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BIOLOGY 2401ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY       PART I     CHAPTER 6  Bones and Skeletal Tissues                               1
Skeletal Cartilages• The skeletal cartilages are surrounded by a  dense irregular connective tissue called the  perichondr...
Cartilage Locations                      3
Classification of Bones• The 206 bones of the skeleton are classified into 2 Regions:   – Axial – cranium, vertebrae, rib ...
Bone ShapesLong            Short         Flat                     Irregular                         5
Functions of Bones•   Support•   Protection•   Movement•   Mineral storage•   Blood cell formation                        ...
Long Bone Structure• Diaphysis – shaft   – Compact bone surrounded by periosteum & endosteum      • osteoblasts and osteoc...
Long Bone Structure                      8
Structure of Other Bone ShapesShort, irregular, and flat bones – Periosteum and endosteum – Dense bone on outer part – Spo...
Hematopoietic Tissues• Red bone marrow   – In adults red bone marrow is found in the spongy     bone of the femur, humerus...
Microscopic Structure of Bone:            Compact (Dense) BoneThe osteons are the structural units of dense bone (formerly...
12
Chemical Composition of Bone• 35% of bone is organic   – Osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts.   – Ground substance and co...
Types of FracturesComminuted fracture – bone breaks into 3 or more piecesCompression fracture – bone is crushedSpiral frac...
Repair of Fractures: 4 steps–   Hematoma formation – mass of clotted blood–   Callus formation – “soft callus” (cartilagin...
Homeostatic Imbalances of Bone• Osteomalacia  – Inadequate bone mineralization  – Pain with stress on bones  – Known as Ri...
Practice Questions
A condition that produces a reduction in   bone mass sufficient to compromise   normal function isB. osteopenia.C. osteopo...
A major difference between bone tissue and other   connective tissues lies in which of the following?C. The limited blood ...
How would increasing the proportion of   organic molecules to inorganic   components in the bony matrix affect the   physi...
Long bones differ from flat bones in that   long bonesB. have an outer layer of compact bone.C. have epiphyses.D. contain ...
The bones of the skeleton store energy   reserves as lipids in areas ofB. yellow marrow.C. red marrow.D. the ground substa...
The cells that maintain mature compact   bone areB. osteocytes.C. lacunae.D. osteoclasts.E. chondrocytes.F. osteoblasts.
The lacunae of bone containB. blood cells.C. osteons.D. chondroblasts.E. bone marrow.F. osteocytes.
A fracture in the shaft of a bone would occur   in theB. metaphysis.C. epiphysis.D. diaphysis.E. epiphyseal line.
Osteocytes maintain contact with the blood   vessels of the central canal throughB. periosteum.C. canaliculi.D. drainage c...
Spongy bone contains all of the following   exceptB. true osteons.C. collagen fibers.D. hydroxy apatite.E. trabeculae.
Collagen in the bone matrix provides flexible strength.  True  False
Mature bone cells are called chondrocytes.  True  False
The central canal of an osteon contains osteocytes.  True  False
The most abundant mineral in the human body is calcium.  True  False
The shaft of the long bone is called the diaphysis.  True  False
Vitamin D is necessary for the formation of  the organic framework of bone.  True  False
Osseous tissue is avascular.  True  False
A metacarpal is an example of a long bone.  True  False
Increasing the percentage of collagen in a  bone would make it become more rigid.  True  False
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2401 lecture05 ch 6 bones and bone tissue for class and web

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  1. 1. BIOLOGY 2401ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY PART I CHAPTER 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues 1
  2. 2. Skeletal Cartilages• The skeletal cartilages are surrounded by a dense irregular connective tissue called the perichondrium. – Supplies nutrients & removes wastes from cartilage through diffusion from a rich vasculature• Three types – Hyaline cartilage – Elastic cartilage – Fibrocartilage• Chondrocytes located within lacunae. 2
  3. 3. Cartilage Locations 3
  4. 4. Classification of Bones• The 206 bones of the skeleton are classified into 2 Regions: – Axial – cranium, vertebrae, rib cage – Appendicular – legs, arms, pelvis, shoulder girdle• Bones are also classified into 4 Shapes: – Long bones – all are limb bones • Humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpals, phalanges • Femur, tibia, fibula, metatarsals, phalanges – Short bones – all are limb bones, too • patella, wrist & ankle bones – Flat bones – sternum, ribs, skull and scapula – Irregular bones – pelvis & vertebrae 4
  5. 5. Bone ShapesLong Short Flat Irregular 5
  6. 6. Functions of Bones• Support• Protection• Movement• Mineral storage• Blood cell formation 6
