HHazardazard AAnalysis &nalysis &CCriticalritical CControlontrolPPointointDr. Vikram GuptaAssistant Professor,Department of Community Medicine,Dayanand Medical College & Hospital,Ludhianadr_vikramgupta@yahoo.co.in
HACCP ? H = Hazard A = Analysis C = Critical C = Control P = Point
HACCPHACCP::A systematicA systematicapproach to theapproach to theidentification,identification,evaluation, andevaluation, andcontrol of foodcontrol of foodsafety hazards.safety hazards.DefinitionsDefinitions
DefinitionsDefinitionsHHazardazard AAnalysisnalysis::The process ofThe process ofcollecting andcollecting andevaluating informationevaluating informationon hazards associatedon hazards associatedwith the food underwith the food underconsideration toconsideration todecide which aredecide which aresignificant and mustsignificant and mustbe addressed in thebe addressed in theHACCP plan.HACCP plan.
CCriticalritical CControlontrolPPoint:oint:A step at whichA step at whichcontrol can becontrol can beapplied and isapplied and isessential to preventessential to preventor eliminate a foodor eliminate a foodsafety hazard orsafety hazard orreduce it to anreduce it to anacceptable level.acceptable level.DefinitionsDefinitions
HACCP It is a systematic preventive approach to foodsafety and pharmaceutical safety thataddresses physical, chemical,and biological hazards as a means ofprevention rather than finished productinspection. HACCP is used in the food industry to identifypotential food safety hazards, so that keyactions, known as Critical ControlPoints (CCPs) can be taken to reduce oreliminate the risk of the hazards being realized.
Method Development1.Sampling for Pathogenicmicroorganisms.2. The Zero Defect Concept3. Modes of Failure
33 PrinciplesPrinciples1. Identification andassessment ofhazards associatedfrom growing toconsumption2. Determinationof the criticalcontrol pointsto control anyidentifiedhazards3.Establishmendof systems tomonitor thecritical controlpoints19711971
19721972 Outbreak of botulismOutbreak of botulism!!!!!!Canned Potato Soup BotulismFDA promoted regulation of canned foodsFDA inspectors were trained for HACCP
19881988:: 4th volume “HACCP in FoodSafety and Quality”19891989: HACCP Principles for FoodProduction1991:1991:Guidelines for the Applicationof the HACCP System19921992 : “Hazard Analysis andCritical Control Point
Feb,1995Feb,1995“There is wide agreementthat ensuring food safety requirestaking steps throughout thecontinuum of production, slaughter,processing, distribution, and saleof livestock and poultry carcassesand meat and poultry products toprevent hazards and reduce the riskof food-borne illness.
HACCP Its introduction signaled a shift in emphasisfrom end product testing to preventive controlat all stages of food production.
NEED For HACCP The establishment of the WTO paved the way for severalmultilateral agreements on trade which includeagreements on the Application of Sanitary andPhytosanitary (SPS) measures and on Technical Barriers toTrade (TBT). These agreements encouraged countries to adoptinternational standards. Within the context of the TBT agreement, the CodexAlimentarius Commission (165 member countries) hasbeen recognized as an international standardizing body. It has recommended a Hazard Analysis Critical ControlPoint (HACCP) based approach as a means to enhancefood safety
Assemble theHACCP TeamPreliminary Steps:Preliminary Steps:Developing aHACCP Plan
Assemble theHACCP TeamPreliminaryPreliminarySteps:Steps:Developing aHACCP PlanDescribe the Food
Assemble theHACCP TeamPreliminaryPreliminarySteps:Steps:Developing aHACCP PlanDescribe the FoodDescribe the Food and itsDistribution
Assemble theHACCP TeamPreliminaryPreliminarySteps:Steps:Developing aHACCP PlanDescribe the FoodDescribe the Food and itsDistributionDescribe the Intended Use andConsumers of the Food
Assemble theHACCP TeamPreliminaryPreliminarySteps:Steps:Developing aHACCP PlanDescribe the FoodDescribe the Food and itsDistributionDescribe the Intended Use andConsumers of the FoodDevelop a Flow Diagram WhichDescribes the Process
Verify the Flow DiagramDeveloping aHACCP PlanPreliminaryPreliminarySteps:Steps:
5.Establishcorrectiveaction to betaken whenmonitoring showsthat a criticallimit has beenexceeded.
5.Establishcorrective action tobe taken whenmonitoring showsthat a criticallimit has beenexceeded.6.Written HACCPPlan
5.Establishcorrective action tobe taken whenmonitoring showsthat a criticallimit has beenexceeded.6.Written HACCPPlan7.Establishprocedures toverify that theHACCP plan isworking.
