CHAPTER 3Stress &HealthPsychology
Lecture Overview• Understanding Stress• Stress & Illness• Health Psychology in Action• Health & Stress Management
Understanding Stress     • What is stress?     – Nonspecific response of the       body to any demand made       on it;   ...
Understanding Stress:  Sources of Stress
Understanding Stress:Sources of Stress (Continued)              • Life Changes:                life events that           ...
Understanding Stress:    Sources of Stress (Continued)• Cataclysmic Events:  stressors that occur  suddenly &  generally a...
Understanding Stress:Sources of Stress (Continued)              • Chronic Stress:                state of ongoing         ...
Understanding Stress:Sources of Stress (Continued)               • Job Stress: work                 related stress,       ...
Understanding Stress:       Sources of Stress (Continued)•   Job Stress    – Burnout = state of      psychological &      ...
Understanding Stress:    Sources of Stress (Continued)•   Hassles:    small,    everyday    problems that    accumulate to...
Pause & Reflect:         Psychology& Life
Understanding Stress:Sources of Stress (Continued)   Frustration:     unpleasant   tension resulting from a   blocked goal...
Understanding Stress:    Sources of Stress (Continued) Three Types of Conflict   • Approach-Approach: forced choice betwe...
Pause &          Reflect:             Assessment    Assuming this man is    attracted to one of    these women, is he    ...
Understanding Stress:             Effects of Stress• SAM System (Sympatho-  Adreno-Medullary): initial, fast-  acting stre...
Understanding Stress: Effects of Stress  SAM  System                        HPA Axis
The General Adaptation   Syndrome (GAS)
Understanding Stress:Effects of Stress (Continued)            • Psychoneuro-              immunology:              interdi...
Stress & Illness                          PosttraumaticCancer:         related   Stress Disorderto genetic                ...
The Immune System in Action
• Type A Personality:  behavior characteristics  that include intense  ambition, competition,  exaggerated time urgency,  ...
• Hardiness:  resilient type of  optimism that  comes from three  distinctive  attitudes—  commitment,  control, &  challe...
• Posttraumatic Stress  Disorder (PTSD):  anxiety disorder  following exposure to a  life-threatening or other  extreme ev...
Stress & Illness: PTSD (Continued)
Stress & Illness: PTSD (Continued)
Pause & Reflect:                    Critical           Thinking• Why do so many people believe  gastric ulcers, painful le...
Pause &         Reflect:1. Briefly Assessment three stage           describe Selye’s   General Adaptation Syndrome   (GAS)...
Health Psychology in Action• Health  Psychology:  studies how  biological,              Biological  psychological, &  soci...
Health Psychology in Action•   Major Health Risks:     1. Tobacco     2. Alcohol & Binge        Drinking     3. Chronic Pa...
Health Psychology in Action:Tobacco•  Why do people start smoking?1. Peer pressure & imitation of role models   (particula...
Pause & Reflect:                     Critical            Thinking• How have anti-  smoking laws  unintentionally  made it ...
Pause & Reflect:                    Psychology           & Life• Smokers often overestimate  their risk of dying from  hom...
Health Psychology in Action:               Alcohol•  Why does the American Medical Association   consider alcohol to be th...
• Binge Drinking:  occurs when a  man consumes  five or more  drinks, or a  woman  consumes four  or more drinks in  about...
Health Psychology in Action:           Chronic Pain•  How do health   psychologists treat   chronic pain?1. Behavior   mod...
Health & Stress Management•   Two initial steps in coping    with stress: Primary Appraisal    & then Secondary Appraisal•...
Health & StressManagement—  Cognitive Appraisal &   Coping
Pause & Reflect:                    Critical           Thinking• Is this an  example of  emotion- or  problem-  focused  c...
Health & Stress Management       •    Resources for Healthy Living       1.   Health & Exercise       2.   Positive Belief...
Pause & Reflect:                 Critical        Thinking• Considering these eight resources for  health & stress manageme...
End of CHAPTER 3Stress &Stress &HealthHealthPsychologyPsychology
Ch03
Ch03
Ch03
Ch03
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Ch03

235

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
235
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ch03

