Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.com
7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 1
•Good teaching is based on three factors:
2. personal integrity, and
3. the ability to communicate with the young.
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•Scholarship is both the grasp of knowledge and a habit of
•An effective teacher brings about both from his students,
but a habit of mind lasts in a person over a lifetime.
•Scholarship is not only an affair of the classroom, but a
way of life which is marked by respect for evidence and
logic, by questioning and finding new meaning in familiar
data, and by the ability to see things in context, to relate
specificities to generalities, facts to theories, and theories
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•Integrity has 2 separate meanings:
1.probity: characteristics of honesty, principle and
2.completeness or unity of character, the sense of
self-confidence and personal identity
• most of our students' most painful trials are in
finding their own selves, in gaining proper self-
• they look to the teacher as who has learned to
control the ambiguities, pressures and restrictions
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THE ABILITY TO COMMUNICATE WITH THE YOUNG
•The ability to communicate with the young is means,
obviously, liking young people, enjoying their noisy enthusiasm
and intense questioning. A good teacher must be, obviously, a
•It means the ability to empathize, to see a situation as the
student sees it.
•It means the skill of provoking more out of a student than he
believed possible, of knowing the tests to which to put a young
scholar in order that he be convinced of his own learning and to
tempt him into further learning.
•It means a belief in the dignity of young people and in the
stage of life at which they now find themselves. Great teachers
neither mock nor underestimate the young.
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Acts which may appear trivial in themselves,
create a standard and a style from which young
people can learn.
•knowing the student’s name, and calling them by name,
•greeting students and colleagues pleasantly ,
•remembering something that had earlier worried a
student, and asking about it,
•resisting the hurtful sarcastic to a foolish comment made
by the student,
•following the motto which all our parents taught us: “If you
can’t say anything good about someone, don’t say anything
•Telling a student the unvarnished truth, privately. “George,
you’re not working hard enough”.
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Here are some points to be considered
in order to help students developing
rational habits of mind:
•always insisting on the reasons in class and out.
•“hearing” students, and questioning them
thoroughly enough to know just how they see or
are confused by an issue
•showing that you can change your mind, when
evidence and logic suggest it.
•being on the edge of your subject and interest;
exhibiting the same questing in your field that
you would have your students feel.
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Code of ethics for teachers as educators
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•The Code of Ethics is a public statement by
educators that sets clear expectations and
principles to guide practice and inspire
•Educators believe a commonly held set of
principles can assist in the individual exercise
of professional judgment.
•This Code speaks to the core values of the
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Educators cultivate the
intellectual, physical, emotional,
social, and civic potential of each
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Educators create, support, and
maintain challenging learning
environments for all
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Educators commit to their own
learning in order to develop their
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Educators collaborate with
colleagues and other professionals
in the interest of student learning
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Educators collaborate with parents
and community, building trust and
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Educators advance the intellectual
and ethical foundation of the learning
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Common teaching methods
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•There are 14 common methods for teaching:
1. Lecture 8. Case studies
2. Lecture with discussion 9. Role playing
3. Panel of experts 10. Report-back session
4. Brainstorming 11. Worksheets/surveys
5. Video tapes 12. Index card exercise
6. Class discussion 13. Guest speaker
7. Small group discussion 14. Values clarification exercise
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Each of these methods has its own:
2. LIMITATIONS and
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Common visual aids
•Visual aids are of 6 kinds:
1. Flip chart/posters
4. Overhead transparencies
5. Computer projections (e.g., power point)
6. Samples, examples, and Mock-ups
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•There are 11 ways to enhance teaching effectiveness:
1. Seize the moment;
2. Involve the student in planning.
3. Begin with what the student knows;
4. Move from simple to complex;
5. Accommodate the student’s preferred learning style;
6. Sort goals by learning domain;
7. Make material meaningful;
8. Allow immediate application of knowledge;
9. Plan for periodic rests;
10. Tell your students how they are progressing;
11. Reward desired learning with praise.
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Is the effectiveness of
teaching enough to motivate
students to learn?
