Inventor Boot Camp 2009 October 17, 2009 San Francisco | Palo Alto | Walnut Creek | San Diego | Seattle | Denver | Washing...
Presentation Overview <ul><li>Introduction to Intellectual Property (IP) </li></ul><ul><li>Types of IP </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Business Value of Intellectual Property <ul><li>Economists estimate that two-thirds of the value of large businesses in th...
Intellectual Capital: Intangible Ideas
Leveraging Intangibles to Create Intellectual Property <ul><li>Intellectual capital is an intangible asset that must be pr...
Securing Your Intellectual Capital as IP
Types of IP: Trade Secrets <ul><li>Definition: Any secret formula, pattern, device, or compilation of information used by ...
Trade Secret Timing Issues <ul><li>Definition: Any secret formula, pattern, device, or compilation of information used by ...
Types of IP: Copyrights <ul><li>Definition: Protects works of original artistic expression in tangible form </li></ul><ul>...
Copyright Timing Issues <ul><li>Definition: Protects works of original artistic expression in tangible form (e.g., Softwar...
Types of IP: Domain Names <ul><li>Definition: World Wide Web address for a domain </li></ul><ul><li>Right to name purchase...
Domain Name Timing Issues <ul><li>Definition: World Wide Web address for a domain of computers that serve content on the I...
Types of IP: Service Marks and Trademarks <ul><li>Definition: Words, symbols, designs, colors & sounds used to identify th...
Service Mark and Trademark Timing Issues <ul><li>Definition: Words, symbols, designs, colors & sounds used to identify the...
Types of IP: Patents <ul><li>Definition: Confers the inventor the right to exclude others from making, using, manufacturin...
Patent Timing Issues <ul><li>Definition: Confers the inventor the right to exclude others from making, using, manufacturin...
Patent Landscape Study <ul><li>Assess patent landscape when entering a new area with different competitors </li></ul><ul><...
Freedom to Operate <ul><li>Consider freedom to operate clearance study prior to investment in a specific product </li></ul...
© ®
Patent Strategies <ul><li>Offensive Strategy “Sword” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pursuit of Licensing Revenue </li></ul></ul><ul...
Portfolio Building <ul><li>Tie patent expenditures to where you add value in marketplace (Market driven versus innovation ...
Market Driven Approach to IP <ul><li>Analyze product and future products to determine what differentiates your product in ...
Common Patent Strategy Models <ul><li>Strategic models can generally placed in a few general model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R...
Patent Strategies: University and Government Labs <ul><li>Promote dissemination of academic research to industry through o...
Patent Strategies: Small Companies / Start-ups <ul><li>Funding is usually tight so patent strategy must be focused, but no...
Patent Strategies: Large Companies <ul><li>Large companies want to protect their markets with large portfolios of patents ...
Patent Strategies: Pure IP Play <ul><li>Some companies/individuals never pursue a product related to their patent(s) </li>...
Patent Strategies: Drug Companies <ul><li>Some companies never pursue a product related to their patent(s) </li></ul><ul><...
Patent Strategies: Individual Inventor <ul><li>Usually plans to obtain a patent without commercializing </li></ul><ul><li>...
Patent Insurance <ul><li>Umbrella Defense Policies Available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense Reimbursement with co-insurance...
Valuation of Patents: Intangible Assets <ul><li>Valuation of any patent is difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Automated Tools are...
Thomas Franklin, Partner [email_address] <ul><ul><li>Tom Franklin is a partner in Townsend’s Denver and San Diego offices....
Firm Profile www.townsend.com <ul><ul><li>Townsend is among the largest firms specializing in patents, trademarks, and cop...
Web Resources <ul><li>Patent and Trademark Offices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Searchable databases of patents, publications, an...
