<1>
2 times
every year
3 days
>450,000
 
Comic Market
Comiket
buy/sell doujinshi
media by fans
amateurs
enthusiasts
 
 
[Lilian Fourhand video]
original
original
“ rip”
“ mix”
“ burn”
[Gradius video]
 
[Airrade video]
Comiket
 
RW
culture
not only  consume
“ produced elsewhere”
actively
make
customize
<2>
2006
web service
ニコニコ動画 (Nico Nico Douga)
 
real-time comments
fly across the screen
novel interactions
<ul><li>sing along </li></ul>
<ul><li>sing along </li></ul><ul><li>cheer </li></ul>
<ul><li>sing along </li></ul><ul><li>cheer </li></ul><ul><li>boo </li></ul>
<ul><li>sing along </li></ul><ul><li>cheer </li></ul><ul><li>boo </li></ul><ul><li>survey </li></ul>
<ul><li>sing along </li></ul><ul><li>cheer </li></ul><ul><li>boo </li></ul><ul><li>survey </li></ul><ul><li>typing lessons...
content
evolve
Kumikyoku Nico Nico Douga
[Kumikyoku video]
So what?
100+ derived versions
slight modifications
crossovers
personal, artistic  touches
build upon one another
Something always  gets created
 
creativity
visible
in your face
inviting
fun
RW
culture
<3>
why?
 
meme
“ a theoretical unit of cultural information”
<ul><li>catch phrases </li></ul><ul><li>tunes </li></ul><ul><li>beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>fashions </li></ul><ul><li>techn...
<ul><li>catch phrases </li></ul>
<ul><li>catch phrases </li></ul><ul><li>tunes </li></ul>
<ul><li>catch phrases </li></ul><ul><li>tunes </li></ul><ul><li>beliefs </li></ul>
<ul><li>catch phrases </li></ul><ul><li>tunes </li></ul><ul><li>beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>fashions </li></ul>
memes ≈ genes
replicate
propagate
natural selection
extinct
survive
evolve
mutation
inheritance (crossovers)
Nico Nico Douga
a meme = a video
large complex of memes (memeplex)
evolve fast
conducive to evolution
user interface
norms
fosters
natural selection
evolution
<4>
user interface
real-time comments
 
 
 
 
easy to give impressions
want to comment
fun
see
sing along
make noise
a part of the mob
contribute
decorate
fun to upload
more feedback
see how people react
much more fun
visualization
more incentives to create
discovery of interesting videos
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
promote social causes
detract from natural selection
editors
agendas
steal spotlight
from  truly popular videos
<5>
norms
doujinshi
encourage
derivative works
evolution
easy access
source material
rapid feedback
people already want to derive
not only  the Japanese
everyone wants to derive
no doujinshi in America?
doujinshi = derivative works
no permission
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
America
lawsuits
Japan
opposite
Comiket
>30 years
increasingly commercial
 
$245M in 2007
15% of Otaku industry
anime DVDs manga video games figures
 
lack of resources
“ We don’t have enough lawyers. There just aren’t enough resources to prosecute cases like this.”
norm
legacy
live with it
manga creators
manga creators were/are doujinshi creators
restricting
strong repercussion
consumers
creators
adapted
Comiket
best opportunities to sell goods
 
“ Lucky Star no Kiwami, AAA” [Shiteyanyo]~
“ Lucky Star no Kiwami, AAA” [Shiteyanyo]~
“ Lucky Star no Kiwami, AAA” [Shiteyanyo]~
norm
held by industry
enforced loosely by consumers/creators
free to build upon
evolve
<6>
Nico Nico Douga
UI
user participation
accelerate
creativity
norm
encourage derivation
informally
protects uploaders
publishers’ control
moral of the story
foster creativity
2 things
(1) make it fun
(2) make it free
commons
(1) easy
(2) much harder
change law
reduce copyright’s scope
make doujinshi norm strong
 
do something
rights to derive
protected by the law
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The Evolution Of Creativity: Nico Nico Douga and Doujinshi Subculture in Web 2.0

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The Evolution Of Creativity: Nico Nico Douga and Doujinshi Subculture in Web 2.0

