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Gezgin, U. B. (2010). Environmental psychology, urban planning and economics: Intersections, crossroads & tangents. (Paper to be presented at ACP 2011: the Asian Conference on Psychology and the ...

Gezgin, U. B. (2010). Environmental psychology, urban planning and economics: Intersections, crossroads & tangents. (Paper to be presented at ACP 2011: the Asian Conference on Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences 2011. 20-22 March 2011, Osaka, Japan.) Gezgin, U. B. (2011). Environmental psychology, urban planning and economics: Intersections, crossroads & tangents. (Paper prepared for ACP 2011: the Asian Conference on Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences 2011. 20-22 March 2011, Osaka, Japan.) Full text published in ACP Conference Proceedings, pp.50-67, ISSN: 2186-615X. http://www.iafor.org/ACP_Proceedings_2011.pdf

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    Acp 2011 osaka_environ_psy_dr_gezgin Acp 2011 osaka_environ_psy_dr_gezgin Presentation Transcript

    • Environmental Psychology, Urban Planning and Economics: Intersections, Crossroads & Tangents Dr. Ulas Basar Gezgin Economics lecturer E-mail: ulasbasar@gmail.com
    • • Gezgin, U. B. (2010). Environmental psychology, urban planning and economics: Intersections, crossroads & tangents. (Paper to be presented at ACP 2011: the Asian Conference on Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences 2011. 20-22 March 2011, Osaka, Japan.) Gezgin, U. B. (2011). Environmental psychology, urban planning and economics: Intersections, crossroads & tangents. (Paper prepared for ACP 2011: the Asian Conference on Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences 2011. 20-22 March 2011, Osaka, Japan.) Full text published in ACP Conference Proceedings, pp.50-67, ISSN: 2186-615X. http://www.iafor.org/ACP_Proceedings_2011.pdf7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 2
    • Contents• 1. Introduction• 2. The Possible Contributions by Environmental Psychology to Urban Planning• 2.1. Research on Place Identity and Place Attachment• 2.2. Research on Environmental Attitudes• 2.3. Research on Green Attitudes vs. Behavior• 2.4. Research on Eco-Practices• 2.5. Research Relevant to Disaster Planning• 2.6. Research Relevant to Elderly-Friendly Cities• 2.7. Research Relevant to Child-Friendly Cities• 2.8. Research on Urban Crime• 3. Suggestions for Collaboration of Environmental Psychologists and Urban Planners• 4. The Possible Links Between Environmental Psychology, Urban Planning and Economic Geography• 5. Conclusion and Recommendations7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 3
    • Abstract• Compared to urban planning and economics, environmental psychology is a relatively recent area. The young discipline focuses on topics such as psychological effects of urban policies; place attachment and place identity; perceptions of city image and urban design; pro-environmental behavior, transportation choices, urban navigation and commuting issues; urban noise, recycling behavior, energy-related behaviors, green identities; and perceptions, attitudes and information on green issues such climate change, global warming, sustainability, conservation, biodiversity, and mitigation measures.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 4
    • Abstract• On the other hand, economics is involved in urban issues through the areas of urban economics and economic geography which ask questions such as why some cities and districts economically develop more than their counterparts, and how to plan the cities in a way to maximize the economic performance including quality of life. Thirdly, urban planners, professionals that are almost as old as the emergence of cities in human history continue to plan cities mostly without the feedback and input from relevant areas such as environmental psychology, urban economics and economic geography. There are some intersections, crossroads and tangents across these areas. The influence of participatory approaches is growing in urban planning profession although at a slow rate; and the knowledge of both environmental psychology and urban economics are needed in the grassroots democratization of urban planning.• In this context, this paper focuses on the more-or-less uncharted division of labor across the disciplines at issue, and makes suggestions for better collaboration options.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 5
    • 1. Introduction• The term ‘environmental’ in ‘environmental psychology’ has two distinct meanings:• 1) How human beings interact with their environment in a spatial/cognitive sense. (Eg sense of direction and wayfinding efficiency.)• 2) Affect, behavior and cognition about environmental and urban features and problems.• Another line of research which can sometimes be considered under the former and some other times under the other; based on the topic (Eg perceptions of architectural structures and elements;• the uses and psychological meaning of living room at home;• the evaluations of house façades on the basis of preference, complexity and impressiveness;• residential satisfaction of students.• This paper focuses on environmental psychology in the sense of affect, behavior and cognition about environmental and urban features and problems.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 6
