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Basic Word Structure
 

Basic Word Structure

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Basic Word Structure:For Medical Transcriptionist (beginners)

Basic Word Structure:For Medical Transcriptionist (beginners)

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Basic Word Structure Basic Word Structure Presentation Transcript

  • Basic Word Structure
    • Analyze the medical words in components part i.e suffixes, prefixes & combining form
    • Relate the words to the particular structure & function of the body
    • Aware of the pronunciation & spellings
    • (key to your speed typing)
    • Root (greek / latin): foundation of word, they are one or two in number
    • Combining Vowel: Joining the 1 or 2 words, no meaning
    • Combining form: is the root + combining vowel formation of word
    • Prefix: it is at the beginning of word
    • e.g. sub/gastr/ic, epigastric
    • Suffix: at the word ending
    • e.g.: HEMAT /O/ LOGY
    • root combing vowel Suffix
    • ELECTR /O/ CARDI /O/ GRAM
    • ELECTRICITY cv Heart CV Record suffix
    • Gastri / tis
    • root suffix
    • GASTOENTROLOGY
  • Combining Form hematology Blood Haemat/o Neurologist Nerves Neur/o Psychiatrist Mind Psych/o Pediatrics Child Ped/o clot blood Thromb/o Rhinology Nose Rhin/o Pathology disease Path/o osteopath Bone Oste/o Nephrologists Kidney Nephr/o Ophthalmology Eye Opthalm/o WBC White Leuk/o Gynecology female Gynec/o Diagnosis Knowledge Gnos/o Cut Incision Incis/o Cerebral Cerebrum Cerebr/o Hepatology Liver Hepat/o Cephalic Head Cephal/o Cardiology Heart Cardi/o Biology Life Bio/o Arthritis Joint Arthr/o adenoma Gland Aden/o ventral Belly side of body Ventr/o visceral Internal organs Viscer/o Vertebral Backbone Vertebr/o Umbilical Umbilicus Umbilic/o Thoracic Chest Thorac/o
  • spinal Spines Spin/o Proximal Near Proxim/o Pelvic cavity Hip Palv/o Nucleic Nucleus Nucle/o Medial Middle Medi/o Lumbosacral Lower back Lumb/o Lateral Away from midline Later/o Inguinal Growing Inguin/o Iliac Ilium Illio Histology Tissue Hist/o Dorsal Back Dors/o Distal Far Dist/o Cytoplasm Cell Cyt/o Craniotomy Skull Crani/o Coccygel Tailbone Coccyg/o Chromosomes Colour Chrom/o Chondroma Cartilage Chondr/o Cervical Neck Cervic/o Anabolism Throw Bolo Anterior Front Anter/o Adipose tissue Fat Adip/o Abdominal Abdomen Abdomin/o spinal Spines Spin/o Proximal Near Proxim/o Pelvic cavity Hip Palv/o Nucleic Nucleus Nucle/o Medial Middle Medi/o Lumbosacral Lower back Lumb/o Lateral Away from midline Later/o Inguinal Growing Inguin/o Iliac Ilium Illio Histology Tissue Hist/o Dorsal Back Dors/o Distal Far Dist/o Cytoplasm Cell Cyt/o Craniotomy Skull Crani/o Coccygel Tailbone Coccyg/o Chromosomes Colour Chrom/o Chondroma Cartilage Chondr/o Cervical Neck Cervic/o Anabolism Throw Bolo Anterior Front Anter/o Adipose tissue Fat Adip/o Abdominal Abdomen Abdomin/o
  • Suffix osteotomy Process of cutting Tomy Gastroscopy Visually examine Scopy Endoscope Instrument to examine Scope Neuropathy Diseases Pathy Nephrosis Abnormal condition Osis Biopsy To see Opsy Osteoma Tumour Oma Endocrinology Study Logy Tonsillitis Inflammation itis Gynecologist Specialist ist Incision Process Ion Encephalogram Record Gram Carcinogenic Produce Genic Leukemia Blood Emia Nephrectomy Removal Ectomy Astrocyte Cell Cyte Otalgia Pain Olgia Cardiac Pertaining to ac TERMINOLOGY MEANING SUFFIX
  • Anatomy & Physiology
    • It is the study of Structures and there relationship among themselves
    • Types:
    • Surface: form and marking of the surface of body
    • Gross/macroscopic: seen with naked eyes
    • Systemic: System of the body e.g CVS
    • Regional: specific region e.g ENT
    • Developmental: Egg to adult form
    • Embroyology: Egg to 8 th week in uterus
    • Pathological: diseases causing structural changes
    • Histology: Microscopic study of structure of tissue
    • Cytology: Study of cells
    • Radigraphic: study by X-ray & Ct Scan
    Physiology(fiz’- ẽ-OL-O-jẽ)
    • It deals with functions of body part, i.e how they work
    • It goes hand in hand with anatomy
  • Structural Level of Human Body
    • Chemical level consist of atoms & molecules
    • Cellular level made of chemicals e.g mucus cell
    • Tissue are made of group of cells e.g epithelium
    • Organ are made up of tissue e.g heart, liver
    • System consist of association of organ e.g digestive system
    • Organism all parts of the body working with one another
    • Anatomical characteristics:
    • Vertebral/backbone
    • Tube within tube
    • Bilaterally symmetrical
  • Branches to be covered
    • More Focus:
    • Neurology (related to nervous system)
    • Orthopedics (related to bony & muscular system)
    • Cardiology/Pulmonology (related to heart & lungs)
    •    Pharmacology - more focus on similar sounding drugs related to different systems, common drugs & pain killers
    • Less Focus:
    • Gastroentrology (related to Gastro-intestinal-tract)
    •     ENT (related to ear, nose & throat)
    •   Gynecology & obstetrics (related to female reproductive system)
    •    Dentistry (teeths & gums)
    •     Psychiatry (mental problems)
    •    Radiology & Oncology (x rays & cancer)
    • Integumentary (Skin)
  • Anatomical Position & Directional terms
    • Definition:
    • The subject stands erect facing the observer, upper extremities are placed on the sides, palms of the hands are turned forward
  • Directional terms Meaning
    • Superior(Cephalic/Cranial) Towards the head
    • Inferior(caudad) Away from the head
    • Anterior(ventral) Front of the body
    • Posterior(dorsal) Back of the body
    • Medial Midline of body/structure
    • Lateral Away from midline
    • Intermediate Between two structures
    • Ipsilateral On the same side of the body
    • Contralateral On the opposite side of body
    • Proximal Nearer to the attach. of an extremity
    • Distal Farther to the attach. Of an extremity
    • Superficial Surface of the body
    • Deep Away from the surface of body
    • Parietal Outer wall of the body cavity
    • Visceral Covering of the organ
  • Planes of Human Body
    • Mid-sagittal(median) plane(imaginary flat surface)divedes body into equal half
    • Sagital(para sagital) // to sagittal divides body into unequal half
    • Frontal ( Coronal) plane is right angle to sagittal, divides body into anterior & posterior
    • Horizontal(Transverse) // to ground divide body into superior & inferior portion
  •  
  • Body cavities
    • Spaces within the body, which contain internal organs Pleural cavity
    • Thoracic(chest)
    • Ventral Diaphragm Mediastinum
    • Abdominopelvic Abdominal
    • Pelvic
    • Cranial(brain)
    • Dorsal
    • Vertebral(Spinal cord & nerves)
  • Pleura & Mediastinum
    • Two in number: Visceral & Parietal
    • Space between them is the pleural space
    • Mediastinum is a space extending from sternum to thoracic vertebra
    • It is divided into Anterior, Middle & Posterior containing the Thymus, pericardium& heart, esophagus, trachea & large blood /lymphatics
  •  
  • Abdominopelvic Regions
    • Divided into nine regions:
    • 1.Epigastric contains liver, stomach, duodenum,pancreas & adrenal gland
    • 2.Right Hypochondriac region has liver, gallbladder & right kidney.
    • 3.Left hypochondriac has stomach, spleen, colon, left kidney & pancreas
    • 4.Umbilical region has colon, dudenum, jejunum, ileum, abdominal aorta & inf. vena cava
    • 5.Right Umbilical region has cecum, colon,kidney & SI
    • 6. Left umbilical region has colon, kidney & SI
    • 7.Hypogastric region contains urinary bladder, SI & sigmoid colon
    • 8.Right iliac(inguinal) region has cecum, appendix & SI
    • 9.Left Illiac region has colon & SI
  • Abdominopelvic Quadrants RUQ LUQ RLQ LLQ
  • Movements of Body Adduction Extension/hyperextension/plantar flexion Abduction Flexion/dorsiflexion Elevation/depression Supination/pronation Pro/retraction circumduction Inversion/eversion Rotation
  •  
  • Radiographic Anatomy
    • X-ray( Roentgenogram)
    • Barium Swallow & meals
    • HRCT Scan: High resolution Computed Tomography
    • CECT:contrast enhanced CT
    • MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    • PET(Positron emission tomography)
    • Ultrasonography(USG)
  • Homeostasis
    • It is a condition in which body environment remains constant by maintaining optimum conc. of chemicals, temperature & pressure of the extracellular, intercellular & intracellular fluid.
    • STRESS due to internal or external factors can disturb homeo
    • Homeostasis of BP(blood pressure):BP is the force exerted by blood against the walls of arteries.A negative feedback system helps in keeping BP in check.
    • Homeostasis of Blood sugar(BS)level:sugar principal source of energy.The levels are maintained by pancreatic hormones:insulin & glucagon. Insulin lowers the BS by increasing sugar uptake by cells & storing sugar in liver & muscles, while Glucagons raises BS by releasing it from liver.
    • Measuring HUMAN BODY for understanding the body system. e.g organ dimension & wt., physiological response time, amount of medications. The fundamental units are foot, pound & second
  • Chemical Level of organization
    • Body is made of matter, which in turn made of atoms & molecules, which in turn undergo various chemical reaction in the body.
    • Chemicals exist as compounds, which are two principle types:
    • 1.Organic like carbohydrates(sugars & Starches), lipids(fats & prostaglandins), proteins(amino acids,enzymes), nucleic acid(DNA & RNA)
    • 2.Inorganic like water, many salts(NA+, K+), acids & bases (help in maintaining PH of 7)
  • Cellular level of organization & Medical Terminology Atrophy:is the decrease in the size of the cell Biopsy: removal of cell tissue for examination Hyperplasia:increase in number of cells Hypertrophy:increase in size of cell Metaplasia:transformation of one cell into another Metastasis:transfer of disease from one part of body to another with no direct connection Necrosis:death of group of cells Neoplasm: abnormal formation of cells Progeny: offsprings Tissue Level of Organization: It is group of similar cells & intercellular substance Types are: Epithelial: covering of body surfaces Connective tissue: protects & supports the body Muscular tissue: responsible for movements Nervous tissue: initiates & transmits nerve impulse
  • Major System of Human Body
    • Skin
    • Skeletal
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
    • Cardiovascular
    • Respiratory
    • Digestive
    • Urinary
    • Reproductive
    • Endocrine
    • Lymphatic