  7. 7. Long Bone Structure• Diaphysis – shaft – Compact bone surrounded by periosteum & endosteum • osteoblasts and osteoclasts – Central medullary cavity • in adults: filled with yellow bone marrow – fat storage• Epiphyses – ends – proximal and distal – Spongy bone – Hyaline cartilage at articulations 7
  8. 8. Long Bone Structure 8
  9. 9. Structure of Other Bone ShapesShort, irregular, and flat bones – Periosteum and endosteum – Dense bone on outer part – Spongy bone in middle part 9
  10. 10. Hematopoietic Tissues• Red bone marrow – In adults red bone marrow is found in the spongy bone of the femur, humerus, sternum, and pelvic girdle (hip bone) – In infants, red bone marrow is found in all the bones. 10
  11. 11. Microscopic Structure of Bone: Compact (Dense) BoneThe osteons are the structural units of dense bone (formerly known as Haversian systems). – Columns that run parallel to long axis of the bone. – Each is ringed like a tree. • A lamella is an individual ring. • A lacuna is a space found between the lamellae. • Osteocytes are the cells that occupy the lacunae.The osteon is traversed by canals for blood vessels and nerves. Central (Haversian) canal runs down the center of the osteon Perforating (Volkman) canal runs perpendicular to the osteon Canaliculi connect the lacunae. 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. Chemical Composition of Bone• 35% of bone is organic – Osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts. – Ground substance and collagen fibers.• 65% of bone is inorganic – Calcium phosphate • Also known as Hydroxyapatites • The minerals form small crystals around the collagen fibers 13
  14. 14. Types of FracturesComminuted fracture – bone breaks into 3 or more piecesCompression fracture – bone is crushedSpiral fracture – ragged break in bone due to twistingEpiphyseal fracture – epiphysis separates from diaphysisDepressed fracture – skull fractures inwardGreenstick fracture – only one side of bone breaks; the other side bends. Common in children. 14
  15. 15. Repair of Fractures: 4 steps– Hematoma formation – mass of clotted blood– Callus formation – “soft callus” (cartilaginous) splint– Bony callus formation – “hard callus” (spongy bone)– Bone remodeling – remove spongy bone of hard callus, replace with compact bone 15
  16. 16. Homeostatic Imbalances of Bone• Osteomalacia – Inadequate bone mineralization – Pain with stress on bones – Known as Rickets in children – Due to insufficient calcium leading to inadequate mineralization in youth. – Bowed bones and improper formation. – Vitamin D deficiency• Osteoporosis – Over activity of osteoclasts. 16
  17. 17. Practice Questions
  18. 18. A condition that produces a reduction in bone mass sufficient to compromise normal function isB. osteopenia.C. osteoporosis.D. osteitis.E. osteomyelitis.F. osteomalacia.
  19. 19. A major difference between bone tissue and other connective tissues lies in which of the following?C. The limited blood supply available to bone tissueD. The inability of bone cells to metabolize nutrients for energyE. The presence of collagen fibers in boneF. The presence of elastic fibers in boneG. The composition of the intercellular substance of bone
  20. 20. How would increasing the proportion of organic molecules to inorganic components in the bony matrix affect the physical characteristics of bone?B. The bones would be stronger.C. The bones would be more brittle.D. The bones would be more flexible.E. The bone would be less flexible.F. The bones would be less compressible.
  21. 21. Long bones differ from flat bones in that long bonesB. have an outer layer of compact bone.C. have epiphyses.D. contain marrow.E. have a periosteum membrane.F. contain spongy bone.
  22. 22. The bones of the skeleton store energy reserves as lipids in areas ofB. yellow marrow.C. red marrow.D. the ground substance.E. spongy bone.F. the matrix of bone tissue.
  23. 23. The cells that maintain mature compact bone areB. osteocytes.C. lacunae.D. osteoclasts.E. chondrocytes.F. osteoblasts.
  24. 24. The lacunae of bone containB. blood cells.C. osteons.D. chondroblasts.E. bone marrow.F. osteocytes.
  25. 25. A fracture in the shaft of a bone would occur in theB. metaphysis.C. epiphysis.D. diaphysis.E. epiphyseal line.
  26. 26. Osteocytes maintain contact with the blood vessels of the central canal throughB. periosteum.C. canaliculi.D. drainage canals.E. concentric lamellae.
  27. 27. Spongy bone contains all of the following exceptB. true osteons.C. collagen fibers.D. hydroxy apatite.E. trabeculae.
  28. 28. Collagen in the bone matrix provides flexible strength. True False
  29. 29. Mature bone cells are called chondrocytes. True False
  30. 30. The central canal of an osteon contains osteocytes. True False
  31. 31. The most abundant mineral in the human body is calcium. True False
  32. 32. The shaft of the long bone is called the diaphysis. True False
  33. 33. Vitamin D is necessary for the formation of the organic framework of bone. True False
  34. 34. Osseous tissue is avascular. True False
  35. 35. A metacarpal is an example of a long bone. True False
  36. 36. Increasing the percentage of collagen in a bone would make it become more rigid. True False
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