    • 2. The Possible Contributions by Environmental Psychology to Urban Planning• Place identity and place attachment;• Environmental attitudes;• Green attitudes vs. behavior;• Eco-practices;• Disaster planning;• Elderly-friendly cities;• Child-friendly cities;• Urban crime etc.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 7
    • 2.1. Research on Place Identity and Place Attachment• Felonneau (2004):• ‘Urbanophilia’ and ‘urbanophobia’• “The degree of attraction towards or rejection of the city”;• The former underestimate urban incivilities and holds a strong urban identity,• while the latter overestimates them and holds a weak urban identity.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 8
    • 2.1. Research on Place Identity and Place Attachment• Hidalgo & Hernandez (2001) compare attachment to house, neighborhood and city physically and socially, and find that the weakest one is attachment to neighborhood.• Mannarini et al (2006): The relationship between image of neighborhood and sense of community.• Lewicka (2010): “The overall best direct predictor of place attachment was neighborhood ties, followed by direct and indirect effects of length of residence, building size, and type of housing” (p.35)• “Attachments to smaller (apartments, homes) and larger (city) scales of place along with their unique predictors deserve more attention from environmental psychologists” (p.35).7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 9
    • 2.1. Research on Place Identity and Place Attachment• A framework of place attachment in 3 dimensions• (person-process-place):• “The person dimension of place attachment refers to its individually or collectively determined meanings.• The psychological dimension includes the affective, cognitive, and behavioral components of attachment.• The place dimension emphasizes the place characteristics of attachment, including spatial level, specificity, and the prominence of social or physical elements”• (Scannell & Gifford, 2010, p.1).• This framework may be useful for urban planning professionals, as the popularity of urban projects partially depends on the ways the residents attach to the place.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 10
    • 2.2. Research on Environmental Attitudes• Karpiak & Baril (2008): The relationship between Kohlberg’s moral reasoning model and environmental attitudes among college students.• Developmental level of moral reasoning is associated positively with• ecocentrism (defined as “belief in the intrinsic importance of nature” (p.203)),• and negatively with environmental apathy;• while no relationship was observed for anthropocentrism (defined as “belief that nature is important because it is central to human wellbeing” (p.203)).7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 11
    • 2.2. Research on Environmental Attitudes• Boeve-de Pauw, Donche & Van Petegem (in press): The link between adolescents’ environmental worldview and personality• Personality does not predict environmental worldview which can be explained by the fact that adolescence is the formative period for personality.• Egocentrism and ecocentrism are considered to be opposites by Belgian adolescents.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 12
    • 2.2. Research on Environmental Attitudes• Kortenkamp & Moore (2001):• Ecocentrism: The belief that “nature deserves moral consideration because nature has intrinsic value” (p.261))• Anthropocentrism: The belief that “nature deserves moral consideration because how nature is treated affects humans” (p.261)),• and moral reasoning about ecological dilemmas;• The conditions under which ecocentric and anthropocentric reasoning could be elicited, such as the presence of information about the damage to the nature.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 13
    • 2.2. Research on Environmental Attitudes• Lima & Castro (2005):• ‘Environmental hyperopia effect’:• “Concern for local environmental issues was more attenuated than for global ones, risk perception of local sources of pollution was perceived as lower than distant threats, and global sources of information about the environment were considered more trustworthy than local ones” (p.23).• Lai et al (2003): “Hazards were appraised to be more threatening in the global than the local context” (p.369).• Uzzell (2000): “Environmental problems are perceived to be more serious the farther away from the perceiver” (p.307), and this is associated with feelings of powerlessness.• Hatfield & Job (2001): “Optimism bias regarding environmental degradation may inhibit pro-environmental behaviour” (p.17).• These studies are important for promotion of green campaigns at city level.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 14
