Urinary system <ul><li>It consist of organs that produce, collect and eliminates urine </li></ul><ul><li>It consist of kid...
External anatomy:Bean shaped, paired structure, right lower than left Internal anatomy: cortex, medulla Suprarenal(adrenal...
<ul><li>Functional unit is the nephron( 1 million) </li></ul>
Ureter <ul><li>Muscular tube 10 to 12 inches in length </li></ul><ul><li>Valveless </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><u...
Urinary Bladder <ul><li>It is a hollow muscular organ situated in pelvic cavity, reservoir of urine </li></ul><ul><li>Aver...
urethra <ul><li>Small tube leading from the floor of urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 inch in length in females & 8 i...
Abbreviations <ul><li>ADH- antidiuretic hormone </li></ul><ul><li>ARF- acute renal failure </li></ul><ul><li>BUN-blood ure...
Terminology in urinary system glomerular Glomerulus Glomerul/o Caliectasis Calix Cali/o Lithotripsy To crush Tripsy Oligur...
Pathological conditions of kidney & urether <ul><li>Gout </li></ul><ul><li>Glomerulonephritis </li></ul><ul><li>Interstiti...
Abnormal constituents of urine & some symptoms <ul><li>Albuminuria </li></ul><ul><li>Glycosuria </li></ul><ul><li>Haematur...
Investigations <ul><li>Urine analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Blood test: BUN, Creatinine cleareance test </li></ul><ul><li>CT s...
Urine analysis <ul><li>URINE ROUTINE EXAMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>TEST  OBSERVATION  NORMAL  </li></ul><ul><li>GENERAL EX...
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Urinary System/Renal System

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Renal system Notes for Medical Transcriptionist(Beginner)
by Dr Bali, Nagpur

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Urinary System/Renal System

  1. 1. Urinary system <ul><li>It consist of organs that produce, collect and eliminates urine </li></ul><ul><li>It consist of kidney, ureter, urinary bladder & urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>Blood regulation thru erythropoietin, renin, vitamin D </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid & Electrolyte Balance & Volume </li></ul><ul><li>Acid-Base Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Waste elimination i.e nitrogenous waste in form of urea formed in liver by breakdown of proteins along with urine </li></ul>
  2. 2. External anatomy:Bean shaped, paired structure, right lower than left Internal anatomy: cortex, medulla Suprarenal(adrenal gland)
  3. 3. <ul><li>Functional unit is the nephron( 1 million) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ureter <ul><li>Muscular tube 10 to 12 inches in length </li></ul><ul><li>Valveless </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><li>transport of urine from kidney to bladder </li></ul>
  5. 5. Urinary Bladder <ul><li>It is a hollow muscular organ situated in pelvic cavity, reservoir of urine </li></ul><ul><li>Average capacity is 450 to 600 ml </li></ul>
  6. 6. urethra <ul><li>Small tube leading from the floor of urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 inch in length in females & 8 inch in male </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>passageway for urine </li></ul><ul><li>& semen </li></ul>
  7. 7. Abbreviations <ul><li>ADH- antidiuretic hormone </li></ul><ul><li>ARF- acute renal failure </li></ul><ul><li>BUN-blood urea nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>CAPD-continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis </li></ul><ul><li>Cath- catherization </li></ul><ul><li>Cysto: cystoscopic examination </li></ul><ul><li>CRF- chronic renal failure </li></ul><ul><li>ESRD-end stage renal disease </li></ul><ul><li>Cl - : chloride </li></ul><ul><li>HCO – bicarbonate </li></ul><ul><li>ESWL- extracarboreal schock wave lithotripsy </li></ul><ul><li>HD- haemodialysis </li></ul><ul><li>IVP- intravenous pyelogram </li></ul><ul><li>K+ - potassium </li></ul><ul><li>Na+ - sodium </li></ul><ul><li>KUB – kidney ureter bladder </li></ul><ul><li>PH – acidic / alkaline </li></ul><ul><li>PKU- Phenylketonuria </li></ul><ul><li>UA – urine analysis </li></ul><ul><li>UTI – urinary tract infection </li></ul><ul><li>VCUG – voiding cystourethrogram </li></ul>
  8. 8. Terminology in urinary system glomerular Glomerulus Glomerul/o Caliectasis Calix Cali/o Lithotripsy To crush Tripsy Oliguria Scanty Olig/o Nephrolithiasis Stone Lith/o Polydipsia Thirst dips./o Azotemia Nitrogen Azot/o Vesicoureteral reflux Urinary bladder Vesic/o Uretroileostomy Ureter Ureter/o Pyelolithotomy Renal pelvis Pyel/0 Meatotomy Meatus Meat/o Cystocele Urinary bladder Cyst/o terminology Meaning Combining form
  9. 9. Pathological conditions of kidney & urether <ul><li>Gout </li></ul><ul><li>Glomerulonephritis </li></ul><ul><li>Interstitialnephritis </li></ul><ul><li>Nephrolitiaisis </li></ul><ul><li>Nephrotic syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Polycystic kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Pyelitis & pyelonephritis </li></ul><ul><li>Renal cell ca </li></ul><ul><li>Wilms tumour </li></ul><ul><li>Renal failure </li></ul><ul><li>Renal hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>urethritis </li></ul>
  10. 10. Abnormal constituents of urine & some symptoms <ul><li>Albuminuria </li></ul><ul><li>Glycosuria </li></ul><ul><li>Haematuria </li></ul><ul><li>Pyuria </li></ul><ul><li>Acetonuria </li></ul><ul><li>Bilrubinuria </li></ul><ul><li>Urobilinogenuria </li></ul><ul><li>Anuria </li></ul><ul><li>Dysuria </li></ul><ul><li>Polyuria </li></ul><ul><li>nocturia </li></ul>
  11. 11. Investigations <ul><li>Urine analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Blood test: BUN, Creatinine cleareance test </li></ul><ul><li>CT scan </li></ul><ul><li>MRI </li></ul><ul><li>Intravenous pyelogram </li></ul><ul><li>Renal angiography </li></ul><ul><li>KUB xray </li></ul><ul><li>VCUG </li></ul><ul><li>Retrograde pyelogram </li></ul><ul><li>USG </li></ul><ul><li>Radioisotopes study </li></ul>
  12. 12. Urine analysis <ul><li>URINE ROUTINE EXAMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>TEST OBSERVATION NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>GENERAL EXAMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>Volume ml </li></ul><ul><li>Colour Pale yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance Clear </li></ul><ul><li>Deposits absent </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction(pH) 4.5-8.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Specific gravity 1.01- 1.03 </li></ul><ul><li>CHEMICAL EXAMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>Urine Protein Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Urine Sugar Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Urine Ketones Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Occult blood Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Bile pigment Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Bile salts Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Urobilinogen Normal </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrite Negative </li></ul><ul><li>MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>Red blood cells Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Pus cells Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Epithelial cells Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Crystals Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Cast Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Amorphous deposits Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Trichomonas Vaginalis Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Yeast cells Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy test </li></ul>

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