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  • 1. CHAPTER 2Neuroscience& BiologicalFoundations
  • 2. Lecture Overview• Our Genetic Inheritance• Neural Bases of Behavior• Nervous System Organization• A Tour Through the Brain
  • 3. Our Genetic Inheritance• Behavioral Genetics: study of the relative effects of heredity & environment on behavior & mental processes
  • 4. Our Genetic Inheritance • Evolutionary Psychology: studies how natural selection & adaptation help explain behavior & mental processes
  • 5. Our Genetic Inheritance • Neuroscience: scientific study of the biology of behavior & mental processes
  • 6. Our Genetic Inheritance: Genes & DNA • The nucleus of every cell contains genes, which carry the code for hereditary transmission. These genes are arranged along chromosomes (strands of paired DNA).
  • 7. Our Genetic Inheritance• Malnourished children may not reach their full genetic potential, which demonstrates how environmental factors interact with genetic factors.
  • 8. Pause & Reflect: Critical Thinking• Given that height has one of the highest heritability estimates (around 90%), what other factors might help explain the height differences in this mother & daughter?
  • 9. Neural Bases of Psychology • Our nervous system consists of neurons (cells responsible for receiving & conducting electrical impulses from the brain).
  • 10. Neural Bases of Psychology: The Structure of a Neuron
  • 11. Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication• Within a neuron, communication results from an action potential (a neural impulse that carries information along the axon of a neuron).
  • 12. Neural Bases of Psychology:Neural Communication (Continued)• Between neurons, communication occurs through transmission of neural information across a synapse by neurotransmitters (chemicals released by neurons that alter activity in other neurons).
  • 13. Neural Bases of Psychology:Neural Communication (Continued)• Receiving neurons receive multiple messages from other neurons. These multiple messages then determine if an action potential occurs or not.
  • 14. Neural Bases of Psychology:Neural Communication (Continued)• Note how the axon terminals of sending neurons almost completely cover the cell body of the receiving neuron.
  • 15. Pause & Reflect: Assessment• What happens to excess neurotransmitters or to those that do not “fit” into the adjacent receptor sites? (Answer appears on the next slide.)
  • 16. Pause & Reflect:• The sending Assessment neuron normally reabsorbs the excess neurotransmitters (called “reuptake) or they are broken down by special enzymes.
  • 17. Neural Bases of Psychology• Key neurotransmitters:• Serotonin• Acetylcholine (ACh)• Dopamine (DA)• Norepinephrine (NE)• Epinephrine (adrenaline)• GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid)• Endorphins
  • 18. Neural Bases of Psychology• Endocrine System: collection of glands that manufacture & secrete hormones into the bloodstream
  • 19. Neural Bases of Psychology• Hormones: chemicals manufactured by endocrine glands & circulated in the bloodstream to produce bodily changes or to maintain normal bodily function.
  • 20. Why Do We Need Two CommunicationSystems--Neurotransmitters + Hormones?
  • 21. Pause & Reflect: Assessment1. _____ receive information from other neurons. The _____ carries the neuron’s messages to other body cells.2. How does neural communication within neurons differ from communication between neurons?
  • 22. Nervous System Organization • Central Nervous System (CNS): brain & spinal cord • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): all nerves & neurons connecting CNS to the rest of the body – PNS is subdivided into the somatic & autonomic nervous systems – Autonomic nervous system subdivided into sympathetic & parasympathetic nervous systems
  • 23. Central Nervous System: Important Terms• Neuroplasticity: brain’s lifelong ability to reorganize & change its structure & function throughout the life span• Neurogenesis: division & differentiation of nonneuronal cells to produce neurons• Stem Cells: precursor (immature) cells with the potential to develop into almost any type of cell
  • 24. Pause & Reflect: Critical Thinking• Understanding neurogenesis, neuroplasticity, & stem cells helps make us better informed consumers of scientific research & more knowledgeable participants in political debates. Can you explain why?
