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Endocrine system
 

Endocrine system

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    Endocrine system Endocrine system Presentation Transcript

    • ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
      • Composed of gland in diff. part of body
      • Secrete chemical substance called HORMONE
      • Acts thru receptor present on the target tissue
      • Thus function to maintain homeostasis
      • Feedback control
    • Endocrine gland Body growth Milk production Thyroid Ovaries & testes Adrenal glands Skin pigmentation Growth hormone Prolactin Thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) Adrenocorticotrophic(ACTH) Melanocyte stimulating hormone(MSH) Pitutary (hypophysis) T-lymphocytes Thymosin Thymus Absorption of Ca+ Vitamin D Skin Skin pigmentation Melatonin Pineal gland ↑ RBC erythropoietin Kidney Contracts GB ↑ gastric secretion & pancreatic juice Cholecystokinin GIT Function Contract uterus & intestine ↓ BP Platelet agglutination ↓ acid secretion Respiration Nerve impulse Hormone Prostaglandins(PGs) (tissue hormone) Tissue/gland Body cells
    • Sperm Secondary sexual characteristics Androgens Testis Feminization Pregnancy maintenance Estrogen Progesterone Ovaries ↓ glucose ↑ glucose Insulin glucagon Pancreas Water & electrolyte balance Metabolism & stress buster Estrogens & progesterone Stimulates ANS aldosterone Cortisol,corticosterone,cortisone Gonadocorticoids Epinephrine & norepinephrine Adrenal gland Blood ca+ level Parathyroid hormone Parathyroid gland Blood ca+ level Calcitonin Parafollicular cells ↓ urine output ADH(antidiuretic hormone) Uterine contraction,Milk injection Oxytocin(OXT)
    • Pathological conditions & signs
      • Pitutary dwarfism
      • Acromegaly
      • Diabetus inspidus
      • Cretinism:dwarf & mental retardation
      • Myxedema:puffy face, ↑weight
      • Goiter enlarged thyroid: swelling over the neck area,treatment is thyroidectomy
      • Hyperthyroidism/graves disease: ↑T3 & T4, wt loss,
      • Thyroid carcinoma:papillary/medullary/follicular
      • Exopthlamos :protruding eye ball due to thyrotoxicosis
      • Hypoparathyroidism: tetany, trousseau sign & chvostek sign
      • Addison’s disease:hypofunction of adrenal cortex, leads fatigue, hypnatremia
      • Cushing’s syndrome:hypersecretion leading to moon face, buffalo hump, pendulous abdomen, HT
      • Adrenogenital sundrome:female virilization,gynecomastia
      • Pheochromocytomas:severe HT, sweating, flushing of face
      • Diabetes mellitus(DM):polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia
      • Types:Type II /NIDD,non insulin dependent diabetes,type I/IDDM(insulin dependent diabetes, gestational diabetes
      • Hyperinsulinism : ↑insulin, hypoglycemia
      • SIADH: excessive secretion of ADH
      • Incedentolomas:tumour in gland seen on imaging
      • Insulinoma
    • Lab test & procedures
      • Blood sugar: fasting & post meal, random
      • Urine analysis: sugar, ketone bodies,hormones
      • Oral Glucose tolerance test(OGTT):30min, 1hr,2&3 hrs
      • Radioimmunoassay(RIA)
      • Thyroid function test: t3,t4, TSH
      • HbA1c:control of sugar in blood by insulin
      • Procedures:
      • HRCT:high resolution computed tomography
      • Exopthalmometry
      • Thyroid scan
      • Radioiodine uptake scan
      • Skull xray
    • Drugs
      • Thyroid supplements:thyroxine
      • Antithyroid :propylthiouracil, I 131
      • Growth hormone replacement:somatropin
      • Diabetus inspidus: vasopressin, desmopressin
      • Diabetus mellitus:insulins-rapid,intermediate, long
      • DNA technique:huminsulin/insucare/insuman
      • Oral antidiabetic drugs:glipizide,chlorpropamide,gliperimide, Rosiglitazone , glibenclamide, Acarbose
      • Corticosteroid s:hydrocortisone,prednisolone,methylprednisolone,dexamethasone,triamcinolone,deflazacort
    • Abbreviations
      • ACTH (Adrenocorticotrophic hormone) stimulates the adrenal glands to secrete its hormones.
      • HGh (Human growth hormone) also known as somatotrophic hormone is responsible for the growth of long bones, muscles and viscera.
      • TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone) influences the structure of the thyroid and causes it to secrete thyroid hormone.
      • FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone) stimulates female egg production or male sperm production.
      • PRL (Prolactin) in females causes the corpus luteum the area around the mature follicle to produce two important hormones: Oestrogen and Progesterone. During pregnancy PRL is also responsible for the development of the glandular tissues of the breast which produce milk.
      • LH (Luteinzing hormone) works in conjunction with FSH in females to cause ovulation and prepares the uterus for pregnancy, in males the testes to secrete testosterone.
      • ADH (Antidiuretic hormone) stimulates the smooth muscles, blood vessels and the intestine. ADH increases the kidney's permeability to water allowing the body to re-absorb water that would otherwise escape in urine.
      • OT (Oxytocin) stimulates the smooth muscles of the uterus during pregnancy, causing it to contract during labour. It also stimulates the lacteals (milk ducts) in the breast.
      • DI Diabetes Insipidus
      • FMTC Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma
      • HCG Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hormone)
      • I-131 Radioactive Iodine
      • MEN Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia - (familial) a.k.a. FMEN