Pathology ospe revised edition

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Pathology ospe revised edition

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Pathology ospe revised edition

  1. 1. abbas_naseem@yahoo.com Dated: Sep 30, 2010
  2. 2. Ascaris Lumbricoides(Round worms) – microscopically unsegmented ovum By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 2
  3. 3. Transistional Cell CarcinomafibroVascularcore Papillae structure Anilline dye -- bladder tumor By:Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 3
  4. 4. Transistional Epithelia Cell core12 layers (minimum 7 layers) By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 4
  5. 5. Chocolate agar Chocolate agar (CHOC) - is a non-selective, enriched growth medium. It is a variant of the blood agar plate. It contains red blood cells, which have been lysed by heating very slowly to 56 °C. Chocolate agar is used for growing fastidious (fussy) respiratory bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae. These bacteria need growth factors, like NAD and hematin, which are inside erythrocytes; thus, a prerequisite to growth is lysis of the red blood cells By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 5
  6. 6. Blood Agar A nutrient culture medium that is enriched with whole blood and used for the growth of certain strains of bacteria. Contains mammalian blood (usually sheep or horse), typically at a concentration of 5–10%. BAP are an enriched, differential media used to isolate fastidious organisms and detect hemolytic activity. β-hemolytic activity will show complete lysis of red blood cells surrounding colony, while α-hemolysis will only partially lyse hemoglobin and will appear green. γ-hemolysis (or non-hemolytic) is the term referring to a lack of hemolytic activity. By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 6
  7. 7. micropipette used to measure very small volumes of liquids. By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 7
  8. 8.  Elisa microtitre plate OR Elisa Kit Serological measurements, like measurment of Hepatitus B Elisa +ive PCR Quanitative Qualitative By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 8
  9. 9. Dystrophic Calcification ----- Dark basophilicQ.Give causes of dystrophic calcificationQ.Give 3 examples of dystrophic calcificationQ.Psamoma Bodies ? By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 9
  10. 10. Liquifactive Necrosis of BrainCommonest cause: Bacterial infections By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 10
  11. 11.  Salmonella shigella agar plate with H2S producing colonies Black color colonies By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 11
  12. 12. Coagulative NecrosisName two other organs? By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 12
  13. 13. Ventricular hypertrophy of heartInfarction/Necrosis By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 13
  14. 14. Entamoeba histolytica By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 14
  15. 15. Entamoeba histolytica By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 15
  16. 16. By: Abbas Naseem (BDS)abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 16
  17. 17. Well differentiation Invasive Sq.Cell CarcinomaKeratinization pearlsIntracellular bridge By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 17
  18. 18. billirubin By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 18
  19. 19.  The Lowenstein-Jensen medium, popularly known as LJ medium, is agrowth medium specially usedfor culture of Mycobacterium,notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When grown on LJ medium, M. tuberculosis appears as brown, granule-like colonies. The media must be incubated for a significant length of time, usually four weeks, due to the slow doubling time of M. tuberculosis compared with other bacteria (15-20 hours). By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 19
  20. 20. ZN StainGold standart of T.B….to confirm it Z.N stain By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 20
  21. 21. Endometrial hyperplasiaWhy its imp?Bc. Leads to adenocarcinoma By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 21
  22. 22. Why called? Fibrinoids Bc of fibre like apperance BENIGN Submucosal IntraMural SubserosalEnlist 4 other mucosal tumors?What is the malignant counterpart of this tumor? LEIMYOSARCOMA By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 22
  23. 23. MalignantIll defined mass with necrosis & haemorrhageQ.Enlist any 4 other malignant tumors? By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 23
  24. 24. Malignant tumor Biazarre cells, mitosis Q.Enlist any four features of malignant cells/ By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 24
  25. 25. DysplasiaQ. How will you grade dysplasia?Mild Q. What is carinoma in Situ?ModeratorSevere By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 25
  26. 26. Acute inflammation of Appendicitis neutrophils By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 26
  27. 27. Acute Appendicitis By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 27
  28. 28. By: Abbas Naseem (BDS)abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 28
  29. 29. AppendicitisQ. Why tip of appendicitis is important?Bc appendicitis tumor arise from there..Q. Commnest cause of appendicitis: Carcinoid Abbas Naseem (BDS) By: Tumor (neuroendocrine tumor abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 29
  30. 30. Lipoma By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 30
  31. 31. D latum – fish tapeworm – oval – operculum at one end ! By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 31
  32. 32. Widal test interpretations Dilutions are made :Serum: Water 1:20 1:40 1:80 1:160 --- positive ( +++) 1: 320 +++To check Active phase of typhoid.Q.Name two other test for typhoid?Typhi dot test By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 32
  33. 33. Goblet Cells Barret Esophagus – intestinal METAPLASIA Squamous  Columnar By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 33
  34. 34. Fat Necrosis / Dystrophic CalcificationQ. What are the blood calcium levels?normal By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 34
  35. 35. InfarctionQ.Def?Q. Red/white Infarction? By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 35
  36. 36. Exudate, Plasma Cells…Chronic Inflammatory Cells By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 36
