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    Verb phrase Verb phrase Presentation Transcript

    • E_English Grammar Course
      Unit 5
      Lecture 5. Verb & its complements
    • 1. Different classifications of English verbs
      2. Grammatical categories of the verb
      3. Intensive complementation
      4. Monotransitive complementation
      5. Ditransitive complementation
      6. Complextransitive complementation
      Issues
      Click at the underlined to view the whole explanation
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Functions of items
      Verb
      according to
      = words or phrases
      indicating an action,
      an event, or a state
      E.g.: kiss, break out, have
      Complementation
      Possibility of admitting progressive aspect
      Structure
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Functions of items
      Verbs
      according to
      Lexical verbs
      Auxiliary verbs
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Functions of items
      Verbs
      according to
      Lexical verbs
      Auxiliary verbs
      E.g.: book, booked, booked
      Regular
      E.g.: teach, taught, taught
      Irregular
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Functions of items
      Verbs
      according to
      Lexical verbs
      Auxiliary verbs
      Primary
      Modal
      Marginal
      modal auxiliary
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Functions of items
      Verbs
      according to
      Lexical verbs
      Auxiliary verbs
      • include: do, have, be
      • change meaning when becoming a
      full verb
      E.g.: I am a student. vs. I am reading.
      Primary
      Modal
      Marginal
      modal auxiliary
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Functions of items
      Verbs
      according to
      Lexical verbs
      Auxiliary verbs
      • include:
      Can – could
      May – Might
      Shall-should
      Will-would
      Must
      Ought to
      Primary
      Modal
      Marginal
      modal auxiliary
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Functions of items
      Verbs
      according to
      Lexical verbs
      Auxiliary verbs
      Primary
      Modal
      Marginal
      modal auxiliary
      • include: used to, dare, need
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Complementation
      Verbs
      according to
      Intensive verbs
      Extensive verbs
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Complementation
      Verbs
      according to
      Intensive verbs
      Extensive verbs
      • connect S & C
      • have the pattern:
      SVC or SVA(obli)
      E.g.: I feel tired.
      He’s in the cab.
      E.g.: be, appear, feel, look,
      remain, seem
      Current copular
      E.g.: become, get, go,
      grow, turn, make
      Resulting copular
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Complementation
      Verbs
      according to
      Extensive verbs
      Intensive verbs
      Intransitive
      Transitive
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Complementation
      Verbs
      according to
      Extensive verbs
      Intensive verbs
      • require no Object
      • have the pattern: SV
      • make complete sense
      themselves
      E.g.: He’s singing.
      The baby cried.
      Intransitive
      Transitive
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Complementation
      Verbs
      according to
      Extensive verbs
      Intensive verbs
      Mono-transitive
      Intransitive
      Di-transitive
      Transitive
      Complex-transitive
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Complementation
      Verbs
      according to
      Extensive verbs
      Intensive verbs
      Mono-transitive
      Intransitive
      • require one direct Object (Od)
      • have the pattern: SVOd
      E.g.: I kissed her.
      He caught the ball.
      Di-transitive
      Transitive
      Complex-transitive
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Complementation
      Verbs
      according to
      Extensive verbs
      Intensive verbs
      Mono-transitive
      Intransitive
      Di-transitive
      Transitive
      Complex-transitive
      • require both direct Object (Od) & indirect Object (Oi)
      • have the pattern: SVOdOi
      E.g.: I gave her such a lovely present.
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Complementation
      Verbs
      according to
      • require Object and Object Complement
      (Co) or Obligatory Averbial (A(obli))
      • have the pattern: SVOCo or SVOA(obli)
      E.g.: He made me really crazy.
      He sent his son to the kindergarten.
      Extensive verbs
      Intensive verbs
      Mono-transitive
      Intransitive
      Di-transitive
      Transitive
      Complex-transitive
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Possibility of admitting progressive aspect
      Verbs
      according to
      Stative verbs
      Dynamic verbs
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Possibility of admitting progressive aspect
      Verbs
      according to
      Stative verbs
      = verbs that show the
      condition or status
      and do not accept the
      progressive aspect
      E.g.: I am a boy.
