests are utilized to reach • Results of variety of educational decisions. instruments are• Testing is limited in integrated to reach scope. educational decisions. • Assessment is broader in scope.
1. ANECDOTAL RECORD• Focuses only on the unique experience showing attitude that needs some modification or intervention• Teacher records a student’s behavior across time, to establish its patterns and causes.• An intervention can be designed to modify or strengthen such behavior.
2. checklist• For classroom activities, students are expected to master and perform the expected tasks.• For classroom observation, the teacher may design a checklist that can capture the presence or absence of the mastery of educational objectives.
3. Daily assignments• Students are required to submit the accomplished assignment in a specified period of time.• Teacher may use assignment results for various types of assessment.
4. Debates• With two opposing views about an issue, a debate can be organized where students take opposing positions on a topic and defend their side.
5. demonstrations• Visual enactment of a particular skill or activity• Teacher observes and rates students as they perform the skill or skills required for a certain activity.
6. games• Students can engage themselves in enjoyable activities without fear of being tested.• In case of academic games, where students’ cognitive processes are involved, the teacher can include an assessment of the student’s mastery of concepts and ideas.
7. journal• Students have the potential to write and reflect upon their learning experiences.• They can write daily account of their performance in an assigned task.
8. Oral and written reports• The teacher assigns a research topic to students; the latter conducts research and report the outcome in an oral and written format.
9. Panel discussion• Organized to verify the truth or veracity of the information obtained in a research or library work• Teacher rates the quality of the student’s participation in a panel discussion.
10. Portfolio of student’s work• Students can be required to collect evidence and reflect upon their own learnings.• They compile these evidence in a portfolio.
11. projects• Teacher may design a project that challenges students to show more or all aspect of creativity.• When given the opportunity, students can be original, elaborative and risk-taking.
12. Teacher observation• Observing is one potent skill expected of a good teacher.• He can observe while students work on the assigned task.• He can also ascertain whether students understand the directions and perform the assigned task with speed and accuracy.
9 Types of Assessment(According toCohen, et al., 1997)
1. Norm - Referenced• Gives us information on what a student can do in comparison with other students in the class• Helps the teacher to put students in a ranked order of achievement
2. Criterion - Referenced a• Uses specific preset criteria from which student’s performance is compared without referring to other students’ performance
3. Domain - Referencedfield or• Determines learning in a particular area of the subject matter and the three domains of learning
4. Diagnostic• Identifies weaknesses, strengths, and problems of student’s learning• Can be the teacher’s basis of planning what to do next in the teaching and learning process
5. Formative• Pinpoints whether students have achieved the objectives of the lesson taught• Shapes the contents and processes of future teaching and learning plans• Provides feedback about the effectiveness of teaching as manifested by student’s learning
6. Summative• Considered as the terminal assessment of learning• Comes at the end of the unit, program, term or school year• Main purpose of this is to give rating or grade to students based on their performance or achievement.
7. Ipsative• Process of self-assessment• Gives students the opportunity to evaluate their own learning• Students can formulate their own learning styles, methods and strategies with the purpose of improving their own learning.
8. Authentic• Determines what students can actually do in real-life situations rather than using some easy-to-score responses to questions
9. Performance• Determines whether students can demonstrate their learning through performance in real or simulated situations• More applicable to determine student’s skills in communication and other psychomotor skills• Requires the student to demonstrate knowledge, learning and understanding through a real-task application
Factors to Consider:1. Type of measuring procedure to use2. Range of difficulty of items3. Objectives to be sampled4. Scoring procedures5. Length of the measurement6. Time limits7. Arrangement of items8. Method of recording and reportingresults
Evaluation• The process of determining the changes in the child as a result of teaching and his experiences• Systematic attempt at acsertaining the amount of progress made in the child’s education directed toward the realization of objectives in education• Process of attaching quality or value judgment to the quantity obtained through the process of assessment
References:• Assessment of Students’ Learning by Alberto A. Rico (2011)• Assessment of Learning Outcomes (Book 2) by Danilo S. Gutierrez, Ph. D. (2008)