  • 25. Nervous System Organization: Central Nervous System (CNS)• Brain• Spinal Cord: transmits information into & out of the brain
  • 26. Nervous System Organization:Central Nervous System (CNS) • The spinal cord is also responsible for involuntary, automatic behaviors called reflexes.
  • 27. Nervous System Organization: Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)• PNS connects CNS to the rest of the body; subdivided into: – Somatic Nervous System (SNS): connects sensory receptors & controls skeletal muscles – Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): controls involuntary bodily functions; subdivided into: »Sympathetic Nervous System (arouses) »Parasympathetic Nervous System (calms)
  • 28. Nervous System Organization Anatomy & functions of the sympathetic (arouses)& parasympathetic (calms) nervous systems
  • 29. Pause & Reflect:1. You touch a hot stove & then Assessment pull away. This immediately & reflexively action was controlled by _____.2. After being startled by the sight & sound of a fierce dog rushing toward you, it is most likely that your _____ is dominant.
  • 30. A Tour Through the Brain• Lower-level brain structures: – Hindbrain – Midbrain – Parts of the Forebrain
  • 31. A Tour Through The Brain: Hindbrain• Key structures & functions of the hindbrain: – Medulla: life survival functions – Pons: respiration, movement, waking, sleeping, & dreaming – Cerebellum: coordination of fine muscle movement, balance, & some aspects of perception & cognition
  • 32. A Tour Through The Brain (Continued)• Midbrain: collection of brain structures in the middle of the brain; coordinates movement patterns, sleep, & arousal• Reticular Formation: runs through the hindbrain, midbrain, & brainstem; filters incoming information & controls arousal
  • 33. A Tour Through The Brain (Continued)• Forebrain: collection of upper-level brain structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, & cerebral cortex – Thalamus: relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex – Hypothalamus: responsible for drives, hormones, & regulating the body’s internal environment
  • 34. A Tour Through The Brain (Continued)• Limbic System: interconnected group of forebrain structures involved with emotions, drives, & memory
  • 35. Structures of the Forebrain
  • 36. Pause & Reflect:1. What are the three key structures of the Assessment hindbrain?2. The _____ includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, & limbic system.
  • 37. Pause & Reflect:Assessment
  • 38. A Tour Through The Brain: Cerebral Cortex• Cerebral Cortex: thin surface layer on the left & right cerebral hemispheres; regulates most complex behavior, including sensations, motor control, & higher mental processes
  • 39. A Tour Through The Brain:Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
  • 40. A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex•Frontal Lobes: receive &coordinate messagesfrom other lobes;responsible for motorcontrol, speechproduction, & higherfunctions, such asthinking, personality,emotion, & memory
  • 41. Pause & Reflect: Critical Thinking• Do you recall from Chapter 1 Phineas Gage’ s mining accident, which sent a 13- pound tamping iron through his frontal lobes? How did this affect his short- & long- term behavior & mental processes?
  • 42. A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Cont.)• Parietal Lobes: located at thetop of the brain directly behindthe frontal lobes; responsible forinterpreting bodily sensations• Temporal Lobes: located oneach side of the brain above theears; responsible for audition,language comprehension,memory, & some emotionalcontrol
  • 43. A Tour Through The Brain:Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Cont.) • Occipital Lobes: located at the back of the brain; responsible for vision & visual perception
  • 44. A Tour Through The Brain:Motor Cortex & Somatosensory Cortex
  • 45. Pause & Reflect: Critical Thinking• Why are the hands & face on this drawing so large? What do they represent?
  • 46. A Tour Through The Brain: Split-Brain Research• Severing thecorpus callosum,for medicalreasons, alsoprovidesinformation onthe role &functions of theleft & righthemispheres.
  • 47. A Tour Through The Brain: Split-Brain Research
  • 48. A Tour Through The Brain: Lateralization• The left & righthemispheresspecialize inparticular (but oftenoverlapping)operations.
  • 49. Pause & Reflect:1. What are the major functions of the four Assessment lobes of the brain?2. The _____ hemisphere is primarily responsible for language, & it controls the right side of the body.
  • 50. End of CHAPTER 2Neuroscience& BiologicalFoundations