      It feels thin.
      Verbs of inert perception & recognition
      Relational verbs
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Possibility of admitting progressive aspect
      Verbs
      according to
      Stative verbs
      Verbs of inert perception & recognition
      • adore, astonish, believe, hate, hear,
      impress, know, like, etc.
      E.g.: I like you
      He said he hated cooking.
      Relational verbs
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Possibility of admitting progressive aspect
      Verbs
      according to
      Stative verbs
      • apply to, equal, deserve, involve, lack, matter, need, owe, resemble, possess,
      sound, tend, etc.
      E.g.: She resembles her mother.
      Verbs of inert perception & recognition
      Relational verbs
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Possibility of admitting progressive aspect
      Verbs
      according to
      Dynamic verbs
      = verbs that show the action or the
      change of status
      E.g.: She learns English.
      He hit me.
      She is English. ( ‘is’ isn’t
      dynamic verb because it denotes a
      permanent status)
      Verbs of body sensation
      Activity verbs
      Transitional event verbs
      Momentary verbs
      Process verbs
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Possibility of admitting progressive aspect
      Verbs
      according to
      Dynamic verbs
      Verbs of body sensation
      Activities verbs
      • ache, hurt, itch, fell, etc.
      Transitional event verbs
      Momentary verbs
      Process verbs
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Possibility of admitting progressive aspect
      Verbs
      according to
      Dynamic verbs
      Verbs of body sensation
      Activities verbs
      • ask, eat, help, learn, say, throw, write etc.
      Transitional event verbs
      Momentary verbs
      Process verbs
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Possibility of admitting progressive aspect
      Verbs
      according to
      Dynamic verbs
      Verbs of body sensation
      Activities verbs
      Transitional event verbs
      • arrive, land, leave, lose, die etc.
      Momentary verbs
      Process verbs
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Possibility of admitting progressive aspect
      Verbs
      according to
      Dynamic verbs
      Verbs of body sensation
      Activities verbs
      • hit, jump, kick, knock, nod, tap etc.
      Transitional event verbs
      Momentary verbs
      Process verbs
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Possibility of admitting progressive aspect
      Verbs
      according to
      Dynamic verbs
      Verbs of body sensation
      Activities verbs
      Transitional event verbs
      • change, deteriorate, grow, mature, slow down etc.
      Momentary verbs
      Process verbs
    • Classifications of English verbs
      1/1
      1
      classified
      Structure
      Verbs
      according to
      One-word verbs
      Multi-word verbs
      +
      Finite
      Non-finite
      infinitive
      ing-participle
      ed-participle
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Structure
      Verbs
      according to
      One-word verbs
      • as the name suggests, these are verbs of ONE
      WORD
      E.g.: change, kiss, make, love, etc.
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Structure
      Verbs
      according to
      Multi-word verbs
      Phrasal verbs
      Prepositional verbs
      Phrasal-prepositional verbs
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Structure
      Verbs
      according to
      Multi-word verbs
      Phrasal verbs
      • make out, call up, put on, take off, give up, etc.
      Prepositional verbs
      Phrasal-prepositional verbs
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Structure
      Verbs
      according to
      Multi-word verbs
      Phrasal verbs
      Prepositional verbs
      • look up, clear up, get at, etc.
      Phrasal-prepositional verbs
    • 1/1
      1
      Classifications of English verbs
      classified
      Structure
      Verbs
      according to
      Multi-word verbs
      Phrasal verbs
      • come up with, make up for, stand in for, put up with, etc.
      Prepositional verbs
      Phrasal-prepositional verbs
    • 1/1
      Classifications of English verbs
      1
      classified
      Structure
      Verbs
      according to
      One-word verbs
      Multi-word verbs
      +
      Finite
      Non-finite
      E.g.: I am/ He is
      a student.
