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Haematology
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Haematology
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Haematology
Haematology
Haematology
Haematology
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Haematology

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Haematology for Medical Transcriptionist Students

Haematology for Medical Transcriptionist Students

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  • 1. Hematology
    • Blood:red body fluid flowing thru the b.v is called the blood
    • 8%of total body weight, male: 5 L, female 4 L
    • Function :
    • Gaseous transportation
    • Nutrients to cell & elimination of waste
    • Hormones & enzymes transportation
    • Regulation of PH & body temperature
    • Clotting mechanism, preventing loss of fluids
    • Components
    Proteins Albumin, immunoglobulins Fibrin(serum) Erythrocytes(RBC) Leukocytes(WBC) 1.granular Neutrophils Eosinohils Basophils 2. Agranular Lymphocytes Monocytes 3.Thrombocytes (platelets) Plasma (55%) Cells(45%)
  • 2. Anaemia :decrease in Hb below 13% in male & 11 % female. Etiology: ↓bone marrow production Lack of iron,amino acid Loss of blood Signs & symptoms Fatigue, palpitations,breathlessness Pallor of skin, mucosa,edema POLYCYTHEMIA:↑ rbc Lack of concentration, headache,fatigue, CVA SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA: Inherited Hb conditions THALESSIMIA : APLASTIC ANEMIA:failure of rbc to form PERNICIOUS ANEMIA:lack of vit b12 HAEMORRHAGIC ANEMIA:removal or destruction of RBC HEMOCHROMATOSIS:excessive deposit of iron in body Bone marrow in sternm, ribs, vertebra & pelvis 120 day .Carry o2& co2 .Antigens A,B,AB & 0 .Rh type RBC,s Biconcave disc contains haemoglobin made of iron +protein diseases Production Life span Function Structure
  • 3. Made of water & solute Blood clotting Plasma IDIPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA: ↓ platelets Bone marrow 5 to 9 days Blood clotting Platelets: disc shaped without nucleus LEUKEMIA:cancer of blood Types: ALL:acute lymphoblastic leukemia AML:---------myeloid------------- CLL:chronic lympoblastic---- CML:----------myeloid------ Etiology:radiation exposure, cytotoxic drugs, HIV Symptoms:tiredness, fatigue,bleding tendency, lymphadenopathy, spleen enlargement Treatment::danorubicin,etoperiside, bone marrow transplantation, imatinib mesylate GRANULOCYTOSIS EOSINOPHILA BASOPHILA Bone marrow, lymphoid tissue Few days .To kill microbes .Release enzyme lysozyme .Antibodies production WBC: Have nuclei
  • 4. LAB TEST
    • RETICULOCYTE COUNT/HEMATOCRIT
    • To know about the rbc count
    • Differential count for WBC:leucocytosis, leukopenia
    • CBC(complete blood count)
    • Hb, TLC,DLC, P.S for opinion
    • ESR(erythrocyte sedimentation rate)
    • Immunohistochemistry
    • MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY
    • Blood plasma substitute
    • Direct transfusion
    • Exchange transfusion
    • Fractionated blood/whole blood
    • Heparinized whole blood
    • Septecemia
    • Thrombocytopenia
    • Venesection/venus puncture
  • 5.
    • ABO:blood groups
    • Baso;basophils
    • BMT:bone marrow transplantation
    • CBC:complete blood count
    • ESR:erythrocyte sedimentation rate
    • MCH:mean corpuscular haemoglobin
    • MCHC:-----------//------------------//---------concentration
    • MCV:mean corpuscular volume
    • PMN:polymorho nuclear leukocytes
    • PT:prothrobin time
    • PTT:partial thromboplastin time
    • DLC; differentiated leukocyte count
    • Eos:eosinophil
    • Mono:monocytes
    • Hct:hematocrit
    • Hb:haemoglobin
    Abbreviations
  • 6.
    • Name
    • Ref -
    • HAEMOGRAM
    • TEST OBSERVATION NORMAL RANGE
    • ERYTROCYTES-
    • Erytrocytes- 3.90 to 5.60 mill/ cu.mm
    • Haemoglobin 11.5 – 16.5 gm/dl
    • PCV 35 – 47 %
    • MCV 75 -95 fl
    • MCH 27- 32 pg
    • MCHC 30-35 %
    • RDW 12.8-16.8 %
    • RBC Morphology
    • Hypochromia
    • Microcytosis
    • Anisocytosis
    • Poikylocytosis
    • Macrocytosis
    • Target cells
    • Others
    • Nucleated RBCs
    • LEUCOCYTES-
    • Total leucocytes(WBC) count- 4000 – 11000 /cu.mm
    • Neutrophils 40-75 %
    • Eosinophils 1-6 %
    • Basophils 0-1 %
    • Lymphocytes 20-45 %
    • Monocytes 2-10 %
    • Premature leucocytes -
    • Atypical lymphocytes 0-2 %
    • Large immature cells 0-2 %
    • PLATELETS-
    • Platelet count 150-450 x1000 /cu.mm
    • MPV 7.4-10.4 fl
    • PCT 0.164-0.260 %
    • PDW 12.8- 16.8 %
  • 7.
    • Name -
    • Ref -
    • URINE ROUTINE EXAMINATION
    • TEST OBSERVATION NORMAL
    • GENERAL EXAMINATION
    • Volume ml
    • Colour Pale yellow
    • Appearance Clear
    • Deposits absent
    • Reaction(pH) 4.5-8.0
    • Specific gravity 1.01- 1.03
    • CHEMICAL EXAMINATION
    • Urine Protein Absent
    • Urine Sugar Absent
    • Urine Ketones Absent
    • Occult blood Negative
    • Bile pigment Absent
    • Bile salts Absent
    • Urobilinogen Normal
    • Nitrite Negative
    • MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION
    • Red blood cells Absent
    • Pus cells Absent
    • Epithelial cells Absent
    • Crystals Absent
    • Cast Absent
    • Amorphous deposits Absent
    • Bacteria Absent
    • Trichomonas Vaginalis Absent
    • Yeast cells Absent
    • Pregnancy test
  • 8.
    • Test Result Normal
    • Blood Sugar ( F ) 70 - 100
    • Blood Sugar ( PP ) 100 - 160
    • Blood Urea 10 - 40
    • Serum Creatinine 0.5 - 1.5
    • S Sodium 137 - 145
    • S Potassium 3.7 - 4.5
    • S GOT 10 - 35
    • S GPT 10 - 40
    • S. Bilirubin ( T ) 0.2 - 1.2
    • S Calcium(T) 9 - 11
    • S Calcium Ionic 1.12 - 1.32
    • S Uric Acid ( M ) 2.6 - 7.2
    • S Uric Acid ( F ) 2.4 - 6.3
    • S Alkaline Phosphotase(Adult ) 100 - 305
    • S Alkaline Phosphotase ( Child ) Upto 515
    • Serum Phophorus 2.5 - 5.0 mg/dl
    • Serum Cholesterol 125 - 225
    • Serum Triglyceride Up to 160

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