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Inventor Boot Camp Thomas Franklin 10 17 2009

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Introduction to Intellectual Property (IP)
Presentation includes types of IP - Trade Secrets, Copyrights, Trademarks, Patents; Timing Issues for Protecting IP; and Patent Strategy Models

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Inventor Boot Camp Thomas Franklin 10 17 2009

  1. 1. Inventor Boot Camp 2009 October 17, 2009 San Francisco | Palo Alto | Walnut Creek | San Diego | Seattle | Denver | Washington, DC | Tokyo | www.townsend.com Intellectual Property Acquisition, Litigation and Counseling | Technology Transactions | Antitrust and Unfair Competition Presented by Thomas Franklin, Partner Electronics & Software Practice Group Denver & San Diego Offices Month Day, 2008
  2. 2. Presentation Overview <ul><li>Introduction to Intellectual Property (IP) </li></ul><ul><li>Types of IP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade Secrets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyrights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trademarks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Timing Issues for Protecting IP </li></ul><ul><li>Patent Strategy Models </li></ul>
  3. 3. Business Value of Intellectual Property <ul><li>Economists estimate that two-thirds of the value of large businesses in the US is due to intangible or intellectual property assets* </li></ul><ul><li>The World Bank estimates that, on average, 40% of company valuations are from intellectual property* </li></ul><ul><li>PriceWatershouseCoopers estimated that as much as 90% of the value of the world’s top 2000 enterprises would consist of intellectual property* </li></ul><ul><li>In 1978, IP accounted for 20% of shareholder value, but has grown to 80% in 2007** </li></ul><ul><li>*Source: Patent Barista, April 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>**Source: Brookings Institution and Ocean Tomo </li></ul>
  4. 4. Intellectual Capital: Intangible Ideas
  5. 5. Leveraging Intangibles to Create Intellectual Property <ul><li>Intellectual capital is an intangible asset that must be protected like any other valuable company asset </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As we move away from the industrial age and into the information age, leveraging intellectual capital is paramount </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade Secrets, Copyrights, Patents, & Trademarks are the legal tools that convert some intellectual capital into IP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These legal tools are analogous to security measures to protect tangible assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of these tools prevents further loss of value and converts ideas into property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A custom IP strategy should be developed to suit: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions by competitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Litigiousness of industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High costs require customized solution for your business </li></ul><ul><li>More money is lost pursuing the wrong strategy--no matter how inexpensively--than pursuing the right strategy within the confines of a reasonable budget </li></ul>
  6. 6. Securing Your Intellectual Capital as IP
  7. 7. Types of IP: Trade Secrets <ul><li>Definition: Any secret formula, pattern, device, or compilation of information used by the company that gives it an advantage over competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Must not be in the public domain </li></ul><ul><li>Company must take steps to protect their trade secrets </li></ul><ul><li>No Expiration: Trade secret rights last forever if properly protected </li></ul><ul><li>May loose some rights to a trade secret if someone else patents it </li></ul><ul><li>Action: Trade Secret Program & reminder letters to employees who leave </li></ul>SECRET CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY
  8. 8. Trade Secret Timing Issues <ul><li>Definition: Any secret formula, pattern, device, or compilation of information used by the company that gives it an advantage over competitors and is actively protected </li></ul><ul><li>Timing Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must keep secret </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never expire if kept secret </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train new employees to avoid use of trade secrets or IP from prior employer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action Items </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment/Contractor agreements addressing confidentiality of IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Disclosure agreements with vendors and partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify trade secrets (e.g., “PROPRIETARY”) and take action to protect (e.g., computer, e-mail, document control, security) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider publication policy that requires review prior to technical journal publications, participation in standards boards and presentation at technical symposia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remind workers of confidentiality in exit interviews </li></ul></ul>SECRET CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY
  9. 9. Types of IP: Copyrights <ul><li>Definition: Protects works of original artistic expression in tangible form </li></ul><ul><li>Software, Written Material, Maskworks, Recordings, Maybe Logos </li></ul><ul><li>Non-employees generally own their copyright so must have assignment in consulting agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents: Reproduction, Distribution, Public Performance, Display, and Derivative Works </li></ul><ul><li>Why: Statutory Damages/Attorney Fees/Ability to Sue in Federal Court </li></ul><ul><li>Term: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals: Life+70 yrs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies: Shorter of 95 yrs. from publication or 120 yrs. From creation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once Filing Program Set Up, No Attorney Typically Needed </li></ul><ul><li>Example Notice: ©ABC Corporation, 2004. All Rights Reserved. </li></ul><ul><li>More Info: www.copyright.gov </li></ul>©
