Teaching Skills by Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar.pptx

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Teaching Skills, Practicum in Language, LANE 462, Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar, 2010.

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Teaching Skills by Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar.pptx

  1. 1. LANE 462 Teaching Skills By: http://SBANJAR.kau.edu.sa/ Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.com 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 1
  2. 2. GOOD TEACHING •Good teaching is based on three factors: 1.scholarship, 2. personal integrity, and 3. the ability to communicate with the young. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 2
  3. 3. Scholarship •Scholarship is both the grasp of knowledge and a habit of mind. •An effective teacher brings about both from his students, but a habit of mind lasts in a person over a lifetime. •Scholarship is not only an affair of the classroom, but a way of life which is marked by respect for evidence and logic, by questioning and finding new meaning in familiar data, and by the ability to see things in context, to relate specificities to generalities, facts to theories, and theories to facts. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 3
  4. 4. INTEGRITY •Integrity has 2 separate meanings: 1.probity: characteristics of honesty, principle and decent frankness. 2.completeness or unity of character, the sense of self-confidence and personal identity • most of our students' most painful trials are in finding their own selves, in gaining proper self- confidence, and • they look to the teacher as who has learned to control the ambiguities, pressures and restrictions of life. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 4
  5. 5. THE ABILITY TO COMMUNICATE WITH THE YOUNG •The ability to communicate with the young is means, obviously, liking young people, enjoying their noisy enthusiasm and intense questioning. A good teacher must be, obviously, a compulsive listener. •It means the ability to empathize, to see a situation as the student sees it. •It means the skill of provoking more out of a student than he believed possible, of knowing the tests to which to put a young scholar in order that he be convinced of his own learning and to tempt him into further learning. •It means a belief in the dignity of young people and in the stage of life at which they now find themselves. Great teachers neither mock nor underestimate the young. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 5
  6. 6. Acts which may appear trivial in themselves, create a standard and a style from which young people can learn. Examples: •knowing the student’s name, and calling them by name, •greeting students and colleagues pleasantly , •remembering something that had earlier worried a student, and asking about it, •resisting the hurtful sarcastic to a foolish comment made by the student, •following the motto which all our parents taught us: “If you can’t say anything good about someone, don’t say anything at all.”, •Telling a student the unvarnished truth, privately. “George, you’re not working hard enough”. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 6
  7. 7. Here are some points to be considered in order to help students developing rational habits of mind: •always insisting on the reasons in class and out. •“hearing” students, and questioning them thoroughly enough to know just how they see or are confused by an issue •showing that you can change your mind, when evidence and logic suggest it. •being on the edge of your subject and interest; exhibiting the same questing in your field that you would have your students feel. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 7
  8. 8. Code of ethics for teachers as educators 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 8
  9. 9. •The Code of Ethics is a public statement by educators that sets clear expectations and principles to guide practice and inspire professional excellence. •Educators believe a commonly held set of principles can assist in the individual exercise of professional judgment. •This Code speaks to the core values of the profession. Principles 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 9
  10. 10. Principle 1: Educators cultivate the intellectual, physical, emotional, social, and civic potential of each student. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10
  11. 11. Principle 2: Educators create, support, and maintain challenging learning environments for all 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 11
  12. 12. Principle 3: Educators commit to their own learning in order to develop their practice. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 12
  13. 13. Principle 4: Educators collaborate with colleagues and other professionals in the interest of student learning 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 13
  14. 14. Principle 5: Educators collaborate with parents and community, building trust and respecting confidentiality 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 14
  15. 15. Principle 6: Educators advance the intellectual and ethical foundation of the learning community 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 15
  16. 16. Common teaching methods 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 16
  17. 17. •There are 14 common methods for teaching: 1. Lecture 8. Case studies 2. Lecture with discussion 9. Role playing 3. Panel of experts 10. Report-back session 4. Brainstorming 11. Worksheets/surveys 5. Video tapes 12. Index card exercise 6. Class discussion 13. Guest speaker 7. Small group discussion 14. Values clarification exercise 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 17
  18. 18. Each of these methods has its own: 1. STRENGTHS, 2. LIMITATIONS and 3. PREPARATION 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 18
  19. 19. Common visual aids •Visual aids are of 6 kinds: 1. Flip chart/posters 2. Slides 3. Videos 4. Overhead transparencies 5. Computer projections (e.g., power point) 6. Samples, examples, and Mock-ups 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 19
  20. 20. •There are 11 ways to enhance teaching effectiveness: 1. Seize the moment; 2. Involve the student in planning. 3. Begin with what the student knows; 4. Move from simple to complex; 5. Accommodate the student’s preferred learning style; 6. Sort goals by learning domain; 7. Make material meaningful; 8. Allow immediate application of knowledge; 9. Plan for periodic rests; 10. Tell your students how they are progressing; 11. Reward desired learning with praise. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 20
  21. 21. Is the effectiveness of teaching enough to motivate students to learn? 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 21
  22. 22. Motivating Students To encourage students to become self-motivated independent learners, instructors can do the following: • Give frequent, early, positive feedback that supports students' beliefs that they can do well. • Ensure opportunities for students' success by assigning tasks that are neither too easy nor too difficult. • Help students find personal meaning and value in the material. • Create an atmosphere that is open and positive. • Help students feel that they are valued members of a learning community. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 22
  23. 23. To motivate students, the teacher may consider some general strategies, instructional behavior, other general principles, and motivation factors & strategies by time . 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 23
  24. 24. General Strategies 1. Capitalize on students’ existing needs 2. Make students active participants in learning 3. Ask students to analyze what make their classes more or less “motivating” 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 24