  37. 37. Fibroblasts, newly formed blood vessels, macrophages ( GRANULATION TI Q.Difference btw GRANULOMA & GRANULATION TISSUE? By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 37
  38. 38.  Cysteine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient agar (CLED) ◦ CLED agar is used to isolate and differentiate urinary tract bacteria, since it inhibits Proteus species swarming and can differentiate between lactose fermenters and non-fermenters. By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 38
  39. 39. Fatty ChangeCommon Site: LiverCommon cause: Alcohol By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 39
  40. 40. Folded epithelium lined by benign columnar epithelial cells By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 40
  41. 41. IRONPearls prussan blue stain for iron By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 41
  42. 42. Classical malarial parasite; ring form By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 42
  43. 43. Entrobius vermicularis – typical D shaped ! ( pinworm ) By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 43
  44. 44. Ascaris lumbricoides ( giant round worm – brown with mamellations n wavy margins ) By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 44
  45. 45. Granuloma (OLD)b.c of fibrosis By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 45
  46. 46. By: Abbas Naseem (BDS)abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 46
  47. 47. Edge of nest * peripheral palisadingTumor arise from skinBasal cell Carcinoma + CNS doesn’t spread (just locally spread) By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 47
  48. 48. GranulomaLanghan giant cellsClassical epithelioid cells By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 48
  49. 49. Hemosiderin in Macrophages Hemosiderosis VS. Hemochromatosis Reversible Irreversible No Iron absorption Excess Iron Organ becomes dysfunctional By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 49
  50. 50. Anthracotic CarbonAnthracosis: Accumulation of Carbon in macrophages By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 50
  51. 51. Gall Stones Carcinoma of gall bladder Commonest carcinoma of gall bladder: adenocarcinoma By: Abbas Naseem (BDS)TIP: epithelial columnar; Tumor AdenoCarcinoma abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 51
  52. 52. Caseous Necrosis By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 52
  53. 53. MacConkey agar (MAC) A selective and differential media used to differentiate between Gram negative bacteria while inhibiting the growth of Gram positive bacteria. The addition of bile salts and crystal violet to the agar inhibits the growth of most Gram positive bacteria, making MacConkey agar selective. Lactose and neutral red are added to differentiate the lactose fermenters, which form pink colonies, from lactose nonfermenters that form clear colonies. By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 53
  54. 54. Atrophy Mechanism; Ubiquitin-Proteasome pathway By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 54
  55. 55. Lipoma; No backgroundQ. What is the counterpart of this: LIPOSARCOMA By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 55
  56. 56. Hook worm ( ankylostoma duodenale ) – transparent egg shell– oval – blastomere ! By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 56
  57. 57. AdenoCarcinoma …Wall-Sharing By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 57
  58. 58. LeomyomaNo necrosisNo mitosis By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 58
  59. 59. Trichuris trichura – whipworm – barrel shaped – brown – mucusplugs at ends – segmented ovum ! By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 59
  60. 60. Lines of Zahn By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 60
  61. 61. Benign Lipoma By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 61
  62. 62. LipoSarcoma By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 62
  63. 63. By: Abbas Naseem (BDS)abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 63
  64. 64. Sensitivity plate By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 64
  65. 65. Councilmen Bodies: Spcial apoptotic bodies Liver hepatitusFoldings of sq.epiSquamous Papilloma (benign)Common site: skin, oral By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 65
  66. 66. Renal InfarctionWedge Shaped By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 66
  67. 67. GangreneWhat is Gangrenous Necrosis?Diabetesimmunocompromised By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 67
  68. 68.  Sabouraud agar is used to culture fungi and has a low pH that inhibits the growth of most bacteria; also contains the antibiotic gentamicin to specifically inhibit the growth of Gram-negative bacteria. By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 68
  69. 69. Triple Sugar Iron STAIN By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 69
  70. 70. Triple Sugar Iron medium Triple Sugar Iron medium is a differential medium that can distinguish between a number of Gram-negative enteric bacteria based on their physiological ability (or lack thereof) to: a. metabolize lactose and/or sucrose b. conduct fermentation to produce acid c. produce gas during fermentation d. generate H2S. By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 70
  71. 71. Triple Sugar Iron medium The medium contains 1.0% each of sucrose and lactose and 0.1% glucose. If only glucose is fermented, acid produced in the butt will turn it yellow, but insufficient acid products are formed to affect the methyl red in the slant. However, if either sucrose or lactose are fermented, sufficient fermentation products will be formed to turn both the butt and the slant yellow. If gas is formed during the fermentation, it will show in the butt either as bubbles or as cracking of the agar. If no fermentation occurs (as for an obligate aerobe), the slant and butt will remain red. By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 71
  72. 72. ANAEROBIC JAR By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 72
  73. 73. G. +ive Cocci By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 73
  74. 74. Atrophy Brain By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 74
  75. 75. Caseous Necrosis By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 75
  76. 76. BPH- Benign ProstaticHyperplasia By: Abbas Naseem (BDS) abbas_naseem@yahoo.com 76
  77. 77. LIKE MYPRESENTATION?For Comments &Suggestions:abbas_naseem@yahoo.com Abbas Naseem Dated: Sep 30, 2010

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