    • 2.3. Research on Green Attitudes vs. Behavior• Pichert & Katsikopoulos (2008): The discrepancy between attitudes and behaviors in the case of using green electricity vs. ‘grey’ electricity.• Implications for energy planning in the cities.• Ohtomo & Hirose (2007): The attitudes towards recycling and recycling behavior (situational and attitudinal factors).• Thogersen (2004): Consistencies and inconsistencies in ‘environmentally responsible behavior’,• Thogersen (2006): Norms associated with environmentally responsible behaviors such as• ‘buying organic milk’,• ‘buying energy saving light bulbs’,• ‘source-separating compostable kitchen waste’ and• ‘using public transportation for work and shopping’• Thogersen (2006): People apply different norms for different behaviors, suggesting inconsistencies across different situations.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 15
    • 2.3. Research on Green Attitudes vs. Behavior• Thogersen & Olander (2003): Transfer of ‘environment-friendly consumer behavior’ from one domain to another is not common;• Whitmarsh (2009): A gap between prescriptions of the policy-makers and actions taken by the public (responses to climate change).• Bamberg (2003): Specific cognitions relevant to environment should be studied rather than generic variables such as ‘environmental concern’, as the generic variables can’t explain and predict specific behavioral patterns.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 16
    • 2.4. Research on Eco-Practices• Clayton (2007): Motivations for gardening such as appreciation for nature, social concerns and uses etc,• Kiesling & Manning (2010): Environmental identity predicts ecological gardening practices.• This finding is important, since ecological practices are necessary for sustainable cities. To promote ecological practices, environmental identity should be addressed by urban planners. Planning professionals can collaborate with environmental psychologists to build green identities in both senses; psychological building at individual/household level, as well as material building (construction) at community and city level.• Mixed results about the relationship between ‘green identity’ and ‘green behavior’ (Whitmarsh & O’Neill, 2010) which indicate that more research is necessary on this link to support urban planning policies from a psychological point of view.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 17
    • 2.4. Research on Eco-Practices• Mannetti, Pierro & Livi (2004): Recycling behavior• Personal identity in general, and “the similarity between personal identity and “identity of typical recyclers”” in particular is associated with the recycling behavior.• This finding can be used in green campaigns.• Knussen et al (2004): The effect of past behavior of recycling, perceived habit and perceived lack of facilities on intentions to recycle household waste,• Swami et al (in press): Personality variables involving 3R behaviours (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) in household waste management.• Castro et al (2009): Psychological variables involving recycling behavior.• Devine-Wright & Howes (2010): A case study about the attitudes towards wind farm projects with regard to the concept of NIMBY (‘Not In My Back Yard’).• This research is quite valuable for alternative energy projects in cities.• White & Gatersleben (in press): The preferences for and perceptions of ‘building- integrated vegetation’ such as green roofs and façades.• The results can be useful for urban planners and other planning professionals to promote urban agriculture/horticulture models as a way to ease urban heat island effect.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 18
    • 2.5. Research Relevant to Disaster Planning• The psychological factors associated with disaster preparedness.• Climate change and disaster planning.• Sundblad, Biel & Garling (2007): Risk judgments concerning climate change.• Nilsson, von Borgstede & Biel (2004): The effect of values and norms on “willingness to accept climate change strategies”.• Miceli, Sotgiu & Settani (2008): interviewed residents of an alpine valley in Italy about disaster preparedness and perception of flood risk.• Caia, Ventimiglia & Maass (2010): Psychological well-being of earthquake survivors and their attitudes towards post-earthquake temporary housing type (dacha vs. container).• This is useful for post-disaster planning.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 19