5.Establishcorrective action tobe taken whenmonitoring showsthat a criticallimit has beenexceeded.6.Written HACCPPlan7.Establishprocedures to verifythat the HACCP planis working.1.Conduct ahazardanalysisIdentifyhazards2.Determine thecriticalcontrolpoints(CCP) inthe foodpreparation.3.Establishcriticallimits forpreventivemeasures.4.Establishprocedures tomonitor CCP’s
ValidationWho validates the HACCP plan? HACCP team Individual qualified by training or experienceWhat does validation involve? A scientific and technical review of therationale behind each part of the HACCPplan from hazard analysis through each CCPverification strategy
Validation Frequency Initially When factors warrant, e.g., Changes in raw materials Changes in product or process Adverse review findings Recurring deviations New information on hazards or control measures On-line observations New distribution or consumer handling practices
Examples of ValidationActivities: Cooked hamburgers Collect data to establish that critical limits formaximum patty thickness, maximum belt speed, andminimum oven temperature will ensure that theinternal temperature of every patty reaches theminimum requirement
Verification of CCPs Calibration Calibration record review Targeted sampling and testing CCP record review
Examples of CalibrationActivities A MIG thermometer used to monitor temperature ata cook CCP may be checked for accuracy bycomparing it against a certified thermometer in ahot-water bath The continuous temperature chart recorder on apasteurizer may be compared during each batchagainst a certified accurate thermometer A pH meter is calibrated against pH buffer standardsof 7.0 and 4.0 when it is used to test products with afinal pH of 3.8 to 4.2
HACCP System VerificationFrequencyAnnuallyOccurrence of a system failure orsignificant change in product or process
HACCP Plan Form:Verification1.CCP2.Hazard3.CriticalLimitsWhat How Frequency WhoMonitoring4. 5. 6. 9.Verification8.CorrectiveAction(s)10.Records7.
The HACCP Approach The idea is to develop a plan that anticipates andidentifies places in the production process –known ascritical control points (CCP’s) where contaminants mightbe introduced or other food safety concerns can beidentified When critical limits are exceeded, corrective action mustbe taken and documented An independent third party should be used to verify orvalidate the effectiveness of a HACCP plan
Why Implement a Food SafetyProgram using HACCP Principles? To ensure that the food served to children is as safe aspossible
HACCP is a food safety system that helpsidentify foods and procedures that are mostlikely to cause foodborne illness
Consequences of a foodborneoutbreak… Medical/legal claims Lost wages Cleaning and sanitizing costs Food loss-costs associated Bad publicity Embarrassment-loss of reputation Child Nutrition Program closes = hungry children
Food passes through the temperature danger zone onlyonce before it is served….. (Cooking or Cooling)
Food passes through the danger zone more thanone time…..
Application of HACCP methodologyto pharmaceuticals The present guidelines are aimed at assisting industry todevelop and implement effective HACCP plans coveringactivities such as research and development, sourcing ofmaterials, manufacturing, packaging, testing anddistribution. In the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, these may includethe manufacture of certain antibiotics, hormones,cytotoxic substances or other highly activepharmaceuticals, together with operations such asfluidbed drying, granulation is an example of hazardunit operations.The use of inflammable solvents(solutions) and certain laboratory operations may alsoconstitute hazards.
HACCP Study- weaning foods Hazard analysis and critical control points of weaningfoods Mini Sheth, Jigisha Patel, Shikha Sharma and Subadra Seshadri in Indian J of Paediatrics. Hazards and critical control points were identified duringthe preparation, feeding and storage of weaning foods fedto the children (6–24 months) belonging to low incomegroup (LIG) families using survey methods, spot andindepth observations and microbial analysis. High microbial counts were obtained for the weaningfood samples procured from the families that were ratedas poor for both personal hygiene and environmentalsanitation
Food samples that were held at ambient temperature(25–35°C) showed high counts of coliforms, yeastand Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Spice mixtures and mop samples also revealed highcounts for all these organisms. The hazards and critical control points identifiedwere high initial contamination of raw foods, poorenvironmental sanitation and personal hygiene,feeding of overmight moist foods stored at ambienttemperature and insufficient steaming of these foods.
HACCP Training in India 3 -5 day training Course fee is around Rs 10,000 Mumbai,Thiruvananthapuram
The major reported microbial hazards frommushrooms are Clostridium, Salmonella, Bacillus andColiforms. The food handlers who grade the fresh mushroomswere carrying Coliforms and were introducing theColiforms into fresh mushrooms. Critical Control Point for fresh mushrooms had beenidentified as the food handler’s personal hygiene andthey were informed about the importance ofpersonal hygiene.
In khoa it was the airtight packaging that wasresponsible for microbial proliferation while the foodhandlers were responsible in introducing Coliforms inmushroom and paneer. Simple and economical solutions like muslin clothpacking for khoa and thorough hand washing by foodhandlers before touching the paneer or mushroomshad totally eliminated the problem of microbialcontamination.
HACCP application (USA) Fish and fishery products Fresh-cut produces Juice and nectary products Food outlets Meat and poultry products School food and services
Food Regulation in India and HACCP In India, quality control with regard to food products isbeing enforced through various regulatory mechanismslike the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (PFA), Agriculture Grading and Marketing (AGMARK), Fruit Products Order (FPO), etc. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has recently launcheda HACCP certification programme for the food industry. The Mother Dairy of Delhi and the Punjab CooperativeMilk Federation have received HACCP certificates. The Agriculture and Processed Food ExportDevelopment Agency (APEDA) has helped mangoprocessing units in Andhra Pradesh in HACCP.
HCCP Application to AnimalProduction“ The voluntary application ofHACCP principles can be usefulin establishing the CCPs withinthe farm management and liveanimal transportation arenaswhere pathogenic organisms canenter the food chain”----USDA/FSIS