How the America’s Changed David Robarge History 141
The America’s in the 19 th Century <ul><li>Important Themes </li></ul><ul><li>A New Life: many Chinese settlers were excited by the discovery of gold in America and the high probability of prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity: The Immigration of Asian immigrants to America made The United States an increasingly diverse country, which sparked conflicts between Chinese and American workers </li></ul><ul><li>Civil War: differing directions of the South and North in the United States resulted in a Civil War that changed the country as well as well as devastated it </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion: All lands between the Appalachian mountains and the Mississippi river were owned by the US after its independence of Britain, giving a huge territory to expand towards; in 1803 the US made the Louisiana purchase from Napoleon, which doubled the United State’s land. Many Americans believed in Manifest Destiny, which was the belief that the newly acquired lands should be colonized, and that expansion should continue until the Pacific Ocean was reached </li></ul>
The America’s in the 19 th Century <ul><li>Important Themes </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts with Natives: The Westbound settlers in the US were met with resistance from the tribes in the West. Sioux, Comanche, and Apache were a few of the tribes they met, and they were armed with guns and knowledge of their environment. In 1876 General Custer and his a army were defeated by natives defending their homeland. </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmentation of Powers: In Latin America, Simon Bolivar is known as the liberator of the area but could not enforce long lasting unity. Many independent states rose up with their own governments. The Mexican Revolution (1911-1920) was a bloody conflict that fought for reform, and in 1917 an Amendment was made to constitution of Mexico which implemented workers rights and land distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful Independence: Canada achieved independence from Britain without a conflict or civil war. The two major ethnic groups of French Canadians and British Canadians banded together to form a country of independently governed provinces. </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery: Slavery was a major issue that splintered North and South in the United States. Americans debated over whether Slavery could be adopted in new Western Territories. Eventually Slavery was legally abolished after the Civil War (1861-1865). </li></ul>
The Little Ice Age <ul><li>Important Themes </li></ul><ul><li>Famine: In Northern Europe, massive famines struck the populace killing millions. Rains washed away farmland and severely long winters slashed crop feasibility and production </li></ul><ul><li>Triumphs and Defeats against Nature: George Washington struck the blow that gave America independence by conquering an extremely icy Delaware River in 1776. Napoleon fared worse; in 1812 almost all of his Russian Invasion force is destroyed by harsh winter. </li></ul><ul><li>Unpredictable weather conditions: The Little Ice Age (Approximately 1550 to 1850) was a period of extremes; extremely long winters plagued Europe while huge amounts of rainfall turned farmland into worthless bog </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in Diet: Northern Europeans gradually changed their wheat based cereal crops to potato crops, which grew underground so they could resist extreme weather. Vineyards suffered during this period and as a result Beer grew in popularity because it was made from surviving grain crops. </li></ul>
Frontiers of America <ul><li>Important Themes </li></ul><ul><li>Good Business: In exchange for 15 millions dollars (or about 220 million in todays money) America doubled its size via the Louisiana purchase in 1803. France sold the territory to America so Napoleon could continue his war against the British. The resulting land proved very useful for America and dissuaded a US armed conflict to attack to capture Louisiana. </li></ul><ul><li>Independence: Haitian slaves revolted against French rule using guerilla tactics and superior knowledge of their surroundings in the Haitian Revolution (1791-1804). The result of the revolt was the establishment of an independent Haiti Republic and an abolishment of slavery there. </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery of the unknown: Prince Maximilian of Wied explored the American West along with Swiss artist Karl Bodmer. His explorations as and diary writings as well as Bodmer’s paintings documented the western frontier. </li></ul>
Frontiers of America <ul><li>Important Themes </li></ul><ul><li>Violence and Revolution: On the South American Frontier, the Spanish and Portuguese face wars (1763 - 1801), civil wars occurred between Uruguay and Rio Grande Do Sol (1835-52), and several Brazilian and Uruguayan revolutions between 1870 and 1923. </li></ul><ul><li>Pride and Honor: many South Americans possessed a strong sense of honor, and an insult to their honor could provoke violence. Over half of the criminal cases in Uruguay in 1867, for example, were murder. </li></ul><ul><li>Family style politics: In Brazil in the 1800s, the way families worked reflected the politics of the country. Men were expected to be protectors of the family and the honor of the women in the household; Men were the primary figures in politics. This structure of Men at the top and women and children at the bottom was broken by notable women in Brazil, such as Carlota Lucia de Brito, who was an important political figure. </li></ul>
Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>Important Events, People, and Places </li></ul><ul><li>A Defensive War: the Southern states controlled 775, 000 square miles, and to win they had to defend what they had and destroy Northern will to fight </li></ul><ul><li>In 186, Ulysses S. Grant captured Paducah and Smithland in Kentucky, which was a key location because there the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers led to the Ohio river and an entry Southern territory. </li></ul><ul><li>The Union captured a powerful token in the war when they took control of Nashville, an iron producing and wealthy city. </li></ul><ul><li>A famous quote of Ulysses S Grant, aimed towards the defenders of Fort Henry : “ No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted. I propose to move immediately upon your works.” </li></ul><ul><li>The South was not regarded as a legitimate power in the press; however if they had it might have aided them greatly as they could have gained foreign trade deals and military aid. </li></ul>
Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>Important Events, People, and Places </li></ul><ul><li>In 1861, Robert E. Lee was appointed the replacement of General Joseph Johnston. He was not initially popular and was criticized for evacuating river areas because of the Union naval advantage. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Seven Days Battle of 1862, Union commander McClellan mistakes a force of 25,000 for a larger force, when in fact he outnumber the Confederates with his force of 70,000. He retreated and the Confederates acquired a strategic victory. The Union had a loss of moral after this event. </li></ul><ul><li>The press was a powerful source of raising and lowering moral; after McClellan’s defeat in the Seven Days war papers ridiculed the government for not aiding McClellan against the reported force of 200,000 confederates. </li></ul><ul><li>After further Confederate victories in Shenandoah Valley, many in Britain and France believed that the North could not gain victory over the South. </li></ul>
Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>Important Events, People, and Places </li></ul><ul><li>The cotton famine of the time affected British and French manufacturing and caused unemployment. Union forces attempted to regain a steady cotton trade with Europe but Confederates burned any cotton the Union planned on using. </li></ul><ul><li>The suffering cotton trade made France and Britain anxious for peace among the North and South, however a settlement would mean that the Confederates would be independent. </li></ul><ul><li>In July 1862 British Prime Minister Palmerston gave a speech rejecting intervention with the American struggle, citing a chance of backfire </li></ul><ul><li>Many Slaves were drafted into the confederate army. Thousands of slaves performed duties such as cooking and servant jobs. Many slaves escaped to Union camps, where they could be given freedom; escaped slaves began being classified as “contrabands of war”. In 1861, Congress passed an act that allowed slaves to seized that were aiding in rebellion. </li></ul>
Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>Important Events, People, and Places </li></ul><ul><li>In January 1 st , 1863, Abraham Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation, which threated the South with the freedom of their slaves if they did not return to the Union. </li></ul><ul><li>The Battle of Antietam is the bloodiest battle fought in a day in America, killing 23,000. Union General McClellan attacked an invading army of Robert E. Lee in Maryland on Northern soil. Lee’s forced was not destroyed, however, due to tactical flaws by McClellan. As a result of the Battle, Lincoln issues his proclamation to dissuade foreign support for the South. </li></ul><ul><li>The combined impact of the failed invasion by the Confederates and the Emancipation Proclamation made the South’s chances for foreign aid more difficult. The Battle of Antietam marked the “Beginning of the End”. </li></ul>
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