    • 2.6. Research Relevant to Elderly-Friendly Cities• Borst et al (2009): The street features that affect walking route choices of the elderly based on GIS.• Borst et al (2008): The street features that attract elderly walkers such as trees along the route, bus and tram stops, passing through parks or the city centre, traffic volume etc.• Foster, Giles-Corti & Knuiman (in press): The factors that make neighborhoods attractive for pedestrians, summarized in the concept of ‘walkable streetscapes’.• Lord, Despres & Ramadier (in press): The relationship between built environment and the reduced daily mobility of the elderly by a qualitative and longitudinal design.• Oswald et al (2006): developed a “four-domain model of perceived housing in very old age” which covers “housing satisfaction, usability in the home, meaning of home, and housing- related control beliefs” based on a sample of 1223 octogenarians living alone.• These studies are especially useful for planning cities in rapidly ageing countries such as Europe and Japan. As the proportion of urban elderly is increasing, more public participation by the elderly is important for a higher quality of life for residents and for resident satisfaction. Environmental psychology can fill this gap by offering its findings, methodology and services for urban planners which plan elderly-friendly cities.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 20
    • 2.7. Research Relevant to Child-Friendly Cities• The papers that stand at the intersection of environmental psychology and child-friendly urban planning are promising.• Kytta (2004): Children’s independent mobility and child-friendly environments.• Rissotto & Tonucci (2002): Elementary school children’s representation of home-school itinerary and different modes of travel (alone, with an adult, on foot, by car etc).• Francis & Lorenzo (2002) discuss various approaches to children’s participation in urban planning.• Sutton & Kemp (2002) present design charrette method which is defined as “an intensive, hands-on workshop which designers and citizens collaborate to solve a community design problem” (s.171).• Horelli & Kaaja (2002) discuss the opportunities opened up by internet-assisted urban planning tools for children’s participation to urban planning.• Chawla & Heft (2002) discuss how to evaluate the level of participation of children and adolescents.• Morgan (2010) is another contribution to child-friendly cities debate, as it proposes a model that explains how place attachment develops from childhood onwards. These and related studies can be elaborated to provide inputs to child-friendly city models in urban planning.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 21
    • 2.8. Research on Urban Crime• Ceccato (2005): Homicide patterns in Sao Paulo• Peak times of homicide are when the people have free times (vacations, evenings and weekends).• This finding has implications in crime prevention and activity planning as part of urban planning whereby the residents can be introduced to leisure activities such as sports in their free times.• Brown, Perkins & Brown (2004): The block and individual effects on incivilities, place attachment and crime which identify the properties of neighborhoods associated with crime.• These papers differ from research on crime in different areas such as social psychology, sociology etc by the fact that their focus is exclusively spatial. The research in other areas is not necessarily spatial. This is one of the distinguishing features of the studies relevant to urban planning.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 22
    • 3. Suggestions for Collaboration ofEnvironmental Psychologists and Urban Planners• Robin, Matheau-Police & Couty (2007) develop a scale of perceived environmental annoyances in urban settings which can be used as a screening tool by planning professionals at city and district levels.• The statistical analysis revealed 7 principal dimensions:• “Feelings of insecurity,• inconveniences associated with using public transport,• environmental annoyances and concerns for global ecology,• lack of control over time related to using cars,• incivilities associated with the sharing of public spaces between different users,• lack of efficiency resulting from the density of the population, and• an insecure and run-down living environment” (p.55).• Gatersleben et al (2007) study expectations for and perceptions on a new underground line in 5 areas in London. It is useful, as it gives clues about bottom-up views on the project.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 23
    • Differences Between Urban Pre-Implementation Research vs. Relevant Psychological Research Urban Pre-Implementation Research Relevant Psychological Research Mainly qualitative Mostly quantitative Spatial (involves maps) Rarely spatial Data-driven Theory-driven Practical Theoretical Descriptive and prescriptive Descriptive Knowledge is the by-product. Knowledge is the main product. Process is important. Results are important. Not experimental. Sometimes experimental.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 24
    • Intersection of Environmental Psychology and Public Participation• Unlike the clear-cut distinctions above, there are some intersecting studies:• Wells (2005): Investigates ‘low-income women’s participatory housing experiences’ in partnership with self- help housing organization, and the sense of ‘self confidence, optimism, and determination’ etc, based on a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies.• Lima (2004): investigates risk perception and mental health of residents living near a waste incinerator plant.• Although this line of intersecting research is promising, it is still rare.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 25