      Being a
      student, she’s
      hardworking.
    • 1/1
      2
      Grammatical categories of verbs
      Grammatical categories of verbs
      Tense
      Aspect
      Mood
      Voice
      Progressive
      Indicative
      Active
      Present
      Perfective
      Imperative
      Passive
      Past
      Perfective-progressive
      Subjunctive
      Simple
    • 1/1
      2
      Grammatical categories of verbs
      Tense
      = the correspondence between the form of the verb and
      our concept of time
      • language specific
      • while TIME: universal, non-linguistic
      • includes PAST and PRESENT
      • no FUTURE TENSE because there’s no verb form
      corresponding to future time.
      E.g.: She is studying now.
      (verb form: ing-participle + present time: now
       present time)
    • 1/1
      2
      Grammatical categories of verbs
      Aspect
      • the manner in which a verbal action is experienced or regarded
      with respect to time
      • progressive aspect: verbal action experienced as in progress
      • perfective aspect: verbal action experienced as completed
      E.g.: I am writing with a special pen. (progressive aspect)
      I have written with a special pen. (perfective aspect)
      • Tense & aspect are intermingled.
    • 1/1
      Grammatical categories of verbs
      2
      &
      Aspect
      Tense
    • 1/1
      2
      Grammatical categories of verbs
      = a grammatical category that relates the verb action to such
      conditions such as certainty, obligation, necessity, possibility
      Mood
      = statement of the fact
      E.g.: She’s nice to me.
      (fact - indicative)
      Be nice to me.
      (command - imperative)
      I suggest she be nice to me.
      (non-fact - subjunctive)
      Indicative
      = command, request
      Imperative
      = non-fact, unreal
      Subjunctive
    • 1/1
      2
      Grammatical categories of verbs
      Subjunctive mood
      Mandative
      Formulaic
      Subjunctive “were”
    • 1/1
      2
      Grammatical categories of verbs
      Subjunctive mood
      Mandative
      • Found in “-that clause” (verbs: recommend, demand,
      request, insist, suggest, ask, it is necessary that)
      • Form: the base
      • Aim: to be formal
      E.g.: The chairman demands that the farmer kill all his
      chicken.
      It is necessary that every student pay the tuition
      fee.
      Formulaic
      Subjunctive “were”
    • 1/1
      2
      Grammatical categories of verbs
      Subjunctive mood
      Mandative
      • Found in clause in certain set expressions
      • Form: the base
      E.g.: May god bless you.
      Long live the King.
      God save the Queen.
      Come what may, we’ll go ahead.
      Formulaic
      Subjunctive “were”
    • 1/1
      2
      Grammatical categories of verbs
      Subjunctive mood
      Mandative
      • Found in conditional & concessive clauses,
      subordinate clauses after verbs like Wish and Suppose
      • Form: WERE
      • Meaning: hypothetical/unreal
      E.g.: If I were rich, I would buy you anything you wanted.
      Just suppose everyone were to give up smoking.
      Formulaic
      Subjunctive “were”
    • 1/1
      2
      Grammatical categories of verbs
      Voice
      = a grammatical category that makes it possible to view
      the action of a sentence in either of two ways, without
      change in the facts reported
      • include: passive and active voice
      E.g.: He ate all the apples. (active)
      The dog was bitten by our neighbor. (passive)
    • 1/1
      3
      Intensive complementation
      Intensive verb complementation
      (SVC - SVA)
      A (adverbial)
      C (complement)
    • 1/1
      3
      Intensive complementation
      Intensive verb complementation
      (SVC - SVA)
      A (adverbial)
      C (complement)
      Adjective phrase
      Noun phrase
      Nominal phrase
    • 1/1
      3
      Intensive complementation
      Intensive verb complementation
      (SVC - SVA)
      A (adverbial)
      C (complement)
      Adjective phrase
      E.g.: She is so crazy.
      That is ridiculous!
