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Mangroves and Climate Change
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Mangroves and Climate Change


Preliminary version of my podcast section on the effects of climate change on mangrove forests.

Preliminary version of my podcast section on the effects of climate change on mangrove forests.

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  • 1. Mangrove Forests(Global Explorers Blog)
  • 2. Distribution(“Environment—Tropical Shelf Seas and Shores”)
  • 3. Ecological Services• Sediment trapping*• Land-sea buffer*• Breeding, feeding, nurseryarea for fish, oyster, crab,shrimp**• Bird nesting (herons,pelicans, spoonbills, etc.)**• Carbon sink***Aerial View (Laman)(The Mangrove Hub)*Kumara et al. 2010**NOAA***Stecker, Kumara et al. 2010
  • 4. Community(“Mangrove Forests of Australasia”) French grunt fish (“Florida Keys”)(M., Vincent)
  • 5. (Waycott et al. 2011)
  • 6. Tree Structure• Pneumatophores: aerial roots*• Lenticels: location of gas exchange (intakeof oxygen)*• Salt excluded from water by roots orexcreted from leaves*Salt Excretion(“Adaptations to salinity”)Lenticels (NHMI)Pneumatophores (“Mangrove pneumatophores”)*NHMI
  • 7. Forest Structure• 80 species*• Tolerant to 0-90 ppt salinity**• Red mangroves: 60-65 ppt**• Black/white mangroves: up to 90 ppt**(Waycott et al. 2011)*NOAA**NHMI
  • 8. Threats: From the Land• 35% loss inmangroves*• Mangrove clearing hascaused 10% ofdeforestation-basedCO₂ emissions**• Only make up 0.7% offorests***• Land used foragriculture (rice),aquaculture (shrimpponds),industrial/residentialbuilding***(ELAW)(Smithsonian)*Mumby et al. 2004*****Stecker
  • 9. Threats: From the Sea• Sea level rising by 3 mm/year*• 70-140 cm increase in level by 2100**• Due to loss of land ice and thermal expansionof oceans(Church et al. 2008)*Church et al. 2008**Waycott et al. 2011
  • 10. Adaptability• Historically began landward migration withsea level rise rate higher than 0.7 mm/year*• May also accrete sediment (2.8 mm/year)• Adaptability depends on:*– Sediment availability for elevation building– Landward human infrastructure– Landward surface gradient– Landward natural competition*Waycott et al. 2011
  • 11. Mitigation for Climate Change• Dense plantings may:– Slow sea level risethrough sedimentaccretion*– Act as carbon sinks*– Restore lost ecosystemfunctions**– Provide for fisheries**– Safeguard otherhabitats (coral reefs)**(Reef Ball Foundation)(Trip Advisor)*Kumara et al. 2010**Mumby et al. 2004
  • 12. Bibliography“Adaptations to salinity.” <>Bering, A. J. “Plant the Mangrove Propagules.” Trip Advisor. <>Church, J. A., White, N. J., Aarup, T., Wilson, W. S., Woodworth, P. L., Domingues, C. M., Hunter, J. R., and Lambeck, K.(2008). Understanding global sea levels: past, present and future. Sustainable Science 3, 9-22.“Coastal Development or Devastation.” Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (2012).<>“Declining mangroves shield against global warming.” <>“Environment—Tropical Shelf Seas and Shores—System Description.”<>“Florida Keys.” <>“Former Mangrove Forest.” Smithsonian. <>Grol, M. G. G., Nagelkerken, I., Bosch, N., and Meesters, E. (2011). Preference of early juveniles of a coral reef fish fordistinct lagoonal microhabitats is not related to common measures of structural complexity. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Series432, 221-233.“Indonesia: The Mangroves.” Global Explorers Blog (2012). <>Kumara, M. P., Jayatissa, L. P., Krauss, K. W., Phillips, D. H., and Huxham, M. (2010). High mangrove density enhancessurface accretion, surface elevation change, and tree survival in coastal areas susceptible to sea-level rise. Oecologia164, 545-553.
  • 13. Bibliography (cont.)Laman, Tim. <>M., Vincent. “The Amazing Mangroves.”<>“Mangrove Facts and Myths.” The Mangrove Hub. <>“Mangrove Forests.” NOAA Ocean Service Education.<>“Mangrove Forests of Australasia.”<>”Mangrove pneumatophores.” <>“Morphological and Physiological Adaptations.” Newfound Harbor Marine Institute.<>Mumby, P. J., Edwards, A. J., Arias-Gonzalez, J. E., Lindeman, K. C., Blackwell, P. G., Gall, A., Gorczynska, M. I.,Harborne, A. R., Pescod, C. L., Renken, H., Wabnitz, C. C. C., and Llewellyn, G (2004). Mangroves enhance thebiomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean. Nature 427, 533-536.“Plant Mangroves.” Reef Ball Foundation. <>Staats, Eric. “Push is on to restore dying mangrove forest near Marco Island.”<>Stecker, Tiffany. “Restoring Mangroves May Prove Cheap Way to Cool Climate.” Scientific American.<>Waycott, M., McKenzie, L. J., Mellors, J. E., Ellison, J. C., Sheaves, M. T., Collier, C., Schwarz, A., Webb, A.,Johnson, J. E., and Payri, C., E. (2011). Vulnerability of mangroves, seagrasses, and intertidal flats in the tropicalPacific to climate change. In Vulnerability of Tropical Pacific Fisheries and Aquaculture to Climate Change (297-368).