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The Second World War! Ms. Pearson's Honors World History, South Pasadena High School

The Second World War! Ms. Pearson's Honors World History, South Pasadena High School

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    The second world war ppt The second world war ppt Presentation Transcript

    • Lasted from 9/1/1939 to 9/2/1945 Largest war in human history; 61 countries participating About 60-70 million casualties total (civilian and military) The Second World War QUICK FACTS
    • I. The Prelude to the Second World War II. The Beginning of the Second World War (1939-1940) III. The North African and Italian Front (1940-1945) IV. The Eastern Front (1941-1945) V. The Pacific Theatre (1941-1945) VI. The End of the Second World War (1945) VII. Conferences and Notable People Outline
    • I. The Prelude to the Second World War Rise of Fascism in Europe • Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany in 1933 • Benito Mussolini becomes Prime Minister in 1922 German and Italian Expansion • Rebuilds German army in March 1935 • Remilitarizes Rhineland in March 1936 • Annexes Austria in March 1938 • Occupies Czechoslovakia in October 1938 • Italians invade Ethiopia in October 1935, Albania in April 1939
    • Czechoslovak Crisis • Hitler encourages discontent among German minority in the Sudetenland • Neville Chamberlain meets with Hitler in the Munich Conference of September 1938 • France abandons treaty with Czech government and allies with Britain, pledge to protect Poland • Hitler violates treaty and enters the Sudetenland in October 1938, claims the rest in March 1939 • Appeasement: political concessions to avoid conflict
    • The Spanish Civil War: Introduction of Blitzkrieg The Spanish Civil War • Spain declared a republic in 1931, replacing monarchy • Violence between conservatives and liberals • Leaders of the army launch revolt in July 1936 • Germany and Italians provide aid to the nationalists • Britain and France declare non-intervention Blitzkrieg, “Lightning War” • Concentration of overwhelming motorized force to break through enemy lines and prevent counterattacks • Bombing of Guernica, aerial support by Germany
    • Communist and Nationalist Conflict • Chinese Civil War begins in 1927 • Unable to defeat Communists, who escape north Invasion of China • Japanese invade Manchuria in September 1931, creates puppet government in Manchukuo • Sino-Japanese War begins in July 1937 • Communists and Nationalists temporarily end civil war • Americans and Soviets supply China Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis • Rome-Berlin Axis in October 1936 • Japan joins in November 1936 • Pledges to stop Communism
    • United States of America • Led by President Woodrow Wilson • Joined in 1941 Great Britain • Led by Prime Minister Winston Churchill • Joined in 1939 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics • Led by Premier Joseph Stalin • Joined in 1939 France • Led by Charles de Gaulle • Joined in 1939 Nationalist China • Led by Chiang Kai-Shek • Fought against the Japanese since 1936
    • Nazi Germany • Led by Fuhrer Adolf Hitler • Joined in 1939 Japan • Led by Prime Minister Hideki Tojo • Joined in 1939 Kingdom of Italy • Led by Premier Joseph Stalin • Joined in 1939
    • Treaties and Alliances of 1939 Demands on Poland • Hitler prepares for attack on Poland • Britain and France halfheartedly attempt alliance with Soviets • German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact; Poland split Declaration of War • Germany invades Poland on Sep. 1st, 1939 • Great Britain and France declare war on Germany on Sep. 3
    • II. The Beginning of the Second World War The Polish Campaign • Soviets invade on September 17th • Partitioning of Poland at the end of the month Soviet Sphere of Influence • Winter War begins in Nov. 1939 against Finland • Weak Soviet military organization is unable to break through the Mannerheim Line • Soviets win in 1940, military reformation
    • The Phony War and Northern Europe The Phony War (Winter 1939) • British and French expect German attack • France continues to build the Maginot Line, 200 miles of fortifications with over three million French soldiers The Scandinavian Campaign • Germany invades Denmark and Norway in April 1940 • Reaction in Britain forces Chamberlain to step down, succeeded by Winston Churchill
    • Winston Churchill • Becomes Prime Minister after Chamberlain steps down from office • Boosted morale during the Blitz Neville Chamberlain • Steps down due to failure in stopping the German invasions of W. Europe Germany Britain Russia United States Japan France
    • The Western Front Invasion of France • Germany invades Belgium and the Netherlands on May 10th • Evacuation of French and British troops • Battle for France begins on June 5th, Italy joins on 10th • Paris captured on June 14th, and armistice signed on 22nd • Vichy France founded in unoccupied France • General Charles de Gaulle leads Free French Movement
    • The Miracle at Dunkirk
    • Technology of WWII
    • Technology of WWII (continued)