    • Neglected Lines of Research in Environmental Psychology• The psychology of intentional communities (planned communities).• Kirby (2003) which is a case study on the ecovillage at Ithaca (USA) is a valuable exception.• The variables associated with environmental activism.• McFarlane & Boxall (2003) is an exception.• Considering the sustainability and the debate against oil-dependent cities, more research is necessary on urban transportation choices. Although they have no such agenda,• Evans & Wener (2007) study some of the factors that affect passenger satisfaction in urban trains; and• Antonson et al (2009) investigate the effects of landscape type (open, forested, and varied) on driving behavior by a driving simulator, and discuss the implications of the findings for traffic safety.• Such studies should adopt sustainable transport frameworks to collaborate with urban planners; albeit that they still have implications for urban transportation planning (and train design in the case of Evans & Wener (2007)) even without the greening of their research agenda.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 26
    • What Can Environmental Psychologists Do for Collaboration with Urban Planners?• EPs need to reframe their studies to collaborate with planning professionals, as some of EP research are parochial and inward-looking.• The brilliant models and findings are of no use if they can’t be utilized to raise urban quality of life.• As a limitation of this paper, we can state that this paper can’t be comprehensive enough to cover all or most of the EP research relevant to urban planning in such a limited space. However, it may still be stated that it provides an overview of the relevant research and makes suggestions for collaboration that may be useful for both professions.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 27
    • 4. The Possible Links Between Environmental Psychology, Urban Planning and Economic Geography• Mackinnon & Cumbers (2007) present 4 approaches in economic geography:• Traditional approach,• Spatial analysis approach,• Political economy approach, and• Institutional/cultural approach.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 28
    • The Traditional Approach• Based on the philosophy of empiricism, classical German geography, anthropology and biology.• Conceives economy as “*c+losely integrated with the natural resources and culture of the areas” (Mackinnon & Cumbers, 2007, p.23).• Its geographical orientation is “*c+ommercial geography stressed global trading system” and “regional geography highlighting unique places (regions)”• Its geographical focus is “colonial territories, distinctive regions, mainly in Europe and North America, often rural and geographically marginal” (Mackinnon & Cumbers, 2007, p.23).• Its key research topics are “*e+ffects of the natural environment on production and trade; identifying distinctive regional economies”• Its research methods are “*d+irect observation and fieldwork” (Mackinnon & Cumbers, 2007, p.23).7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 29
    • The Spatial Analysis Approach• Based on the philosophy of positivism and neoclassical economics.• Conceives economy as “*d+riven by rational choices of individual actors” (Mackinnon & Cumbers, 2007, p.23).• Its geographical orientation is “*w+ider forms of spatial organization”• Its geographical focus is “*u+rban regions in North America, Britain and Germany” (Mackinnon & Cumbers, 2007, p.23).• Its key research topics are “*i+ndustrial location; urban settlement systems; spatial diffusion of technologies; and land use patterns”,• Its research methods are “*q+uantitative analysis based on survey results and secondary data” (Mackinnon & Cumbers, 2007, p.23).7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 30
    • The Political Economy Approach• Based on the philosophy of dialectical materialism, Marxist economics, sociology and history.• Conceives economy as “*s+tructured by social relations of production, *d+riven by search for profit and competition” (Mackinnon & Cumbers, 2007, p.23).• Its geographical orientation is “*w+ider processes of capitalist development; and *p+laces as passive ‘victims’ of these wider processes”• Its geographical focus is “*m+ajor cities in industrial regions in Europe and North America; and [c]ities and regions in developing countries, especially Latin America ” (Mackinnon & Cumbers, 2007, p.23).• Its key research topics are “*u+rbanization processes; industrial restructuring in developed countries; global inequalities and underdevelopment”• Its research methods are “*r+einterpretation of secondary data according to Marxist categories; and *i+nterviews” (Mackinnon & Cumbers, 2007, p.23).7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 31