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To encourage students to become self-motivated
independent learners, instructors can do the following:
• Give frequent, early, positive feedback that supports students'
beliefs that they can do well.
• Ensure opportunities for students' success by assigning tasks
that are neither too easy nor too
• Help students find personal meaning and value in the material.
• Create an atmosphere that is open and positive.
• Help students feel that they are valued members of a learning
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To motivate students, the
teacher may consider some
general strategies, instructional
behavior, other general
principles, and motivation
factors & strategies by time .
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1. Capitalize on students’ existing needs
2. Make students active participants in
3. Ask students to analyze what make their
classes more or less “motivating”
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•According to Sass (1989), major contributors
to student motivation are eight:
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Six Incorporating Instructional Behaviors That
1 Hold high but realistic expectation for your students
2 Help students set achievable goals for themselves
3 Tell students what they need to do to succeed in your course
Learning is most effective when an individual is ready to learn,
that is, when one wants to know something.
Avoid creating intense competition among students
Be enthusiastic about your subject
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•General principles of motivation are five:
1 The environment can be used to focus the student’s attention on what
needs to be learned
2 Incentives motivate learning
3 Internal motivation is longer lasting and more self-directive than
Learning is most effective when an individual is ready to learn, that is,
when one wants to know something.
Motivation is enhanced by the way in which the instructional material is
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MOTIVATION FACTORS & STRATEGIES
•Motivation factors and strategies differ according to time
period: beginning, during, and ending.
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•There are four more points for the
teacher to consider to motivate his/her
structuring the course to motivate students
2 de-emphasizing grades
3 motivating students by responding to their work
motivating students to do the reading
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•The course can be structured in a way that
motivates students by using four methods:
1. to work from students’ strengths and interests,
2. to let students choose what they will be studied,
3. to increase the difficulty of the material as the
semester progresses, and
4. to vary your teaching methods
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•The teacher may de-emphasize grades by three
1. to emphasize mastery and learning rather than
2. to design tests that encourage the kind of learning
you want students to achieve, and
3. to avoid using grades as threats
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•The teacher can motivate students by responding to their
work through six methods:
1. she/he may give students feedback as quickly as possible,
2. reward success,
3. introduce students to the good work done by their peers,
4. be specific when giving negative feedback,
5. avoid demeaning comments,
6. avoid giving in to the students’ pleas for “the answer” to
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•The teacher can motivate his/her students to do the reading
using eight ways:
1. assigning the reading at least two sessions before it will be
2. assigning study questions,
3. having the students turn in brief notes on the day’s reading
that they can use during exams if the class is small,
4. asking students to write a one-word journal or one-word
5. asking nonthreatening questions about the reading,
6. using class time a reading period,
7. preparing an exam question on a new reading material,
8. giving a written assignment to those students who have not
done the reading
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Ideas to Encourage Student Retention
•There are 63 ideas to encourage student retention which are
subdivided into four general categories:
1. faculty/student interaction,
2. general classroom management,
3. student-initiated activities, and
4. faculty initiated activities.
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The teacher may
•learn the name of each student as quickly as possible and use
the student’s name in class.
•tell the student by what name and title s/he prefers to be called
(Prof., Dr., Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms, First Name).
•ask one student to stay for a minute to chat at the end of each
•instead of returning tests, quizzes in class, ask students to stop
by the teacher’s office to pick them up which gives the chance to
talk to the student informally.
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•call students on the telephone if they are absent, or make an
appointment with them to discuss attendance, make-up work, etc.
•get feedback periodically from students on their perceptions of
the teacher’s attitude toward them.
•socialize with students as the teacher’s style permits by
attending their clubs or social activities, or walking with them
between classes, etc.
•conduct a personal interview with all students sometime during
•provide positive reinforcement whenever possible; give students
a respectful answer to any question they might ask.
•listen intently to students’ comments and opinions so they feel
that their ideas, comments, and opinions are worthwhile.
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•be aware of the difference between students’ classroom
mistakes and their personal successes/failure
•be honest about his/her feelings, opinions, and attitude toward
students and toward the subject matter. If the teacher does not
know the answer, s/he should admit that.
