Occupational diseases dr usama

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Occupational diseases dr usama

  1. 1. Dr. Osama Zeinalabidin Master/Occupational Diseases
  2. 2. 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 2
  3. 3. 1. Silicosis      It is the major cause of permanent disability and mortality Caused by inhalation of Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) Found among construction workers, foundries .. The particles are ingested by the phagocytes, accumulate and block the lymph channels Pathologically characterized by a dense nodular fibrosis 3x4 mm 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 3
  4. 4. cont. silicosis   Onset insidious Early manifestations:        Irritant cough Dyspnoea on exertion and, Chest pain Advanced cases Impairment of total lung capacity (TLC) X-Ray shows “snow-storm) Prone to tuberculosis (silicotuberculosis) No effective treatment 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 4
  5. 5. 2. Anthracosis  Disease of coal miners  1st phase after 12 years exposure (simple pneumoconiosis)  2nd phase progressive massive fibrosis (PMF)  The risk of death among coal miners is twice that of general population 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 5
  6. 6. 3. Byssinosis  It is due to inhalation of cotton fiber dust over > 10 years  Symptoms:      17/07/2011 Chronic cough Progressive Dyspnoea Ending in chronic bronchitis Affects about 10% of spinning workers Characterized by Monday syndrome Occupational Health 6
  7. 7. 4. Bagassosis  Caused by inhalation of bagasse (sugar cane) dust  Symptoms:     17/07/2011 Cough Breathlessness Haemoptysis Untreated may lead to diffuse fibrosis, emphysema and bronchiectasis Occupational Health 7
  8. 8. 5. Asbestosis  Asbestos is a silica combine with magnesium, iron, calcium and aluminum  It had 2 types:   Serpentine (chrysolite) 90% of used asbestos Amphibole  Asbestos fibers are of 20 -500 μ  Used in roofs, pipes, break lining …. 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 8
  9. 9. cont. asbestos     Insoluble fibers Enters the body by inhalation and deposited in the alveoli Asbestos is carcinogenic Appear after 5-10 years Symptoms:  Respiratory  Cardiac  Clubbing fingers  Sputum shows asbestos bodies  X-Ray shows a ground glass in the lower lung fields 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 9
  10. 10. 6. Farmer’s Lung  It is due to the inhalation of grain dust  30 % of moisture of grain contains bacteria and fungi  Symptoms:    17/07/2011 Respiratory Fibrosis Corpulmonale Occupational Health 10
  11. 11. Lead Poisoning  Lead:    Low boiling point Mixes easily with other metals Anticorrosive  Used in more than 200 industries  Non-occupational sources (gasoline) 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 11
  12. 12. cont. lead poisoning  Mode     of absorption: Inhalation (common) Ingestion (rare) Skin (only organic lead tetraethyl lead) Normal absorption 0.2 – 0.3 mg per day  Distribution   17/07/2011 in the body: 90% excreted 10% stored in the bones Occupational Health 12
  13. 13. cont. lead poisoning  Symptoms     Insomnia Headache Mental confusion Delirium …. Etc  Organic 17/07/2011 of organic lead (CNS): Lead is rarely used (Gasoline) Occupational Health 13
  14. 14. cont. lead poisoning  Clinical Picture of Inorganic Lead Poisoning:  Abdominal colic  Constipation  Loss of appetite  Blue line on the gums  Anaemia  Wrist drop 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 14
  15. 15. Diagnosis of lead poisoning  History  Clinical picture  Laboratory tests:  Diagnosis and treatment of lead exposure are based on blood lead level  WHO state that a blood lead level of >10 μg/dL is a cause for concern 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 15
  16. 16. X ray demonstrating the characteristic finding of lead poisoning 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 16
  17. 17. Preventive measures of Lead Poisoning        Substitution Isolation Local exhaust ventilation Personal protection, hygiene, health education Good housekeeping Working atmosphere (should not exceed 2.0 -10 mg per 10 cu meters of air Periodic medical examination 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 17
  18. 18. 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 18
  19. 19. 1. Skin Cancers  75% of skin cancers are occupational  Main causes:    17/07/2011 Tar X-Rays Oils and dyes Occupational Health 19
  20. 20. 2. Lung Cancers  10% of lung cancer are occupational  It is a hazard in:     17/07/2011 Gas industry Asbestos industry Radio-active substances (a large number of industries are using radioactive substances) Arsenic and Beryllium ?? Occupational Health 20
  21. 21. 3. Cancer of bladder  Rubber industry  Aromatic amines  Electric cable industries  Gas industries  Naphthylamines ? 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 21
  22. 22. 4. Leukaemia  Benzol (solvent)  Roentgen rays, Radioactive substances Characteristics of Occupational Leukaemia:    17/07/2011 Appear after a long exposure (10 -15 years) The disease develop even after cessation of exposure The average age is earlier Occupational Health 22