    • Operation Sea Lion: The Battle of Britain The Battle Over Britain/The Blitz • German Luftwaffe attempts to gain control of airspace • RAF inflicts heavy damage; invention of radar • Tries to crush morale by bombing cities • Even with twice as many planes, Germany is unable to win Alfred Goering • Founded the Gestapo in 1933 • Commander in Chief of the Luftwaffe
    • Operation Sea Lion: The Battle of the Atlantic Submarine Warfare, Yet Again • Lend-Lease Act of 1941; “aiding countries necessary for the defense of America.” • Convoy system utilized to protect merchant ships • Roosevelt and Churchill meet secretly, issuing a joint declaration called the Atlantic Charter, which encouraged free trade and self-determination • Later forms the foundation for the Allied peace plan
    • III. The North African and Italian Campaign Italian Failures in Africa • Italy invades Egypt from their colony in Libya on Sep. 1940 • Britain fights off Italy, taking Ethiopia and Somaliland by 1941 “The Desert Fox” • Germany dispatches the Afrika Korps, led by Field Marshall Erwin Rommel, nicknamed “the Desert Fox” • Pushes British back into Egypt in 1941, but lacks reinforcements due to the beginning of Operation Barbarossa
    • Erwin Rommel • Decorated officer during WWI • Leads the Afrika Korps in North Africa Bernard Montgomery • Leads British Eighth Army in Africa • Later plans and directs D-Day invasion in 1944
    • The Balkan Campaign Italian Failures in the Balkans • Seeing German conquests, Mussolini invades Greece from Albania in the October of 1940 • Greece counterattacks, but Italy is saved by Germany in 1941, who captures Greece and Yugoslavia
    • Battle for North Africa Rommel’s Advance • Britain pushes back into Libya in late 1941 and early 1942 • Summer 1942, Rommel reaches El Alamein • Field Marshall Bernard Montgomery counterattacks and forces Rommel to retreat Operation Torch • General Dwight D. Eisenhower leads invasion of Algeria and Morocco in Nov. 1942, named Operation Torch • Germans and Italians surrounded, 250,000 Axis troops surrender in 1943
    • Invasion of Sicily and Italy Italy and Sicily • Invasion of Sicily in July 1943 • Mussolini overthrown in the same month • Italian government surrenders in September, but Germany takes control of two-thirds of the country Italian Campaign • Allies take over a year to capture Rome, on Jun. 4, 1944 • War in Italy ends in the Spring of 1945
    • IV. The Eastern Front Early German Victories • Germany launches Operation Barbarossa on June 22nd, 1941 • Three-front advance to Leningrad, Moscow, and Ukraine • Called for capture of Moscow within four months • Smolensk captured in July; traditional gateway to Moscow • 900-day Siege of Leningrad begins in September • 640,000-800,000 Russians die of starvation, cold, and disease • Kiev, capital of Ukraine captured in mid-September • Jews and partisans are killed by the Nazi SS
    • Erich von Manstein • Major German strategist and general • Dismissed by Hitler in 1944 Georgi Zhukov • Fights Japanese in Eastern Russia • Appointed to defend Moscow in 1941 Vyacheslav Molotov • Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs • Signs non-aggression pact in 1939
    • The Winter of 1941 Soviet Counterattack • On Dec. 6, 1941 (one day before Pearl Harbor), Marshal Georgi Zhukov begins to drive the Germans back • Soviets gain fifty to one-hundred miles by 1942 Battle of Moscow • Germans attempt to surround Moscow beginning in October • Extreme cold freezes troops and vehicles, and grounds planes • Strong Soviet resistance beats back the Germans • Withdraws to hold defensive line
    • Operation Blue Battle of Stalingrad • Hitler sends troops to claim oil-rich regions near Stalingrad in the Spring of 1942; named Operation Blue • Sends two army groups; one into Caucasus and one toward the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) • German Sixth Army fights viciously against the Soviets to capture Stalingrad; descends into street fighting • Most of city is destroyed during the fight • Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus defies Hitler’s orders and surrenders on Jan. 31, 1943 • 850,000 Germans and 1.1 million Soviets killed
    • Friedrich Paulus • Commands Sixth Army in Operation Blue • Only German Field Marshal to surrender
    • Final German Offensive Battle of Kursk • Field Marshal Erich von Manstein leads final counterattack against the Soviets in July of 1943 • Soviets plan to destroy the majority of German Panzer divisions • Forces Germans to attack heavily reinforced area • Largest tank battle in history • Germans lose over a thousand tanks, Russia loses six-thousand • First battle in which Blitzkrieg strategy was defeated • By end of 1943, Russians regain 2/3 of the territory they had lost during Operation Barbarossa
    • V. The Pacific Theatre The Bombing of Pearl Harbor • To contain the Japanese threat, President Roosevelt imposes embargo on iron and steel to Japan • Pro-war group led by General Hideki Tojo takes power in October 1941 • Japanese aircraft bomb Pearl Harbor on December 7th, 1941 • 4 battleships sunk, 12 other ships damaged • United States declares war the following day • Germany and Italy declares war on the US on December 11th • Japan takes Hong Kong, Philippines, Guam, and Wake Island
