Words -  Morphology Presentation- Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar
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  • 1. LANE 333 - MORPHOLOGY 2012 – Term 1 WORDS 9 By: http://SBANJAR.kau.edu.sa/Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.com1 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/11/2011
  • 2. A. Definition of “word” • Words are genuine linguistics units. •In written texts, words are recognized by the white spaces between them. •In linguistic analysis, we are interested in spoken words. •“A word’ is a free morpheme or a combination of morphemes that together form a basic segment of speech” . Norman C. Stageberg2 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/11/2011
  • 3. cont., Definition of “word”“A word is…any segment of a sentencebounded by successive point at whichpausing is possible” Charles F. Hockett Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/11/20113
  • 4. Words can be identified by the pausesbetween them: p p p p p p p Since the streetlamp is out, I must p p p p call up our councilman.4 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/11/2011
  • 5. B. Simple and Complex Words•English words may be classified on thebasis of the kinds and combinations ofmorphemes of which they are composed. 5 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/11/2011
  • 6. Classification of English Words WORDS Simple Complex Compound Words Words Words6 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/11/2011
  • 7. 1. Simple words consist of a single free morpheme.EXAMPLES: flea, long, spirit2. Complex words contain, as their immediate constituents (ICs), either two bound forms or a bound and a free form.EXAMPLES: televise ,telephone7 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/11/2011
  • 8. Complex Words contain two Bound Forms: tele | vise Complex Words contain Bound and free Forms: tele | phone eras | er8 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/11/2011
  • 9. C. Compound Words • Compound words have free forms, usually two as their ICs: ICs: green | house out | side • A small number of compound words have three or four free forms as coordinate ICs. Example: happy|-go|-lucky happy| go| spic| and| span | |9 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/11/2011
  • 10. cont., Compound WordsCompounds words resemble grammaticalstructures in that they imply, though they donot state, a grammatical relationship. Words10 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/11/2011
  • 11. Implied Grammatical Structure Sample Implied GrammaticalNo. Structure Examples1. Subject + verb earthquake (…earth quakes)2. Verb + object killjoy (kills joy)3. Verb + adverbial stopover (stops over)4. Subject + be + adjectival highchair (chair is high) Adjective modified by5. carefree (… free from care) prepositional phrase 11 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/11/2011
  • 12. cont., Compound WordsCompound words can be distinguished fromgrammatical structures in three ways:1. Compound words cannot be divided by theinsertion of intervening materials betweenthe two parts, but grammatical structures canbe so divided.COMPARE: She is a sweetheart. She has a sweet heart.12 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/11/2011
  • 13. cont., Compound Words2. A member of a compound word cannot participatein a grammatical structure. COMPARE: hard ball to base | ballmodifier noun compound word‘very’ can be added: It was a very hard ball.but not * It was a very baseball. 13 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/11/2011
  • 14. cont., Compound Words3. Some compound nouns have differentstress patterns than grammatical structures.Example: Blúebìrd blûe bírd Compound Word Grammatical Structure14 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/11/2011
  • 15. 15 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/11/2011