Zoonosis, its types and food borne zoonosis

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Zoonosis, its types and food borne zoonosis

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Zoonosis, its types and food borne zoonosis

  1. 1. Zoonosis Muhammad Aamir Farooq
  2. 2. DEFINITIONS • ZOO-NOSON • Concepts • DDX=Differential definition LOLx • Anthroponosis/reverse zoonosis • Xenozoonosis • Epizootic and epidemic • Endemic
  3. 3. Etiological classification • VIRAL ZOONOSIS: avian influenza ,BSE • PARASITIC ZOONOSIS: - Protozoal infections :toxoplasmosis, sarcocystiosis , Worms:trematode(F. and C), Nematodes(trichinella), cestodes(taeniosis). • MYCOTIC ZOONOSIS: ringworm • BACTERIAL ZOONOSIS
  4. 4. Bacterial cont.. • high incidence rate • Campylobacter • Salmonella • Yersinia • Verotoxigenic • Escherichia coli and • Others Brucella,Tubercullosis
  5. 5. Cont.. • highest severity • Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum and Mycobacterium spp. • 3 main high risk harzards • Y. enterocolitica, S. enterica and Campylobacter spp
  6. 6. People at risk • Vets • Abattoir workers • Poultry workers • Livestock workers • consumers Type of contacts • Direct and indirect
  7. 7. • LINK between farms and abattoirs
  8. 8. Types • Direct • Indirect • Vector borne
  9. 9. Direct Transmission • Direct Contact by bite or scratch. • Direct contact by handling of animal. • Direct infection by ingestion of animal product.
  10. 10. Indirect Transmission • Ingestion in contaminated water and food • Indirect infection by contaminated fluids such as feces, milk. • Indirect infection by the contaminated soil or water.
  11. 11. Vector borne Transmission • Mosquito-borne infection • Tick borne infection • Fleas • Flies • Lice
  12. 12. Foodborne outbreaks 1996 - 2006 ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ Cryptosporidiosis, Leptospirosis, Lyme borreliosis ● Brucellosis, E. coli 0157, Salmonellosis  BSE ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ●  ● ● ●         Reference: WHO
  13. 13. Foodborne bacteria • Salmonella (multidrug resistant strain) • Campylobacter jejuni • E. coli O157:H7 • S. aureus MRSA • Yersinia enterocolitica • Bacillus anthracis • Clostridium (C.) perfringens • C. botulinum
  14. 14. SALMONELLA • Commonly found in all reptile species • – Human infections from poultry, cattle, sheep and pigs • – 5 million cases of food poisoning every year • –In humans, symptoms develop within 6-72 hours • Diarrhea, fever, cramping, bloating, vomiting • Symptoms last about a week
  15. 15. Campylobacter • Campylobacter coli & Campylobacter fetus • Present in milk, meat of beef animal • Also present in eggs of poultry. • Undercooked food is the problem • Incubation period 1-10 days • Fever, Gastroenteritis, abdominal pain, cramps, diarrhea, vomiting • Can last up to 10 days • Complications; septicemia, arthritis.
  16. 16. Campylobacter jejuni
  17. 17. E. coli • most strains are harmless and live in the intestines of healthy humans and animals. • this strain produces a powerful toxin and can cause severe illness. • It was first recognized as a cause of illness in 1982 during an outbreak of severe bloody diarrhea; the outbreak was traced to contaminated hamburgers. • eating undercooked ground beef. • Meat can become contaminated during slaughter, and organisms can be thoroughly mixed into beef when itis ground. Bacteria present on the cow's udders or on equipment may get into raw milk.
  18. 18. Cont………… • 0157:H7 strain is basically responsible • Complication may be ‘Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome’
  19. 19. Staph. Areus • Multiplies in cooked meat • Produce Toxins • Gastroentritis • Incubation period 3-4 days • Heat Resistant toxins • Symptoms disappear in 24 hrs
  20. 20. Yersinia spp. • Acute painful Gastroenteritis, mesenteric adenitis, arthritis, acute appendicitis. • Fish and Poultry • Fecal oral transmission • Incubation period 2-6 days. • Ingestion of contaminated meat.
  21. 21. Anthrax • 95% in human are cutaneous anthrax infection cases • Incubation period 1-5 days • Small, pruritic non-painful papules, septicimia • 20% mortality
  22. 22. Gastrointestinal Anthrax • Also called ingestion anthrax • 100 % fatal • Hemorrhagic ascites, abdominal pain • Transmitted by ingestion of contaminated meat.
  23. 23. C. perfringens • Spores affect meat • Toxins are produced. • Incubation period 8-24 hrs • Fever, gastroenteritis
  24. 24. C. botulinum • Saprophytic, can’t produce disease. • Heat resistant toxins are produced • Sever constipation, neurological signs, paralysis, muscular weakness. • Undercooked food. • 10 μg toxin can kill an adult person
  25. 25. Antibiotic resistance • It’s a global concern of the antibiotic resistance of major foodborne pathogens such as; Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 Campylobacter spp. Listeria monocytogenes E. coli O157:H7 Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Enterococcus (VRE)
  26. 26. Giardiasis • Protozoan disease • Cattle, buffalo, Horse, Pig • Transmission by ingestion • Incubation period 3 days- 6 weeks • Nausea, headache, anorexia, fever, diarrhea, constipation, weight loss.
  27. 27. Echinoccosis (E.) • Herbivores are intermediate hosts. • Human may be intermediate or final host. • Signs intermediate host:  Cysts in liver, enlarged liver, abdominal pain, fever, anemia, jaundice. • Signs in final host:  Weakness, anorexia, enlarged abdomen, may be death.
  28. 28. Avian Influenza • H5N1 highly pathogenic strain of this virus. • poultry • Raw and undercooked poultry and poultry products. • In human fever, sour throat, cough, muscle aches, eye infection, and pneumonia.
  29. 29. Newcastle Disease • Avian paramyxovirus-1 • Birds • Ingestion of contaminated meat. • Conjunctivitis, mild flu.
  30. 30. Hantavirus • Black creek canal virus • Deer • Transmission by ingestion of contaminated meat. • Incubation period 1-5 weeks • Fever, fatigue, muscle pain, headache, vomiting, severe respiratory problems and possibly death.
  31. 31. Farm to table; main contamination points
  32. 32. Control of Foodborne Disease • From farm to table approach • Implementation of HACCP
  33. 33. Public Health Approach • Epidemiology for earlier diagnosis • Early response to outbreaks • Provide to disease patterns changing • Public health lab. support for rapid and accurate diagnosis • Rapid communication links • Communication to public • Education on prevention and/or detection

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