  10. 10. Copyright Timing Issues <ul><li>Definition: Protects works of original artistic expression in tangible form (e.g., Software, Written Material, Maskworks, Recordings, Maybe Logos) </li></ul><ul><li>Timing Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File Federal Registration prior to release of product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Term: Individuals: Life+70 yrs. Companies: Shorter of 95 yrs. from publication or 120 yrs. from creation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action Items </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No longer required to mark with ©, but still recommended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set-up program to regularly file copyrights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lock-up rights of non-employees who generally own their copyright so must have assignment in consulting agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train employees on Open Source issues and use of other third party material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check all agreements for stealth out-licenses of copyrights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t rely upon “fair use” or other exceptions unless approved by counsel </li></ul></ul>©
  11. 11. Types of IP: Domain Names <ul><li>Definition: World Wide Web address for a domain </li></ul><ul><li>Right to name purchased from domain name registry </li></ul><ul><li>Must be renewed periodically </li></ul><ul><li>Various gTLD and ccTLD have different rules </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber-squatters diligently prey on lax registration by companies </li></ul>
  12. 12. Domain Name Timing Issues <ul><li>Definition: World Wide Web address for a domain of computers that serve content on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Timing Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First come first served for registration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewals are performed annually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be prepared to purchase when domains are search to avoid cybersquatters who monitor searches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action Items </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Register all potential trademarks and consider different marks if someone else owns the mark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize all registrations to ease administration and automate renewals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardize contact information on position/title rather than individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Register domains that are likely to be used by typo squatters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider action against cybersquatters using current marks </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Types of IP: Service Marks and Trademarks <ul><li>Definition: Words, symbols, designs, colors & sounds used to identify the source of one’s products or services to consumers </li></ul><ul><li>A mark indicates the source of the product/service </li></ul><ul><li>Mark must distinctively identify product/service to avoid customer confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Local rights accrue in the US based upon use </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Registration “®” enhances rights and damages </li></ul><ul><li>Never expire so long as used </li></ul><ul><li>TM for products and SM for services </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to trade dress </li></ul><ul><li>More Info: www.USPTO.gov </li></ul>®
  14. 14. Service Mark and Trademark Timing Issues <ul><li>Definition: Words, symbols, designs, colors & sounds used to identify the source of one’s products or services to consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Timing Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search once potential mark(s) are chosen as it will only get more difficult to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider Federal Registration prior to use if mark will ultimately be used in interstate commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose foreign filings to match product footprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use not required prior to filing, but use should be expected in the next 4 years or so to avoid abandonment of your issued registration for failure to show use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trademark rights never expire so long as used continuously </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action Items </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage clients to pick several possible names to chose from after search results indicate those cheapest to adopt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Properly label marks with “TM” or “®” to enhances rights and damages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set-up marking guidelines that the organization follows to avoid self-inflicted damage to marks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch for and remedy any infringement/dilution/genericide of mark </li></ul></ul>®
  15. 15. Types of IP: Patents <ul><li>Definition: Confers the inventor the right to exclude others from making, using, manufacturing, importing the invention </li></ul><ul><li>A patent does not give you the right to practice your invention, just the right to exclude others from practicing your invention </li></ul><ul><li>Protects Invention for 20 years from filing </li></ul><ul><li>“ Anything under the sun made by man”—Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software, Business Methods, Genes, Man-made Organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exchange Government Monopoly for Full Disclosure of Invention </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t require infringer to be exposed to idea like trade secrets or copyrights </li></ul><ul><li>Invention must be novel and non-obvious </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be publicly known or offered for sale (one year grace period in US) </li></ul><ul><li>Inventor-based system in US so must get assignment from inventor </li></ul><ul><li>More Info: www.USPTO.gov </li></ul>