•lend some of his/her books to students and borrow some of
theirs in return.
•give his/her telephone number to students and the location of
•at a first class meeting, pair up the students and have them
acquainted with one another.
•have the students establish a buddy system for absences,
work missed, assignments, tutoring, etc.
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General Classroom Management
In day-to-day operations of class, the teacher may
1. circulate around the class as s/he talks or asks questions.
This movement creates physical closeness.
2. avoid standing behind the lectern or sitting behind the desk
for the entire period.
3. give each student a mid-term grade and indicate what each
must do to improve.
4. tell the students (orally and in writing) what the attendance
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5. conduct a full instructional period on the first day of
6. list and discuss the course objectives on the first day, let
students know how the course can fit in with their
personal/career goals, let students know how, tell them
what they should expect of the teacher and s/he will
contribute to their learning.
7. let students know that the learning resources the teacher
uses in class (slides, tapes, films) are available to them
outside of class.
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8. have students fill out an index card with name, address,
telephone number, goals and other personal information
the teacher thinks is important.
9. if the subject matter is appropriate, use a pre-test to
determine their knowledge, background, expertise, etc.
10.return tests, quizzes, and papers as soon as possible,
and write comments (+ and -) when appropriate.
11.vary instructional techniques ( lecture, discussion,
debate, small groups, films, etc.)
12.if the student asks a question, be sure that the student
understands the teacher’s answer.
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13.get to class before the students arrive, and be the last one to
14.use familiar examples in presenting materials, explicate rules,
principles, definitions, and theorems with concrete examples
understandable to the to the student.
15.If the teacher had to miss a class, explain why and what s/he
will do to make up the time and/or materials.
16.clarify and have students understand the rules of what is
acceptable and unacceptable behavior in a classroom, and
be consistent in enforcing these rules.
17.realize the importance of eye contact with students both in
and out of class.
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18.distribute an outline of the lecture before the class starts. This
approach assists students in organizing the material
presented by the teacher.
19.if the teacher requires a term paper or research paper, the
teacher should take the responsibility of arranging a library
20.have the counselors visit the classes to foster an awareness
21.allow students to switch classes if work schedules change or
other salient reasons develop.
22. be prepared to use an alternate approach if the one the
teacher has chosen seems to bog down. The format of
instruction can be changed according to student interests and
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23.throughout the course, but particularly during the first
• stress a positive attitude (“you can handle it”)
• emphasize his/her willingness to give individual help point
out the relevance of the subject matter to the concerns
and goal of the students
• capitalize on opportunities to praise the abilities and
contributions of students whose status in the course is in
• utilize a variety of instructional methods, drawing on
appropriate audio-visual aids as much as possible.
• urge students to talk to the teacher about problems, such
as changes in work schedule, before dropping the course
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To produce positive results in getting the students to work with one
another, the teacher may:
1. have students one another’s papers before they turn them in. This activity
could help them to locate one another’s errors before being graded.
2. if the class lends to a field trip, have the students plan it and make some
or all of the arrangements.
3. ask students to submit sample test questions (objective or subjective)
prior to a test. The class itself can compose a test or a quiz based on the
4. create opportunities for student leaders to emerge in class; use their
leadership skills to improve student performance.
5. if students are receiving tutoring help, ask them to report the content and
results of their tutoring
6. have students set specific goals for themselves throughout the semester
in terms of their learning and what responsibilities they will undertake.
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FACULTY INITIATED ACTIVITIES
To be more creative faculty member, the instructor
1. utilize small group discussions in class whenever
2. take the initiative to contact and meet with students
who are doing poor work
3. encourage students who had the first part of a course
to be in the second part together.
4. ask the Reading Faculty to do a “reliability study” of
the texts s/he uses in the classroom
5. develop library/supplementary reading lists which
complement course content. The instructor may select
books at various reading levels.
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6. use his/her background, experience, and knowledge to inter-
relate the subject matter with other academic disciplines
7. throughout the semester, have students submit topics that they
would like to cover or discuss.