    • The Institutional/Cultural Approach• Based on the philosophy of postmodernism and institutionalism, cultural studies, institutional economics, and economic sociology.• Builds its understanding on the “*i+mportance of social context” and on the assertion that “*i+nformal conventions and norms shape economic action” (Mackinnon & Cumbers, 2007, p.23).• Its geographical orientation is based on an “*e+mphasis on individual places in context of globalization”• Its geographical focus is “*g+rowth regions in developed countries; *g+lobal financial centres; and *k+ey sites of consumption” (Mackinnon & Cumbers, 2007, p.23).• Its key research topics are “*s+ocial and institutional foundations of economic development; consumption; work identities; financial services; and corporate cultures”• Its research methods are “*i+nterviews, focus groups, textual analysis, ethnography, and participant observation”• (Mackinnon & Cumbers, 2007, p.23).7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 32
    • Rooms for EPs especially in the 3rd and 4th Approaches• EP can study the psychological variables concerning profit and competition motives of companies.• Can be narrowed down to greening of these companies, and the motivations of green companies in the areas of green production, green supply chains, pollution mitigation, gardening materials etc.• The possible clash of green companies in case of profit maximization vs. ecocentrism.• How urbanization and suburbanization and accompanying problems such as densification vs. sprawl, formal vs. informal housing etc can affect mental health and related psychological variables.• The psychological effects of industrial restructuring, whereby industrial labor in high-income countries are losing their jobs, as industries are moving to cheap labor paradises such as China and Vietnam.• Can be widened to cover psychological problems of workers in ‘cheap labor paradises’ (or ‘cheap labor hells’ depending on your position in relations of production).• The psychological effects of global inequalities and underdevelopment.• May include media effects which reduce the feelings of frustration in some cases and precipitate them in other cases.• Seventh topic may be reframing of environmental psychology findings from a Marxist point of view. This view is totally lacking in environmental psychology.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 33
    • Rooms for EPs especially in the 4th Approach• EPs can study cultural issues affecting global economies such as ethnic production, consumption, and marketing, Chinatowns, ‘Little Indias’, ‘Little Saigons’ etc.• Informal networks can be more visible by a psychological point of view.• Green finance. For example, EPs can study psychological determinants of investor decisions for carbon trade.• As institutional/cultural approach also focuses on identity issues, there are immense areas of collaboration for EPs.• Corporate cultures which is obviously a topic of interest for EPs, especially in the case of their ‘greening’ decisions.• On the other hand, to collaborate with the institutional/cultural approach, EPs should be more positive about qualitative methodology.• Of course, these topics can be studied by economic psychologists, given that economic psychology has an older tradition; however, economic psychologists are not spatial in their outlook.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 34
    • 5. Conclusion and Recommendations• In this paper, we focused on the intersections among the areas of environmental psychology, urban planning and economic geography.• As these areas are very large, this paper in no way provides a comprehensive overview of these three.• However, the real intention behind this paper has been making some suggestions for future collaboration.• In that sense, as the intersecting research papers will increase in numbers, this paper will fulfill its mission.• The paper concludes with some recommendations for collaboration:7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 35
    • 5. Conclusion and Recommendations• - EPs should be GIS-literate or Google-Earth- literate. This is a prerequisite for a spatial understanding of urban and environmental problems and issues.• - Environmental psychologists should be more practice-oriented.• - Urban planners should include psychologists in their teams to receive inputs on topics such as place identity and place attachment; environmental attitudes; green attitudes vs. behavior; eco-practices; disaster planning; elderly-friendly cities; child friendly cities; urban crime etc.• - Economic geographers of political economy approach and of institutional/cultural approach can collaborate with EPs to investigate topics such as psychological variables associated with profit and competition motives, urbanization, culture, identity, consumption etc.• - As public participation approaches are getting more and more common in urban planning practice; environmental psychologists and economic geographers can be part of urban planning teams, as their views, data and methodologies will be valuable for grassroots democratization of urban planning.7/10/2011 environ psy & urban planning- Dr.Gezgin 36