  16. 16. Patent Timing Issues <ul><li>Definition: Confers the inventor the right to exclude others from making, using, manufacturing, importing the invention </li></ul><ul><li>Timing Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects invention for 20 years from filing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patent rights go to the first to invent, not the first to file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be publicly known before filing to preserve foreign rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be publicly known or offered for sale more than one year before filing to preserve US rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action Items </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider way to capture your technical staff inventing first such as an inventor notebook program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess patent landscape when entering a new area with different competitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider freedom to operate clearance study prior to investment in a specific product, and work through any design arounds to avoid redesign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor design reviews, trade show plans, proposed technical papers, or any other investment in product development for ideas suitable for patenting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider patent committee to champion filings and patent reward program to incentivize inventors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File patents on improvements to keep products always covered by patents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm proper marking of products to not patent pending or issued patents </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Patent Landscape Study <ul><li>Assess patent landscape when entering a new area with different competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Who is filing patents and how many </li></ul><ul><li>What general areas are they filing patents </li></ul><ul><li>Do you currently have any “ammunition” in your portfolio to allow entry without threat of suit </li></ul><ul><li>What is the likelihood of patent lawsuits in space? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Freedom to Operate <ul><li>Consider freedom to operate clearance study prior to investment in a specific product </li></ul><ul><li>If product or component is already out there, consider purchase from patentee and add value integrating with larger system </li></ul><ul><li>Work through any design-arounds to avoid later redesign </li></ul><ul><li>Design-arounds are potentially ideas you could patent </li></ul>
  19. 19. © ®
  20. 20. Patent Strategies <ul><li>Offensive Strategy “Sword” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pursuit of Licensing Revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Litigating Patents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use as “Stick” in Negotiations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defensive Strategy “Shield” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portfolio Building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding Patent Litigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding Willful Infringement </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Portfolio Building <ul><li>Tie patent expenditures to where you add value in marketplace (Market driven versus innovation driven) </li></ul><ul><li>Decide level of commitment to patents necessary to reduce risk of pre-emptive suit by competition </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor design reviews, trade show plans, proposed technical papers, or any other investment in product development for ideas suitable for patenting </li></ul><ul><li>Consider patent committee to champion filings and patent reward program to incentivize inventors </li></ul><ul><li>File patents on improvements to keep products always covered by unexpired patents </li></ul>
  22. 22. Market Driven Approach to IP <ul><li>Analyze product and future products to determine what differentiates your product in the market place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., “Cleans stains 20% better”, “10% faster” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus IP on those innovations that give market advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Determine reasonable budget and IP tools to utilize </li></ul><ul><li>Judiciously pick the best ideas from both the technical perspective and the marketing perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback: Accentuate those ideas that have IP protection in your marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly re-evaluate expenses and abandon IP that is less strategic </li></ul>
  23. 23. Common Patent Strategy Models <ul><li>Strategic models can generally placed in a few general model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Labs without products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure IP Play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug Companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Inventor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understanding your model and your competitors is crucial to any patent program </li></ul>
  24. 24. Patent Strategies: University and Government Labs <ul><li>Promote dissemination of academic research to industry through out-licensing </li></ul><ul><li>Focus IP tools on most promising technologies to preserve limited budgets </li></ul><ul><li>Choose licensee companies most likely to commercialize product to drive royalties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Licensee milestones are common to assure commercialization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incentives to scientists that promote profession </li></ul><ul><li>Strong desire to avoid liability </li></ul>
  25. 25. Patent Strategies: Small Companies / Start-ups <ul><li>Funding is usually tight so patent strategy must be focused, but not ignored </li></ul><ul><li>May in-license technology to get a competitive advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Small companies are “under the radar” of large companies for some time period so take advantage of that </li></ul><ul><li>A stable of patents must be developed before a large company tries to crush them (success = on radar) </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of the patents is more important than the quantity (warrants searching and careful participation) </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign filing may be started in the hope that funding will soon follow to pay for the large expenses that soon follow </li></ul>
  26. 26. Patent Strategies: Large Companies <ul><li>Large companies want to protect their markets with large portfolios of patents </li></ul><ul><li>Defend any lawsuit by finding their own patents to assert </li></ul><ul><li>Cross licenses done with competitors with their own large portfolios </li></ul><ul><li>The more patents the better to bury your competitors in litigation and the associated legal fees </li></ul><ul><li>Sue small competitors and/or acquire them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller companies often cannot afford the legal costs of litigation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A modern trend is to seek out-licensing to capitalize the patents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May try licensing competitors without patent portfolios or non-competing companies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can afford foreign filing of patents </li></ul>