8. take students on a mini-tour of the learning resources center,
reading/study skills area, counseling center, etc.
9. work with the division counselor to discuss procedures to
follow-up absentees, failing students, etc.
10.use his/her imagination to device ways to positively reinforce
student accomplishments and try to avoid placing students in
embarrassing situations, particularly in class.
11.create situations in which students can help the teacher (the
student may get a book from library, look up some reference
material, conduct a class research project)
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12.set up special tutoring sessions and extra classes, especially for
students who are doing poorly.
13.confer with other faculty members who have the same students in
14.look at his/her record book periodically to determine student
progress (inform the latter)
15.team teach a class with a colleague, switch classes for a period or
two, or invite a guest lecturer to class.
16.use the library reference shelf for some of the old tests and quizzes
and tell the students that some question will be taken from the old
test in the next test.
17.engage in periodic (weekly) self-evaluation of each class (e.g. what
was accomplished this past week?; how did students react?)
18.at mid-term and at final exam, the last test question asked by the
teacher is that whether the student is going to continue at the
college. If a potential drop-out is identified, the teacher can advise
the student to work with a division counselor.
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Teaching can be more effective by
a) lesson planning,
b) course designing, and
c) syllabus designing.
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DESIGNING A SYLLABUS
•Three aspects are to be considered whilst designing a
1. steps for syllabus planning,
2. principles that foster critical thinking,
3. and syllabus functions.
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Perfect syllabus contains eleven main subdivisions:
1. course information,
2. course description,
3. course objectives,
4. instructional approaches,
5. course requirements & assignments,
6. course policies,
7. grading, evaluation,
9. course calendar,
10. study tips/ learning resources, and
11. student feedback on instruction
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•Lesson planning takes place in three stages:
• Pre-Lesson Preparation,
• Lesson Planning and Implementation, and
• Post Lesson Activities
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Lesson Planning Procedure
Stage 1: Pre-Lesson Preparation
3.student entry level
Stage 2:Lesson Planning and Implementation
Stage 3: Post Lesson Activities
1.lesson evaluation and revision
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A “GOOD COURSE” DESIGN CONTAINS FIVE
1. challenges students to HIGHER LEVEL OF LEARNING,
2. uses ACTIVIVE FORMS OF LEARNING,
3. gives FREQUANT and IMMIDIATE FEEDBACK to
students on the quality of their learning,
4. uses a STRUCTURED SEQUENCE OF DIFFERENT
5. and has a FAIR SYSTEM FOR ASSESSING AND
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FIVE PRINCIPLES OF GOOD COURSE DESIGN
challenges students to HIGHER LEVEL OF
• all courses require some “lower level” learning, i.e.,
comprehending and remembering basic information
and concepts. But many courses never get beyond this.
Examples of “ higher level learning” include problem
solving, decision making, critical thinking, and
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uses ACTIVIVE FORMS OF LEARNING
means not “passive” (i.e. reading and
listening), “active learning ” means learn
solving problems and thinking critically.
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gives FREQUANT and IMMIDIATE FEEDBACK to
students on the quality of their learning
“frequent” means weekly or daily ,“immediate”
means during the same class if possible, or at the
next class session. Frequent and immediate
feedback for students are needed to know whether
they are doing it correctly.
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uses a STRUCTURED SEQUENCE OF DIFFERENT
Different learning activities such as lectures,
discussions, small groups, writing, etc are to be
structured in sequence in which earlier classes lay
the foundation for complex and higher level learning
tasks in later classes.
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has a FAIR SYSTEM FOR ASSESSING AND
Students should have a fair grading system:
objective, reliable, based on learning,
flexible, and communicated in writing.
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•Code of Ethics for Teachers as Educators
•COMMON TEACHING METHODS
•COMMON VISUAL AIDS
•ENHANCING YOUR TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS
•IDEAS TO ENCOURAGE STUDENT RETENTION
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•LESSON PLANNING PROCEDURES
•Designing a Syllabus
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