  1. 1. CHAPTER 3Stress &HealthPsychology
  2. 2. Lecture Overview• Understanding Stress• Stress & Illness• Health Psychology in Action• Health & Stress Management
  3. 3. Understanding Stress • What is stress? – Nonspecific response of the body to any demand made on it; – physical & mental arousal to situations or events that we perceive as threatening or challenging
  4. 4. Understanding Stress: Sources of Stress
  5. 5. Understanding Stress:Sources of Stress (Continued) • Life Changes: life events that require some adjustment in behavior or lifestyle
  6. 6. Understanding Stress: Sources of Stress (Continued)• Cataclysmic Events: stressors that occur suddenly & generally affect many people simultaneously
  7. 7. Understanding Stress:Sources of Stress (Continued) • Chronic Stress: state of ongoing arousal in which the parasympathetic system cannot activate the relaxation response
  8. 8. Understanding Stress:Sources of Stress (Continued) • Job Stress: work related stress, including unemployment, keeping or changing jobs, job performance, etc.
  9. 9. Understanding Stress: Sources of Stress (Continued)• Job Stress – Burnout = state of psychological & physical exhaustion resulting from chronic exposure to high levels of stress & little personal control
  10. 10. Understanding Stress: Sources of Stress (Continued)• Hassles: small, everyday problems that accumulate to become a major source of stress
  11. 11. Pause & Reflect: Psychology& Life
  12. 12. Understanding Stress:Sources of Stress (Continued) Frustration: unpleasant tension resulting from a blocked goal Conflict: forced choice between two or more incompatible goals or impulses
  13. 13. Understanding Stress: Sources of Stress (Continued) Three Types of Conflict • Approach-Approach: forced choice between two or more desirable alternatives • Avoidance-Avoidance: forced choice between two or more undesirable alternatives • Approach-Avoidance: forced choice between two or more alternatives both having desirable & undesirable results
  14. 14. Pause & Reflect: Assessment Assuming this man is attracted to one of these women, is he experiencing an approach-approach, approach-avoidance, or avoidance-avoidance conflict?
  15. 15. Understanding Stress: Effects of Stress• SAM System (Sympatho- Adreno-Medullary): initial, fast- acting stress response• HPA Axis (Hypothalamic- Pituitary-Adrenocortical): Body’s delayed stress response, which helps restore body’s homeostasis. If extended may lead to impairment of the immune system & increased vulnerability to disease
  16. 16. Understanding Stress: Effects of Stress SAM System HPA Axis
  17. 17. The General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
  18. 18. Understanding Stress:Effects of Stress (Continued) • Psychoneuro- immunology: interdisciplinary field that studies the effects of psychological & other factors on the immune system
  19. 19. Stress & Illness PosttraumaticCancer: related Stress Disorderto genetic (PTSD): anxietypredisposition & disorder followingenvironmental extraordinaryfactors stressCardiovascular Gastric Ulcers:Disorders: related to caused bystress hormones, bacteria orpersonality types, & stress? Or both?certain behaviors
  20. 20. The Immune System in Action
  21. 21. • Type A Personality: behavior characteristics that include intense ambition, competition, exaggerated time urgency, & a cynical, hostile outlook• Type B Personality: behavior characteristics consistent with a calm, patient, relaxed attitude
  22. 22. • Hardiness: resilient type of optimism that comes from three distinctive attitudes— commitment, control, & challenge
  23. 23. • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): anxiety disorder following exposure to a life-threatening or other extreme event that evoked great horror or helplessness; characterized by flashbacks, nightmares, & impaired functioning.
  24. 24. Stress & Illness: PTSD (Continued)
  25. 25. Stress & Illness: PTSD (Continued)
  26. 26. Pause & Reflect: Critical Thinking• Why do so many people believe gastric ulcers, painful lesions to the lining of the stomach & upper part of the small intestine, are caused by stress?
  27. 27. Pause & Reflect:1. Briefly Assessment three stage describe Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS).2. _____ is an anxiety disorder following extraordinary stress.
  28. 28. Health Psychology in Action• Health Psychology: studies how biological, Biological psychological, & social factors affect health & Social Psychological illness (the biopsychosocial model)
  29. 29. Health Psychology in Action• Major Health Risks: 1. Tobacco 2. Alcohol & Binge Drinking 3. Chronic Pain (lasting over 6 months)
  30. 30. Health Psychology in Action:Tobacco• Why do people start smoking?1. Peer pressure & imitation of role models (particularly important for young people)2. Nicotine is addictive3. Smokers learn to associate smoking with pleasant things (e.g., good food, friends, etc.), as well as with the “high” that nicotine gives them
  31. 31. Pause & Reflect: Critical Thinking• How have anti- smoking laws unintentionally made it more difficult to quit?
  32. 32. Pause & Reflect: Psychology & Life• Smokers often overestimate their risk of dying from homicide & traffic accidents, while greatly underestimating their risk from smoking. Studying Chapter 3 helps overcome these faulty beliefs.
  33. 33. Health Psychology in Action: Alcohol• Why does the American Medical Association consider alcohol to be the most dangerous & physically damaging of all drugs?1. After tobacco, it’s the leading cause of premature death in America & most European countries.2. It may cause serious brain damage.3. It appears to increase aggression.
  34. 34. • Binge Drinking: occurs when a man consumes five or more drinks, or a woman consumes four or more drinks in about two hours.
  35. 35. Health Psychology in Action: Chronic Pain• How do health psychologists treat chronic pain?1. Behavior modification2. Biofeedback3. Relaxation techniques
  36. 36. Health & Stress Management• Two initial steps in coping with stress: Primary Appraisal & then Secondary Appraisal• Two choices after secondary appraisal: 1. Emotion-Focused (managing one’s emotional reaction to a stressful situation) 2. Problem-Focused (dealing directly with a stressor to decrease or eliminate it)
  37. 37. Health & StressManagement— Cognitive Appraisal & Coping
  38. 38. Pause & Reflect: Critical Thinking• Is this an example of emotion- or problem- focused coping?
  39. 39. Health & Stress Management • Resources for Healthy Living 1. Health & Exercise 2. Positive Beliefs 3. Social Skills 4. Social Support 5. Material Resources 6. Control (Internal Locus of Control) 7. Relaxation 8. Sense of Humor
  40. 40. Pause & Reflect: Critical Thinking• Considering these eight resources for health & stress management, which resource do you most often use? Which one do you use least often? Why?
  41. 41. End of CHAPTER 3Stress &Stress &HealthHealthPsychologyPsychology
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×