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Pharmaology

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  • 1. PHARMACOLOGY HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE: 2735 BC PAN TSAO CHINESE MATERICA MEDICA 2500 BC AYURVEDA, Dravyaguna 1900 BC EGYPT ‘PAPYRI’ 700 BC BABYLONIAN CLAY TABLET 450 HIPPOCRATES MODERN MEDICINE 1753 ALLOPATHY 19 TH CENTURY HANNEMAMM HOMEOPATHY Pharmacology is science dealing with drugs Drug is a substance used for diagnosis, prevention, cure of diseases Branches: Pharmacopoeia: official code of drugs Pharmacognsy I.P Indian pharmacopoeia Pharmacy B.P British Pharmokinetics U.S.P united states Therapeutics Non-official compendia : Toxicology United States dispensary(USD) Chemotherapy AMA drug evaluation Pharmacogenetics Clinical pharmacology Biopharmaceutics
  • 2.
    • NATURE & SOURCES OF DRUGS
    • Animal:insulin, heparin
    • Plant:digoxin, atropine, castor oil
    • Mineral:liquid paraffin, magnesium sulphate
    • Synthetic:cetrizine, aspirin, paracetamol
    • Microorganism: penicillin, bacitracin
    • Biotechnology:human insulin, cancer drugs
    • ENTRY OF DRUGS INTO BODY
    • Local application:ointments, powder,pessary in vagina, suppository into rectum
    • Enema:liquid drug into rectum
    • Enteral/Oral route(PO): enteric coated, time released
    • Parenteral route: other than oral
    • Inhalations:nasal spray
    • Injections:intradermal, subcutaneous(SC), intramuscular(IM), intravenous(i.v),Intraarterial, intrathecal, intraperitoneal,intraarticular
    • Transcutaneous:iontophoresis, inunction,jet injection, skin patches
    • Transmucosal: sublingual, transnasal, transrectal
    • New drug delivery system: ARV
    • Intrvitreal
    • Epidural
  • 3.  
  • 4. Vitamins & there food source Spinach , cabbage Phynandoieine Vit K Wheat oil, cereals, egg yolk Alpha tocopherol Vit E Liver oil, milk, egg, yolk Calciferol Vit D Citrus fruits & veg Ascorbic acid Vit c Milk, eggs, liver Cyncaobalamin Vit B 12 Fish, liver ,yeast Pyridoxine Vit B 6 Milk & green vegetable Riboflavine Vit B 2 Peanuts milk, liver thiamine Vit B 1 Dark coloured vegetable, liver, eggs Retinol Vit A Food source Name Vitamins
  • 5. Drug classification
    • Analgesics:used as pain releiver/antiinflammatory/antipyretics
    • opoid-morphine/codeine/pethidine/pentazocine
    • Non-opoid(NSAID)non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs:acetyl salicylate/paracetamol/phenylbutazone/indomethacin/diclofenac/ibuprofen/
    • Naproxen/mefenamic acid/piroxicam
    • Anesthetics :
    • General:sevoflurane,propofol,halothane, ether,nitrous oxide
    • Local:lidocaine, xylocaine, prilocaine
    • Antibiotics: chemical substances used for killing bacteria/fungi/parasite
    • Anti-bacterial:penicillin, amoxycillin, amoxycillin clavuanic acid,cefadroxil, cephalexin,cefuroxime,cefixime,cefpodoxime,ciprofloxacin, gemifloxacin,moxifloxacin,meropenem,tazobactum,streptomycin
    • Ant-tubercular:isoiniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol
    • Antifungal:clotimazole, flucanozole, ketaconazole, amphotericin B
    • Antiviral: acyclovir, pencylovir, femicyclovir
    • Anticoagulants:prevents clotting of blood, used in thrombosis, embolism
    • e.g: heparin, coumarin,warfarin,clopidgrel, ,streptokinase, urokinase
    • Anticonvulsant/antiepileptic:prevent convulsion, e.g phenytoin, carbamazepine, sodium valporate, diazepam
  • 6.
    • Antidepressant:cure depression, e.g amitriptiline,
    • Antidiabetes:
    • Antihistamines: block histamine released during allergic reaction, loratadine,levocetrizine,fexofenadine, rupatadine
    • Cardiovascular drugs:act on heart & b.v
    • Cardiotonic: ↑heart pumping e.g. digoxin, dopamine
    • antiarrythmatics/antifibrillatory:abnormal contraction of cardiume.g. quinidine, beta blockers like propanolol, lignocaine
    • Antianginal:cardaic pain during rest/movement e.g iso sorbitrate,nitroglycerine
    • Anthypertensive:↓ B.P.e.g clonidine, methyldopa,hydrothiazide,propanolol
    • Anticholestrol/lipid lowering drugs e.g atrovastin
  • 7. Drugs
    • Nebulization
    • Bronchodilators:
    • Aminophylline,terbutaline,salbutamol
    • Antihistamines: cetrizine,rupatadine,opatadine
    • Corticosteroids:hydrocortisone, prednisone
    • Expectorants:guaifenesin, potassium iodide
    • Mucolytics: acetylcysteine
    • Antitussives: dextromethorphan
    • metered dose inhalers ( MDIs )
    • Spacer device
  • 8. Drugs associated with GIT
    • Antacids
    • Antisecretories/PPI(proton pump inhibitor) omeparazole, esmperazole, rabeprazole,panaprozole
    • Antispasmodics:diclomine, mefanic acid,trenaxmic acid, atropine, belladona
    • Digestants:
    • Antiemitics:metachlorpramide, domperidon,odansteron
    • Cathartics and laxatives:bisacodyl,phenolphalein,psyllium husk

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