      Noun phrase
      Nominal phrase
    • 1/1
      3
      Intensive complementation
      Intensive verb complementation
      (SVC - SVA)
      A (adverbial)
      C (complement)
      Adjective phrase
      E.g.: She isn’t a good student.
      It appears the only solution.
      Noun phrase
      Nominal phrase
    • 1/1
      3
      Intensive complementation
      Intensive verb complementation
      (SVC - SVA)
      A (adverbial)
      C (complement)
      Adjective phrase
      Noun phrase
      finite clause
      Nominal clause
      non-finite clause
    • 1/1
      3
      Intensive complementation
      Intensive verb complementation
      (SVC - SVA)
      • “that clause”
      E.g.: The problem is that it costs a lot.
      • “wh-interrogative clause”
      E.g.: The problem is not who will go.
      • “nominalrelative clause”
      E.g.: Quality is what counts most.
      A (adverbial)
      C (complement)
      Adjective phrase
      Noun phrase
      finite clause
      Nominal clause
      non-finite clause
    • 1/1
      3
      Intensive complementation
      Intensive verb complementation
      (SVC - SVA)
      • “bare-infinitive clause”
      E.g.: All I did was hit him on the head.
      • “to-infinitive clause” with(out) “Subject” (S)
      E.g.: My wish is to be a pilot. (without S)
      The idea is for us to meet at 8. (with S)
      • “-ing clause”
      E.g.: Seeing is believing.
      A (adverbial)
      C (complement)
      Adjective phrase
      Noun phrase
      finite clause
      Nominal phrase
      non-finite clause
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation
      (SVO)
      Non-finite clause
      Finite clause
      Noun phrase
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Noun phrase
      Direct object (O)
      Prepositional O
      With passive
      Prepositional verbs
      one-word verbs
      phrasal verbs
      Phrasal prepositional verbs
      Without passive
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Noun phrase
      Direct object (O)
      Prepositional O
      With passive
      Prepositional verbs
      one-word verbs
      E.g.: Tom caught the ball.
      The ball was caught by Tom.
      phrasal verbs
      Phrasal prepositional verbs
      Without passive
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Noun phrase
      Direct object (O)
      Prepositional O
      With passive
      Prepositional verbs
      one-word verbs
      phrasal verbs
      E.g.: They passed over the question.
      The question was passed over.
      Phrasal prepositional verbs
      Without passive
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Noun phrase
      Direct object (O)
      Prepositional O
      With passive
      Prepositional verbs
      one-word verbs
      E.g.: She has a nice house.
      A house is had by her.
      phrasal verbs
      Phrasal prepositional verbs
      Without passive
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Noun phrase
      Direct object (O)
      Prepositional O
      With passive
      Prepositional verbs
      one-word verbs
      E.g.: The management paid for his
      air fares.
      phrasal verbs
      Phrasal prepositional verbs
      Without passive
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Noun phrase
      Direct object (O)
      Prepositional O
      With passive
      Prepositional verbs
      one-word verbs
      phrasal verbs
      E.g.: He looked down on them.
      Phrasal prepositional verbs
      Without passive
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause
      That- clause
      Wh- clause
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause
      That- clause
      Wh- clause
      Extraposed subject
      that-clause
      E.g.: I don’t care what you are saying.
      Tom doubted whether they would come to the party.
      I wondered who did make the bed for me.
      Can you confirm which flight we are taking?
      I realized what a fool I had been.
      I know how busy you are.
      Extraposed object that-clause
      That- clause
      as object
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause
      That- clause
      That- clause as object
      Super-ordinate verbs
      Subordinate verbs
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause
      Factual
      Major
      That- clause
      That- clause as object
      Suasive
      Super-ordinate verbs
      Emotive
      Hypothesis
      Minor
      Subordinate verbs
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause
      Factual
      Major
      That- clause
      • introduce what one might generally describe
      as factual or propositional information
      E.g.: They agree/admit/claim that she was
      misled.