  23. 23. Occupational Hazards of Agricultural Workers  Zoonotic diseases  Accidents  Insecticides, fertilizers  Physical hazards (heat, cold …)  Respiratory diseases (farmer’s lung …)  Occupational-related diseases (Schistosomiasis, malaria …) 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 23
  24. 24. Accidents in industry  Human         17/07/2011 factors: Physical Psychosocial Sex (males ↑) Age (young age ↑) Time Experience Carelessness, overconfidence Slow cerebration Occupational Health 24
  25. 25. Environmental factors of Accidents in industry  Unsafe machines (10 -20 %)  Noise  Poor illumination  Poor housekeeping  Unsafe tools 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 25
  26. 26. Sickness absenteeism  It is the sick absence due to occupational diseases (10%), non-occupational diseases or other causes:   Economic Social  Prevention:     17/07/2011 Good factory management Adequate pre-placement examination Good human relations Application of ergonomics Occupational Health 26
  27. 27. Diseases/disorders due to biological hazards = Diseases related to occup. caused by living organisms:       17/07/2011 Brucellosis, Leptospirosis, Anthrax, Tetanus RVF Wild animal, snakes, scorpions .. etc. Occupational Health 27
  28. 28. 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 28
  29. 29. Heat Hyperpyrexia (Heat stroke):  Severe and sometimes fatal condition  Due to failure of the body to regulate temperature.  Caused by prolonged exposure to the sun or to high temperatures.. 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 29
  30. 30. Symptoms of Health Stroke  Lessening  Body or lack of sweating temperature of 105 F or higher,  Fast pulse rate,  Hot and dry skin, >> 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 30
  31. 31. Heat Exhaustion:  Weakness, muscle cramps, fainting. by ↓ levels of body fluid & salts  Temperature is nearly normal  Skin cool, and pale  Recovers with rest, replacement of water and salt.  Caused 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 31
  32. 32. Prickly heat  Blisters and pimples, often red.  Caused by blockage of sweat ducts 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 32
  33. 33. Cold Frost bite:  Narrowing and damage to blood vessels  Results  Tissue 17/07/2011 in oxygen starvation and death. Occupational Health 33
  34. 34. Light  Occupational  Miner’s 17/07/2011 cataract. nystagmus. Occupational Health 34
  35. 35. Pressure Caisson disease:  Caused by nitrogen bubbles forming in the body tissue.  Affects deep-sea divers and aviators,  Caused by moving too quickly from different levels of pressure  Disorientation, 17/07/2011 severe pain, and fainting Occupational Health 35
  36. 36. Noise Occupational deafness 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 36
  37. 37. Vibration  White fingers  Arthritis 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 37
  38. 38. Ultraviolet  Conjunctivitis  Keratitis 17/07/2011 (Welder’s flash). Occupational Health 38
  39. 39. Ionizing radiation  Genetic  Cancer changes (Leukemia)  Sterility  Aplastic anaemia  Death 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 39
  40. 40. Electricity  Burns,  Electrical 17/07/2011 shocks Occupational Health 40
  41. 41. 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 41
  42. 42. Types of Occupational Accidents disorders 1. Injuries due to falls, cuts, abrasions ….. 2. Ergonomic Disorders (Muscular-skeletal) 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 42
  43. 43. Ergonomic disorders 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 43
  44. 44. Ergonomics  Ergonomics: Adjustment of Man & Machine”  Ergo-friendly tools: Tools which reduce the stresses or problems resulting work 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 44
  45. 45. Causes of accidents Human factors:  Inadequate visual or hearing acuity  Use of drugs and alcohol  Carelessness .. Fatalism  Poor training  Overconfidence  Working hours 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 45
  46. 46. cont. causes of accidents 2. Environmental factors:  Noise  Poor 17/07/2011 light Occupational Health 46
  47. 47. 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 47
  48. 48. Factors Leading to Psychosocial hazards  Lack of job satisfaction  Insecurity  Poor interpersonal relations  Work pressure  Poor management  Poor incentives 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 48
  49. 49. Psychological & behavioural changes  Hostility,  Aggressiveness,  Anxiety,  Depression,  Addiction  Sickness 17/07/2011 absenteeism. Occupational Health 49
  50. 50. Organic disorders  Hypertension,  headache,  body-ache,  peptic ulcers,  asthma,  diabetes,  heart disorders, etc. 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 50
  51. 51. Occupational dermatitis 1. 75% of occup. cancers are skin cancers, mainly among oil refiners, road makers 2. Irritants are due to long exposure to acids, alkaline, dyes and solvents 3. Eczema 4. Note: Occupational diseases affect groups 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 51
  52. 52. Occupational Hazards of agricultural workers 1. Infectious diseases 2. Pesticides poisoning 3. Accidents 4. Biological Hazards 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 52
  53. 53. Thank you Ref: • Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine 17/07/2011 Occupational Health 53

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