Mangroves and Climate Change


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Preliminary version of my podcast section on the effects of climate change on mangrove forests.

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Mangroves and Climate Change

  1. 1. Mangrove Forests(Global Explorers Blog)
  2. 2. Distribution(“Environment—Tropical Shelf Seas and Shores”)
  3. 3. Ecological Services• Sediment trapping*• Land-sea buffer*• Breeding, feeding, nurseryarea for fish, oyster, crab,shrimp**• Bird nesting (herons,pelicans, spoonbills, etc.)**• Carbon sink***Aerial View (Laman)(The Mangrove Hub)*Kumara et al. 2010**NOAA***Stecker, Kumara et al. 2010
  4. 4. Community(“Mangrove Forests of Australasia”) French grunt fish (“Florida Keys”)(M., Vincent)
  5. 5. (Waycott et al. 2011)
  6. 6. Tree Structure• Pneumatophores: aerial roots*• Lenticels: location of gas exchange (intakeof oxygen)*• Salt excluded from water by roots orexcreted from leaves*Salt Excretion(“Adaptations to salinity”)Lenticels (NHMI)Pneumatophores (“Mangrove pneumatophores”)*NHMI
  7. 7. Forest Structure• 80 species*• Tolerant to 0-90 ppt salinity**• Red mangroves: 60-65 ppt**• Black/white mangroves: up to 90 ppt**(Waycott et al. 2011)*NOAA**NHMI
  8. 8. Threats: From the Land• 35% loss inmangroves*• Mangrove clearing hascaused 10% ofdeforestation-basedCO₂ emissions**• Only make up 0.7% offorests***• Land used foragriculture (rice),aquaculture (shrimpponds),industrial/residentialbuilding***(ELAW)(Smithsonian)*Mumby et al. 2004*****Stecker
  9. 9. Threats: From the Sea• Sea level rising by 3 mm/year*• 70-140 cm increase in level by 2100**• Due to loss of land ice and thermal expansionof oceans(Church et al. 2008)*Church et al. 2008**Waycott et al. 2011
  10. 10. Adaptability• Historically began landward migration withsea level rise rate higher than 0.7 mm/year*• May also accrete sediment (2.8 mm/year)• Adaptability depends on:*– Sediment availability for elevation building– Landward human infrastructure– Landward surface gradient– Landward natural competition*Waycott et al. 2011
  11. 11. Mitigation for Climate Change• Dense plantings may:– Slow sea level risethrough sedimentaccretion*– Act as carbon sinks*– Restore lost ecosystemfunctions**– Provide for fisheries**– Safeguard otherhabitats (coral reefs)**(Reef Ball Foundation)(Trip Advisor)*Kumara et al. 2010**Mumby et al. 2004
  12. 12. Bibliography“Adaptations to salinity.” <>Bering, A. J. “Plant the Mangrove Propagules.” Trip Advisor. <>Church, J. A., White, N. J., Aarup, T., Wilson, W. S., Woodworth, P. L., Domingues, C. M., Hunter, J. R., and Lambeck, K.(2008). Understanding global sea levels: past, present and future. Sustainable Science 3, 9-22.“Coastal Development or Devastation.” Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (2012).<>“Declining mangroves shield against global warming.” <>“Environment—Tropical Shelf Seas and Shores—System Description.”<>“Florida Keys.” <>“Former Mangrove Forest.” Smithsonian. <>Grol, M. G. G., Nagelkerken, I., Bosch, N., and Meesters, E. (2011). Preference of early juveniles of a coral reef fish fordistinct lagoonal microhabitats is not related to common measures of structural complexity. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Series432, 221-233.“Indonesia: The Mangroves.” Global Explorers Blog (2012). <>Kumara, M. P., Jayatissa, L. P., Krauss, K. W., Phillips, D. H., and Huxham, M. (2010). High mangrove density enhancessurface accretion, surface elevation change, and tree survival in coastal areas susceptible to sea-level rise. Oecologia164, 545-553.
  13. 13. Bibliography (cont.)Laman, Tim. <>M., Vincent. “The Amazing Mangroves.”<>“Mangrove Facts and Myths.” The Mangrove Hub. <>“Mangrove Forests.” NOAA Ocean Service Education.<>“Mangrove Forests of Australasia.”<>”Mangrove pneumatophores.” <>“Morphological and Physiological Adaptations.” Newfound Harbor Marine Institute.<>Mumby, P. J., Edwards, A. J., Arias-Gonzalez, J. E., Lindeman, K. C., Blackwell, P. G., Gall, A., Gorczynska, M. I.,Harborne, A. R., Pescod, C. L., Renken, H., Wabnitz, C. C. C., and Llewellyn, G (2004). Mangroves enhance thebiomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean. Nature 427, 533-536.“Plant Mangroves.” Reef Ball Foundation. <>Staats, Eric. “Push is on to restore dying mangrove forest near Marco Island.”<>Stecker, Tiffany. “Restoring Mangroves May Prove Cheap Way to Cool Climate.” Scientific American.<>Waycott, M., McKenzie, L. J., Mellors, J. E., Ellison, J. C., Sheaves, M. T., Collier, C., Schwarz, A., Webb, A.,Johnson, J. E., and Payri, C., E. (2011). Vulnerability of mangroves, seagrasses, and intertidal flats in the tropicalPacific to climate change. In Vulnerability of Tropical Pacific Fisheries and Aquaculture to Climate Change (297-368).