    • Isoroku Yamamoto • "I fear all we have done is to awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve." • Led Attack on Pearl Harbor and Battle of Midway Hideki Tojo • Prime Minister of Japan during WWII • Called for attack on Pearl Harbor Franklin Delano Roosevelt • American President from 1933-1945 • Succeeded by Harry S Truman after death
    • The American Offensive The Battles of Midway and Coral Sea • Two major battles of 1942; Midway and Coral Sea • Battle of the Coral Sea, May 1942: first naval battle where ships did not directly attack each other, using carrier based planes instead • Halted Japanese threat to Australia • The Doolittle Raid: Lt. Col. James Doolittle leads bombing of Japan; pointed out that the Japanese were still vulnerable, raised morale • Battle of Midway, June 1942: most important battle in the Pacific; American victory, sinking four of six total Japanese carriers
    • Island Hopping The Pacific Campaign • Between 1942 and 1944, America carries the war closer to Japan • Islands of Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Twajelein, Saipan captured Return to the Philippines • General Douglas MacArthur leads recapture of the Philippines • Battle of Leyte Gulf; destroys last of Japanese naval power • Manila captured in February of 1945 Douglas MacArthur • Led Philippines Campaign and managed the Japanese Occupation after the war • Commanded and dismissed during the Korean War
    • VI. The End of the Second World War The War in Europe • By 1944, increased American aircraft production leads to increased bombing of German cities and factories • Allied troops in Italy slowly push their way north, while the Red Army enters the Baltic States and Poland Iwo Jima and Okinawa • Marines invade Iwo Jima in February 1945 • 7,000 Americans killed securing the island • Okinawa invaded by Army in April 1945 • Kamikazes, or suicide pilots, fly their planes into American ships
    • Operation Overlord Operation Fortitude • From 1942 to 1945, Hitler constructs the Atlantic Wall, a line of fortifications defending against attack from the English Channel • Operation Fortitude tricks Germans to expect an invasion in Pas de Calais, rather than Normandy; used double agents to deceive D-Day • 150,000 Allied troops invade Normandy on June 6th, 1944, commanded by General Dwight D. Eisenhower, fighting against 4,000 troops led by Rommel • Majority of German defenders had been diverted north • Largest amphibious landing in history
    • Dwight D. Eisenhower • American Supreme Commander for the Invasion of Europe in 1944 • Later became American President, 1953-1961
    • The Normandy Landings
    • The Western Front Advance Through France • Other Allied invasions occur in Southern France, and join the main force in liberating Paris on August 25th, 1944 • Allied troops enter the Rhineland, as the Soviets enter Warsaw The Battle of the Bulge • Allies meet final German counterattack in the Ardennes forest, December 1944, named the Battle of the Bulge • Germans push the Americans back, but they are unable to achieve a breakthrough • Soviets halt forty miles from Berlin in February 1945
    • Victory in Europe VE-Day • In March 1945, American troops capture the last remaining bridge across the Rhine, entering Germany • President Franklin Delano Roosevelt dies of a stroke on March 29th, succeeded by Harry S Truman • Soviet and American forces meet at the Elbe River on April 25th • At the end of April, German troops in Italy surrender, and Mussolini is executed on the 28th • The Red Army enters Berlin on April 19th, and Hitler commits suicide by shooting himself on April 30th • Successor Admiral Karl Doenitz surrenders on May 7th
    • Victory in the Pacific VJ-Day • The Invasion of Japan estimated to result in over a million Allied causalities, so Truman turns to the Manhattan Project • The secret Manhattan Project, founded in 1942; composed of Allied scientists researching the possibility of nuclear weapons • Americans drop two atomic bombs, one on Hiroshima (8/6), and one on Nagasaki (8/9), killing over 150,000 total • Soviets declare war on August 8th and invade Manchuria • Emperor Hirohito plans surrender on August 10th, with the condition of keeping his throne; news is announced on the 14th • Formal surrender signed on September 2nd, 1945, ending WWII
    • VII. Conferences and Notable People The Allied Conferences • Tehran Conference (1943): Stalin shows his interest in expanding the Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe, opposed by President Roosevelt • Yalta Conference (1945): Soviet agreement to enter war against Japan, in trade for North Korea and Eastern Poland; division of Germany after the war; foundation of the United Nations • Potsdam Conference (1945): Truman, Attlee, and Stalin; promotion of demilitarization and denazification in territories
    • Important People You Probably Should Know The List. •Chamberlain, Churchill, Montgomery •Hitler, Goering, Rommel, Manstein, Paulus •Stalin, Zhukov, Molotov •FDR, Truman, Eisenhower, MacArthur •Hirohito, Tojo, Yamamoto •Charles de Gaulle