      That- clause as object
      Suasive
      Super-ordinate verbs
      Emotive
      Hypothesis
      Minor
      Subordinate verbs
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause
      Factual
      Major
      That- clause
      That- clause as object
      Suasive
      Super-ordinate verbs
      • imply intentions to bring about some change
      in the future, whether or not these are verbally
      formulated as commands, suggestions, etc
      E.g.: The are demanding that she leaves.
      Emotive
      Hypothesis
      Minor
      Subordinate verbs
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause
      Factual
      Major
      That- clause
      That- clause as object
      E.g.: I regret that she worry.
      Suasive
      Super-ordinate verbs
      Emotive
      Hypothesis
      Minor
      Subordinate verbs
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause
      Factual
      Major
      That- clause
      That- clause as object
      Suasive
      Super-ordinate verbs
      E.g.: I wish that he were here.
      Emotive
      Hypothesis
      Minor
      Subordinate verbs
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause
      That- clause
      That- clause as object
      Indicative verbs
      Super-ordinate verbs
      Putative “should”
      Subordinate verbs
      Subjunctive verbs
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause
      That- clause
      That- clause as object
      Indicative verbs
      Super-ordinate verbs
      E.g.: I recommend that he be here.
      Putative “should”
      Subordinate verbs
      Subjunctive verbs
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause
      That- clause
      That- clause as object
      Indicative verbs
      Super-ordinate verbs
      Putative “should”
      E.g.: I insist that he shouldn’t smoke.
      Subordinate verbs
      Subjunctive verbs
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause
      That- clause
      That- clause as object
      Indicative verbs
      Super-ordinate verbs
      Putative “should”
      E.g.: I require that he give up smoking.
      Subordinate verbs
      Subjunctive verbs
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Non-finite clause
      Wh-infinitive clause
      Without subject
      With subject
      To-infinitive clause
      To-infinitive clause
      Ing-participle clause
      Ing-participle clause
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Non-finite clause
      Wh-infinitive clause
      Without subject
      With subject
      To-infinitive clause
      To-infinitive clause
      E.g.: I don’t like the houseto be left empty.
      Ing-participle clause
      Ing-participle clause
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Non-finite clause
      Wh-infinitive clause
      Without subject
      With subject
      To-infinitive clause
      To-infinitive clause
      E.g.: I dislike himdriving my car.
      Ing-participle clause
      Ing-participle clause
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Non-finite clause
      Wh-infinitive clause
      Without subject
      With subject
      To-infinitive clause
      To-infinitive clause
      Ing-participle clause
      Ing-participle clause
      E.g.: Mary longed to leave home.
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Non-finite clause
      Wh-infinitive clause
      Without subject
      With subject
      E.g.: Mary loves listening to music.
      To-infinitive clause
      To-infinitive clause
      Ing-participle clause
      Ing-participle clause
    • 1/1
      4
      Mono-transitive complementation
      Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Non-finite clause
      Wh-infinitive clause
      Without subject
      With subject
      E.g.: He learned how to sail a boat as a small child.
      You must not forget when to keep your mouth shut.
      I could not decide (on) which bicycle to buy.
      To-infinitive clause
      To-infinitive clause
      Ing-participle clause
      Ing-participle clause
    • 1/1
      5
      Di-transitive complementation
      Di-transitive verb complementation (SVOO)
      Od & Oi = NP
      Oi = NP, Od = non-finite clause
      Oi = NP, Od = finite clause
      Idiomatic expressions: V + NP + Prep
      Di-transitive prepositional verbs
    • 1/1
      5
      Di-transitive complementation
      Di-transitive verb complementation (SVOO)
      Od & Oi = NP
      E.g.: He gave the girla doll.
      Oi = NP, Od = non-finite clause
      Oi = NP, Od = finite clause
      Idiomatic expressions: V + NP + Prep
      Di-transitive prepositional verbs
    • 1/1
      5
      Di-transitive complementation
      Di-transitive verb complementation (SVOO)
      Od & Oi = NP
      Oi = NP, Od = non-finite clause
      E.g.: He persuaded meto give up smoking.