  1. <1>
  2. 2 times
  3. every year
  4. 3 days
  5. >450,000
  6.  
  7. Comic Market
  8. Comiket
  9. buy/sell doujinshi
  10. media by fans
  11. amateurs
  12. enthusiasts
  13.  
  14.  
  15. [Lilian Fourhand video]
  16. original
  17. original
  18. “ rip”
  19. “ mix”
  20. “ burn”
  21. [Gradius video]
  22.  
  23. [Airrade video]
  24. Comiket
  25.  
  26. RW
  27. culture
  28. not only consume
  29. “ produced elsewhere”
  30. actively
  31. make
  32. customize
  33. <2>
  34. 2006
  35. web service
  36. ニコニコ動画 (Nico Nico Douga)
  37.  
  38. real-time comments
  39. fly across the screen
  40. novel interactions
  41. <ul><li>sing along </li></ul>
  42. <ul><li>sing along </li></ul><ul><li>cheer </li></ul>
  43. <ul><li>sing along </li></ul><ul><li>cheer </li></ul><ul><li>boo </li></ul>
  44. <ul><li>sing along </li></ul><ul><li>cheer </li></ul><ul><li>boo </li></ul><ul><li>survey </li></ul>
  45. <ul><li>sing along </li></ul><ul><li>cheer </li></ul><ul><li>boo </li></ul><ul><li>survey </li></ul><ul><li>typing lessons </li></ul>
  46. content
  47. evolve
  48. Kumikyoku Nico Nico Douga
  49. [Kumikyoku video]
  50. So what?
  51. 100+ derived versions
  52. slight modifications
  53. crossovers
  54. personal, artistic touches
  55. build upon one another
  56. Something always gets created
  57.  
  58. creativity
  59. visible
  60. in your face
  61. inviting
  62. fun
  63. RW
  64. culture
  65. <3>
  66. why?
  67.  
  68. meme
  69. “ a theoretical unit of cultural information”
  70. <ul><li>catch phrases </li></ul><ul><li>tunes </li></ul><ul><li>beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>fashions </li></ul><ul><li>technologies </li></ul>
  71. <ul><li>catch phrases </li></ul>
  72. <ul><li>catch phrases </li></ul><ul><li>tunes </li></ul>
  73. <ul><li>catch phrases </li></ul><ul><li>tunes </li></ul><ul><li>beliefs </li></ul>
  74. <ul><li>catch phrases </li></ul><ul><li>tunes </li></ul><ul><li>beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>fashions </li></ul>
  75. memes ≈ genes
  76. replicate
  77. propagate
  78. natural selection
  79. extinct
  80. survive
  81. evolve
  82. mutation
  83. inheritance (crossovers)
  84. Nico Nico Douga
  85. a meme = a video
  86. large complex of memes (memeplex)
  87. evolve fast
  88. conducive to evolution
  89. user interface
  90. norms
  91. fosters
  92. natural selection
  93. evolution
  94. <4>
  95. user interface
  96. real-time comments
  97.  
  98.  
  99.  
  100.  
  101. easy to give impressions
  102. want to comment
  103. fun
  104. see
  105. sing along
  106. make noise
  107. a part of the mob
  108. contribute
  109. decorate
  110. fun to upload
  111. more feedback
  112. see how people react
  113. much more fun
  114. visualization
  115. more incentives to create
  116. discovery of interesting videos
  117.  
  118.  
  119.  
  120.  
  121.  
  122.  
  123.  
  124.  
  125.  
  126.  
  127.  
  128.  
  129.  
  130.  
  131.  
  132. promote social causes
  133. detract from natural selection
  134. editors
  135. agendas
  136. steal spotlight
  137. from truly popular videos
  138. <5>
  139. norms
  140. doujinshi
  141. encourage
  142. derivative works
  143. evolution
  144. easy access
  145. source material
  146. rapid feedback
  147. people already want to derive
  148. not only the Japanese
  149. everyone wants to derive
  150. no doujinshi in America?
  151. doujinshi = derivative works
  152. no permission
  153.  
  154.  
  155.  
  156.  
  157.  
  158.  
  159.  
  160.  
  161.  
  162.  
  163.  
  164.  
  165. America
  166. lawsuits
  167. Japan
  168. opposite
  169. Comiket
  170. >30 years
  171. increasingly commercial
  172.  
  173. $245M in 2007
  174. 15% of Otaku industry
  175. anime DVDs manga video games figures
  176.  
  177. lack of resources
  178. “ We don’t have enough lawyers. There just aren’t enough resources to prosecute cases like this.”
  179. norm
  180. legacy
  181. live with it
  182. manga creators
  183. manga creators were/are doujinshi creators
  184. restricting
  185. strong repercussion
  186. consumers
  187. creators
  188. adapted
  189. Comiket
  190. best opportunities to sell goods
  191.  
  192. “ Lucky Star no Kiwami, AAA” [Shiteyanyo]~
  193. “ Lucky Star no Kiwami, AAA” [Shiteyanyo]~
  194. “ Lucky Star no Kiwami, AAA” [Shiteyanyo]~
  195. norm
  196. held by industry
  197. enforced loosely by consumers/creators
  198. free to build upon
  199. evolve
  200. <6>
  201. Nico Nico Douga
  202. UI
  203. user participation
  204. accelerate
  205. creativity
  206. norm
  207. encourage derivation
  208. informally
  209. protects uploaders
  210. publishers’ control
  211. moral of the story
  212. foster creativity
  213. 2 things
  214. (1) make it fun
  215. (2) make it free
  216. commons
  217. (1) easy
  218. (2) much harder
  219. change law
  220. reduce copyright’s scope
  221. make doujinshi norm strong
  222.  
  223. do something
  224. rights to derive
  225. protected by the law

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