Lecture and Power Point file of this lecture on April 29, 2009 This is not the Final Version! The Lecture is updated daily for latest information and data. Please use for teaching purposes. Lecture was translated into Arabic by Kawkab Shihani, Nesrine Abdlkarim and Khowlah Almohaini
Guillain-Barré syndrome is a disease in which the body damages its own nerve cells (outside of the brain and spinal cord), resulting in muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis. GBS can last for weeks to months. Most people eventually recover completely or nearly completely, but some people have permanent nerve damage and between 5% and 6% of people who develop GBS die. GBS affects people of both sexes and all ages, and has been reported in all races. It is thought that GBS may be triggered by an infection. The infection that most commonly precedes GBS is caused by a bacterium called Campylobacter jejuni . Other respiratory or intestinal illnesses and other triggers may also precede an episode of GBS. In 1976, vaccination with the swine flu vaccine was associated with getting GBS. Several studies have been done to evaluate if other flu vaccines since 1976 were associated with GBS. Only one of the studies showed an association. That study suggested that one person out of 1 million vaccinated persons may be at risk of GBS associated with the vaccine. SOURCE: CDC
Reference: MMWR: Prevention and Control of Influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2008.
Affects of humidity on infectivity influenza, Loosli et al, 1943
Number of confirmed cases ( N = 44) of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in a school, by date of illness onset --- New York City, April 2009
Overview of WHO’s Pandemic Alert Levels Phase 3 of the pandemic alert period is when there are human infections with a new sub-type, but there is no human-to-human spread (or at least very rare instances of spread to a close contact). At this point, the new virus subtype must be characterized rapidly to ensure early detection, notification and response of additional cases. Phase 4 may occur when there are small clusters (e.g., <25 human cases lasting <2 weeks) with limited human-to-human transmission, but spread is highly localized (which suggests the virus does not adapt well to humans). During this phase, WHO describes a variety of measures (such as targeted use of antiviral medications) aimed at containing the virus within a limited area or to delay spread to buy time to implement preparedness measures, such as vaccine development. Phase 5 may occur when there are large clusters (e.g., 25-50 cases lasting 2 to 4 weeks), but human-to-human spread is still localized. The virus may not yet be fully transmissible. At this point, it is imperative to continue efforts to contain or delay spread of the virus, to both avert a pandemic and to implement pandemic response measures. Phase 6 is when transmission to the general population has increased and is sustained, meaning there is a pandemic. All efforts to minimize the impacts of the pandemic are necessary at this time.
For additional information, please see: Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) 5th Edition Section IV Laboratory Biosafety Level Criteria (http://www.cdc.gov/OD/ohs/biosfty/bmbl5/bmbl5toc.htm)
For more information about Reye’s syndrome, visit the National Institute of Health website at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/reyes_syndrome/reyes_syndrome.htm For information on homecare visit: http://www.cdc.gov/swineflu/guidance_homecare.htm
More information can be found at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/gl_environinfection.html