  27. 27. Patent Strategies: Pure IP Play <ul><li>Some companies/individuals never pursue a product related to their patent(s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., MIPS, Rambus, closet inventor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shield is no defense because nothing to retaliate against </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing is pursued by building a war chest from the early licensees to use against the more reluctant licensees </li></ul><ul><li>Closet inventors are rarely taken seriously because of the litigation costs prevent enforcement of their patent(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely risky strategy as one unfavorable patent litigation ruling can decimate the market cap of the pure IP play </li></ul><ul><li>Established companies refer to these licensing organizations as “Patent Trolls” </li></ul>
  28. 28. Patent Strategies: Drug Companies <ul><li>Some companies never pursue a product related to their patent(s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., Bio companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out-license their compound to drug makers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defensive portfolio is no deterrence because the patent holder has no product to retaliate against </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only a few patents cover a particular drug, but those patents are extremely important to ward off generics </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to protect tools that find drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolio approach (i.e., minefield) less effective due to sparse patent thicket makes avoiding other’s patents easy </li></ul><ul><li>Unlikely your drug will infringe other’s patents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider freedom-to-operate opinion to assess the patent litigation risk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aggressive foreign filing of patents </li></ul>
  29. 29. Patent Strategies: Individual Inventor <ul><li>Usually plans to obtain a patent without commercializing </li></ul><ul><li>Odds of success without commercialization are very low </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 2% of patents ever make money according to the Patent Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Litigation very expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies are usually unwilling to license without a credible threat of litigation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Success is so rare today for individuals that it is a newsworthy event when it happens </li></ul><ul><li>Gather war chest with cheap licenses to afford litigating the more difficult licenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reputable firms willing to take patent cases on contingency are a rarity </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Patent Insurance <ul><li>Umbrella Defense Policies Available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense Reimbursement with co-insurance, deductible & underwriting costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Per Patent Policies Available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense Reimbursement with co-insurance, deductible & underwriting costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infringement Abatement with deductible & underwriting costs </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Valuation of Patents: Intangible Assets <ul><li>Valuation of any patent is difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Automated Tools are available (e.g., PatentValuePredictor.com) </li></ul><ul><li>Results from tools are a starting point </li></ul><ul><li>Consider factors such as licensing value, litigation value and defensive value </li></ul><ul><li>Different markets & products command different royalties </li></ul>
  32. 32. Thomas Franklin, Partner [email_address] <ul><ul><li>Tom Franklin is a partner in Townsend’s Denver and San Diego offices. His practice focuses on patent and trademark prosecution, licensing and strategic counseling for high tech companies in the electronic, software and business method fields. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mr. Franklin received his J.D. from University of San Diego in 1997 and a B.S. in Electrical and Computer Engineering from San Diego State University in 1990, summa cum laude. He is admitted to the State Bar of Colorado and practice as a patent attorney with U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to entering the field of law, Mr. Franklin spent eight years working in semiconductor fabrication facilities at the Naval Ocean Systems Center and Hughes Aircraft and several more as a senior engineer for Lockheed Martin developing digital designs for cryptographic data links. </li></ul></ul>Practice Area Electronics & Software Denver Office 1200 Seventeenth Street Suite 2700 Denver, CO 80202 tel 303.571.4000 fax 303.571.4321 San Diego Office 12730 High Bluff Drive Suite 400 San Diego, CA 92130 tel: 858.350.6100 fax: 858.350.6111
  33. 33. Firm Profile www.townsend.com <ul><ul><li>Townsend is among the largest firms specializing in patents, trademarks, and copyrights in the United States. As a full-service IP firm, we have the legal and technical expertise to handle every IP need. Most of our attorneys have technical degrees to complement their legal education, and many have advanced degrees and/or industry experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Townsend has a 150 year history in focused on IP alone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The firm has 210 lawyers that all practice in the IP area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offices in Denver, Palo Alto, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Tokyo, Washington DC, and Walnut Creek. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Web Resources <ul><li>Patent and Trademark Offices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Searchable databases of patents, publications, and trade/service marks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US: http://www.uspto.gov </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe: http://ep.espacenet.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan: http://www.jpo.go.jp </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US Copyright Office </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.copyright.gov </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Townsend and Townsend and Crew </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.townsend.com </li></ul></ul>
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