Prevention & control of occupational diseases


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Prevention & control of occupational diseases

  2. 2. Measures of Health Protection of workers • Medical: – Pre-employment medical examination – Periodic medical examination – Early diagnosis, treatment and ref. system • Engineering (designing of the buildings, substitution, isolation ….) • Personal protective measures (masks …) 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 2
  3. 3. Control of occupational cancers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Control/elimination of industrial carcinogens Medical examination Notification Licensing of establishments Personal Hygiene Research 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 3
  4. 4. Preventive measures of Lead Poisoning • • • • • • Substitution Isolation Local exhaust ventilation Personal protection, hygiene, health education Good housekeeping Working atmosphere (should not exceed 2.0 -10 mg per 10 cu meters of air • Periodic medical examination 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 4
  5. 5. 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 5
  6. 6. 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 6
  7. 7. 1. Medical • Health Education • Pre-placement examinations • Supervision of working environment • Mechanization 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 7
  8. 8. 2. Engineering 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 17/07/2011 Good housekeeping Design of building Mechanization Substitution Control of dust Isolation Occupational Health 8
  9. 9. Personal Measures • Masks • Safety shoes • Aprons, Overalls • Screens & safety glasses • Earplugs, Earmuffs • Helmets 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 9
  10. 10. 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 10
  11. 11. – Early Diagnosis and treatment – Notification and recording – Periodic medical examinations 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 11
  12. 12. 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 12
  13. 13. 1. Medical 2. Occupational 3. Psychosocial 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 13
  14. 14. Preventing Occupational Disease I. Measures Applied to the Process or Workplace A. Substitution of a Non hazardous Substance for Hazardous One B. Installation of Engineering Controls and Devices C. Job Re-design , Work Organization Changes and Work Practice Alternatives
  15. 15. II. Measures Primarily Directed Toward Worker 1. Education and Advice 2. Personal Protective Equipment 3. Organizational Measures
  16. 16. To prevent occupational disease effectively, health professionals must know how to anticipate and recognize conditions in those who present with symptoms and those who are presymptomatic.
  17. 17. THE THREE LEVELS OF PREVENTION Primary Prevention Is designed to deter or avoid the occurrence of disease or injury Secondary Prevention Is designed to identify and adequately treat a disease or injury process as soon as possible, often before any symptoms have developed Tertiary Prevention Is designed to treat a disorder when it has advanced beyond its early stages, to avoid complications & limit disability, to address rehabilitative and palliative needs
  18. 18. PRIMARY PREVENTION Aim: reducing the risk of disease or hazard by reducing the magnitude of exposure to hazardous substances i.e. exposure dose reduce reduce adverse health consequences
  19. 19. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE Primary Prevention Control of new hazards Secondary Prevention Screening Control of known hazards Environmental monitoring Biological monitoring Identification of vulnerable Periodic medical examination workers (pre employment medical examination) Substitution Engineering controls to minimise exposure Personal Protective Devices
  20. 20. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE • Tertiary prevention aims to minimize the consequences in persons who already have disease • The goal is to limit symptoms or discomfort, minimize injury to the body and maximize functional capacity
  21. 21. 1-ENGINEERING CONTROLS: • Eliminating toxic chemicals. • Substitution of hazardous substance with a safer one. • Enclosure of work processes or confining work operations. • Special ventilation of equipment or special ventilation of processes that liberate hazards.
  22. 22. 2-USE OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTS (PPE) : - gloves, safety goggles ,helmets ,safety shoes, protective clothing and respirators. - To be effective ,PPE must be - Individual selected - Properly fitted - Periodically refitted - Properly worn and conscientiously - Regularly maintained and replaced as necessary .
  23. 23. 3- ROTATION OF WORKERS 4- PROHIBITING: Eating, Drinking, Smoking, Chewing Tobacco, Or Gum And Applying Cosmetics In Regular Areas.
  24. 24. SECONDARY PREVENTION Aim : • Early identification of more favorable out come health problems • Accomplished by identifying health problems before they become clinically apparent i.e. before workers report feeling ill
  25. 25. II) Hygienic prevention 1-Use of personal protective equipments (PPE) 2-Rotation of workers 3-Prohibiting eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco, or gum and applying cosmetics in regular areas. 4-Labor legislation as: work and rest hours, setting rules for employment women and children and investigation for detection of the cause of workers’ absenteeism.
  26. 26. How to be done ? By Occupational disease surveillance (periodic medical examination) e.g.  measurement of blood lead level in workers exposed to lead.  An of blood lead level failure of 1ry prevention  corrective action =2ry prevention i.e. improve 1ry prevention
  27. 27. PERIODIC MEDICAL EXAMINATION (PME) By which occupational disease can be identified in its latent stage (very early) where intervention (early treatment) can slow, stop or reverse the progression of the abnormal physiologic condition( pathology ). Items of PME :  Questionnaire  Physical examination  Biological monitoring (Lab . Evaluation) as chest xray, pulmonary function tests, audiogram, blood, urine, exhaled air
  28. 28. TERTIARY PREVENTION Aim:  Limitation of symptoms and discomfort  Minimize injury to the body  Maximize function to the body e.g: ttt of lead poisoning