      Oi = NP, Od = finite clause
      Idiomatic expressions: V + NP + Prep
      Di-transitive prepositional verbs
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      Di-transitive complementation
      Di-transitive verb complementation (SVOO)
      Od & Oi = NP
      Oi = NP, Od = non-finite clause
      Oi = NP, Od = finite clause
      E.g.: He convinced methat he was right.
      Idiomatic expressions: V + NP + Prep
      Di-transitive prepositional verbs
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      Di-transitive complementation
      Di-transitive verb complementation (SVOO)
      • verbs combined with certain NPs followed by prepositions
       two passive forms of the sentence
      • these expressions include: catch sight of, make fun of, take
      account of, give way to, etc.
      E.g.: They make best use of the garage.
      The garage is made best use of.
      Best use is made of the garage.
      Od & Oi = NP
      Oi = NP, Od = non-finite clause
      Oi = NP, Od = finite clause
      Idiomatic expressions: V + NP + Prep
      Di-transitive prepositional verbs
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      Di-transitive complementation
      Di-transitive verb complementation (SVOO)
      • Od introduced by a preposition
      • one passive form with Oi only
      • these verbs include: remind of, charge with, compare to,
      rob of, refer to, etc.
      E.g.: He reminds me of the agreement.
      I am reminded of the agreement.
      • Exceptions for: explain, provide, supply, blame, etc.
      E.g.: He explained it to me.
      It was explained to me.
      I was explained about it.
      Od & Oi = NP
      Oi = NP, Od = non-finite clause
      Oi = NP, Od = finite clause
      Idiomatic expressions: V + NP + Prep
      Di-transitive prepositional verbs
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      Complex-transitive complementation
      Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOA - SVOC)
      Adjectival Object Complement (Co)
      Nominal Co
      Adverbials
      To-infinitive
      Bare-infinitive
      Ing-clause
      Ed-clause
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      Complex-transitive complementation
      Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC)
      Adjectival Object Complement (Co)
      Nominal Co
      E.g.: He drives mecrazy.
      Adverbials
      To-infinitive
      Bare-infinitive
      Ing-clause
      Ed-clause
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      Complex-transitive complementation
      Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC)
      Adjectival Object Complement (Co)
      Nominal Co
      Adverbials
      E.g.: The Queen appointed Williamher personal secretary.
      To-infinitive
      Bare-infinitive
      Ing-clause
      Ed-clause
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      Complex-transitive complementation
      Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC)
      Adjectival Object Complement (Co)
      Nominal Co
      Adverbials
      To-infinitive
      • Adverbials are obligatory.
      E.g.: Take your handsout of your pocket.
      Bare-infinitive
      Ing-clause
      Ed-clause
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      Complex-transitive complementation
      Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC)
      Adjectival Object Complement (Co)
      Nominal Co
      Adverbials
      To-infinitive
      Bare-infinitive
      E.g.: John believed the strangerto be a policeman.
      Ing-clause
      Ed-clause
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      Complex-transitive complementation
      Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC)
      Adjectival Object Complement (Co)
      Nominal Co
      Adverbials
      To-infinitive
      Bare-infinitive
      Ing-clause
      E.g.: You shouldn't let your familyinterfere with our plans.
      Ed-clause
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      Complex-transitive complementation
      Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC)
      Adjectival Object Complement (Co)
      Nominal Co
      Adverbials
      To-infinitive
      E.g.: Tim watched Billmending the lamp.
      Bare-infinitive
      Ing-clause
      Ed-clause
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      Complex-transitive complementation
      Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC)
      Adjectival Object Complement (Co)
      Nominal Co
      Adverbials
      To-infinitive
      Bare-infinitive
      E.g.: They found himworn out by travel and exertion.
      Ing-clause
      Ed-clause
      ed-clause
    • That’s the end of unit 5.