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Mangroves and Climate Change

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Preliminary version of my podcast section on the effects of climate change on mangrove forests.

Preliminary version of my podcast section on the effects of climate change on mangrove forests.

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  • 1. Mangrove Forests(Global Explorers Blog)
  • 2. Distribution(“Environment—Tropical Shelf Seas and Shores”)
  • 3. Ecological Services• Sediment trapping*• Land-sea buffer*• Breeding, feeding, nurseryarea for fish, oyster, crab,shrimp**• Bird nesting (herons,pelicans, spoonbills, etc.)**• Carbon sink***Aerial View (Laman)(The Mangrove Hub)*Kumara et al. 2010**NOAA***Stecker, Kumara et al. 2010
  • 4. Community(“Mangrove Forests of Australasia”) French grunt fish (“Florida Keys”)(M., Vincent)
  • 5. (Waycott et al. 2011)
  • 6. Tree Structure• Pneumatophores: aerial roots*• Lenticels: location of gas exchange (intakeof oxygen)*• Salt excluded from water by roots orexcreted from leaves*Salt Excretion(“Adaptations to salinity”)Lenticels (NHMI)Pneumatophores (“Mangrove pneumatophores”)*NHMI
  • 7. Forest Structure• 80 species*• Tolerant to 0-90 ppt salinity**• Red mangroves: 60-65 ppt**• Black/white mangroves: up to 90 ppt**(Waycott et al. 2011)*NOAA**NHMI
  • 8. Threats: From the Land• 35% loss inmangroves*• Mangrove clearing hascaused 10% ofdeforestation-basedCO₂ emissions**• Only make up 0.7% offorests***• Land used foragriculture (rice),aquaculture (shrimpponds),industrial/residentialbuilding***(ELAW)(Smithsonian)*Mumby et al. 2004**Phys.org***Stecker
  • 9. Threats: From the Sea• Sea level rising by 3 mm/year*• 70-140 cm increase in level by 2100**• Due to loss of land ice and thermal expansionof oceans(Church et al. 2008)*Church et al. 2008**Waycott et al. 2011
  • 10. Adaptability• Historically began landward migration withsea level rise rate higher than 0.7 mm/year*• May also accrete sediment (2.8 mm/year)• Adaptability depends on:*– Sediment availability for elevation building– Landward human infrastructure– Landward surface gradient– Landward natural competition*Waycott et al. 2011
  • 11. Mitigation for Climate Change• Dense plantings may:– Slow sea level risethrough sedimentaccretion*– Act as carbon sinks*– Restore lost ecosystemfunctions**– Provide for fisheries**– Safeguard otherhabitats (coral reefs)**(Reef Ball Foundation)(Trip Advisor)*Kumara et al. 2010**Mumby et al. 2004
  • 12. Bibliography“Adaptations to salinity.” <http://users.tpg.com.au/users/rwest000/mangrove/salinity.html>Bering, A. J. “Plant the Mangrove Propagules.” Trip Advisor. <http://tripwow.tripadvisor.com/slideshow-photo/plant-the-mangrove-propagules-roxas-city-philippines.html?sid=66320734&fid=upload_13268627070-tpfil02aw-25340>Church, J. A., White, N. J., Aarup, T., Wilson, W. S., Woodworth, P. L., Domingues, C. M., Hunter, J. R., and Lambeck, K.(2008). Understanding global sea levels: past, present and future. Sustainable Science 3, 9-22.“Coastal Development or Devastation.” Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (2012).<http://www.elaw.org/node/1237>“Declining mangroves shield against global warming.” Phys.org. <http://phys.org/news/2011-04-declining-mangroves-shield-global.html>“Environment—Tropical Shelf Seas and Shores—System Description.”<https://publicwiki.deltares.nl/display/BWN/Environment+-+Tropical+Shelf+Seas+and+Shores+-+System+description>“Florida Keys.” <http://www.aug.edu/~sbajmb/pictures/Best-of-FloridaKeys-2006-Web/FloridaKeys2006.htm>“Former Mangrove Forest.” Smithsonian. <http://ocean.si.edu/ocean-photos/former-mangrove-forest>Grol, M. G. G., Nagelkerken, I., Bosch, N., and Meesters, E. (2011). Preference of early juveniles of a coral reef fish fordistinct lagoonal microhabitats is not related to common measures of structural complexity. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Series432, 221-233.“Indonesia: The Mangroves.” Global Explorers Blog (2012). <http://explorers.neaq.org/2012/02/indonesia-mangroves.html>Kumara, M. P., Jayatissa, L. P., Krauss, K. W., Phillips, D. H., and Huxham, M. (2010). High mangrove density enhancessurface accretion, surface elevation change, and tree survival in coastal areas susceptible to sea-level rise. Oecologia164, 545-553.
  • 13. Bibliography (cont.)Laman, Tim. <http://timlaman.photoshelter.com/image/I00004rARLozl4c8>M., Vincent. “The Amazing Mangroves.”<http://w3.shorecrest.org/~Lisa_Peck/MarineBio/syllabus/ch11_ecosystems/ecosystem_wp/2008/vince/prod.html>“Mangrove Facts and Myths.” The Mangrove Hub. <http://whataremangroves.com/mangrove-facts-and-myths/>“Mangrove Forests.” NOAA Ocean Service Education.<http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/media/supp_estuar06b_mangrove.html>“Mangrove Forests of Australasia.”<http://www.jurgenfreund.com/stories/mangroves/content/1006407_large.html>”Mangrove pneumatophores.” <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mangrove_pneumatophores.JPG>“Morphological and Physiological Adaptations.” Newfound Harbor Marine Institute.<http://www.nhmi.org/mangroves/phy.htm>Mumby, P. J., Edwards, A. J., Arias-Gonzalez, J. E., Lindeman, K. C., Blackwell, P. G., Gall, A., Gorczynska, M. I.,Harborne, A. R., Pescod, C. L., Renken, H., Wabnitz, C. C. C., and Llewellyn, G (2004). Mangroves enhance thebiomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean. Nature 427, 533-536.“Plant Mangroves.” Reef Ball Foundation. <http://www.reefball.org/>Staats, Eric. “Push is on to restore dying mangrove forest near Marco Island.”<http://www.naplesnews.com/news/2011/jan/20/dying-mangrove-forest-marco-island-goodland-sr92/>Stecker, Tiffany. “Restoring Mangroves May Prove Cheap Way to Cool Climate.” Scientific American.<http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=restoring-mangroves-may-prove-cheap-way-to-cool-climate>Waycott, M., McKenzie, L. J., Mellors, J. E., Ellison, J. C., Sheaves, M. T., Collier, C., Schwarz, A., Webb, A.,Johnson, J. E., and Payri, C., E. (2011). Vulnerability of mangroves, seagrasses, and intertidal flats in the tropicalPacific to climate change. In Vulnerability of Tropical Pacific Fisheries and Aquaculture to Climate Change (297-368).