  25. 25. •According to Sass (1989), major contributors to student motivation are eight: 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 25
  26. 26. Six Incorporating Instructional Behaviors That Motivate Students 1 Hold high but realistic expectation for your students 2 Help students set achievable goals for themselves 3 Tell students what they need to do to succeed in your course Learning is most effective when an individual is ready to learn, that is, when one wants to know something. Avoid creating intense competition among students Be enthusiastic about your subject 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 26
  27. 27. GENERAL PRINCIPLES •General principles of motivation are five: 1 The environment can be used to focus the student’s attention on what needs to be learned 2 Incentives motivate learning 3 Internal motivation is longer lasting and more self-directive than external motivation Learning is most effective when an individual is ready to learn, that is, when one wants to know something. Motivation is enhanced by the way in which the instructional material is organized 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 27
  28. 28. MOTIVATION FACTORS & STRATEGIES •Motivation factors and strategies differ according to time period: beginning, during, and ending. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 28
  29. 29. •There are four more points for the teacher to consider to motivate his/her students: structuring the course to motivate students 2 de-emphasizing grades 3 motivating students by responding to their work motivating students to do the reading 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 29
  30. 30. •The course can be structured in a way that motivates students by using four methods: 1. to work from students’ strengths and interests, 2. to let students choose what they will be studied, 3. to increase the difficulty of the material as the semester progresses, and 4. to vary your teaching methods 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 30
  31. 31. •The teacher may de-emphasize grades by three methods: 1. to emphasize mastery and learning rather than grades, 2. to design tests that encourage the kind of learning you want students to achieve, and 3. to avoid using grades as threats 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 31
  32. 32. •The teacher can motivate students by responding to their work through six methods: 1. she/he may give students feedback as quickly as possible, 2. reward success, 3. introduce students to the good work done by their peers, 4. be specific when giving negative feedback, 5. avoid demeaning comments, 6. avoid giving in to the students’ pleas for “the answer” to homework problems. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 32
  33. 33. •The teacher can motivate his/her students to do the reading using eight ways: 1. assigning the reading at least two sessions before it will be discussed, 2. assigning study questions, 3. having the students turn in brief notes on the day’s reading that they can use during exams if the class is small, 4. asking students to write a one-word journal or one-word sentence, 5. asking nonthreatening questions about the reading, 6. using class time a reading period, 7. preparing an exam question on a new reading material, 8. giving a written assignment to those students who have not done the reading 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 33
  34. 34. Ideas to Encourage Student Retention •There are 63 ideas to encourage student retention which are subdivided into four general categories: 1. faculty/student interaction, 2. general classroom management, 3. student-initiated activities, and 4. faculty initiated activities. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 34
  35. 35. Faculty/Student Interaction The teacher may •learn the name of each student as quickly as possible and use the student’s name in class. •tell the student by what name and title s/he prefers to be called (Prof., Dr., Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms, First Name). •ask one student to stay for a minute to chat at the end of each class period •instead of returning tests, quizzes in class, ask students to stop by the teacher’s office to pick them up which gives the chance to talk to the student informally. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 35
  36. 36. •call students on the telephone if they are absent, or make an appointment with them to discuss attendance, make-up work, etc. •get feedback periodically from students on their perceptions of the teacher’s attitude toward them. •socialize with students as the teacher’s style permits by attending their clubs or social activities, or walking with them between classes, etc. •conduct a personal interview with all students sometime during the semester. •provide positive reinforcement whenever possible; give students a respectful answer to any question they might ask. •listen intently to students’ comments and opinions so they feel that their ideas, comments, and opinions are worthwhile. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 36
  37. 37. •be aware of the difference between students’ classroom mistakes and their personal successes/failure •be honest about his/her feelings, opinions, and attitude toward students and toward the subject matter. If the teacher does not know the answer, s/he should admit that. •lend some of his/her books to students and borrow some of theirs in return. •give his/her telephone number to students and the location of office. •at a first class meeting, pair up the students and have them acquainted with one another. •have the students establish a buddy system for absences, work missed, assignments, tutoring, etc. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 37
  38. 38. General Classroom Management In day-to-day operations of class, the teacher may 1. circulate around the class as s/he talks or asks questions. This movement creates physical closeness. 2. avoid standing behind the lectern or sitting behind the desk for the entire period. 3. give each student a mid-term grade and indicate what each must do to improve. 4. tell the students (orally and in writing) what the attendance policy is 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 38
  39. 39. 5. conduct a full instructional period on the first day of classes 6. list and discuss the course objectives on the first day, let students know how the course can fit in with their personal/career goals, let students know how, tell them what they should expect of the teacher and s/he will contribute to their learning. 7. let students know that the learning resources the teacher uses in class (slides, tapes, films) are available to them outside of class. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 39
  40. 40. 8. have students fill out an index card with name, address, telephone number, goals and other personal information the teacher thinks is important. 9. if the subject matter is appropriate, use a pre-test to determine their knowledge, background, expertise, etc. 10.return tests, quizzes, and papers as soon as possible, and write comments (+ and -) when appropriate. 11.vary instructional techniques ( lecture, discussion, debate, small groups, films, etc.) 12.if the student asks a question, be sure that the student understands the teacher’s answer. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 40
  41. 41. 13.get to class before the students arrive, and be the last one to leave 14.use familiar examples in presenting materials, explicate rules, principles, definitions, and theorems with concrete examples understandable to the to the student. 15.If the teacher had to miss a class, explain why and what s/he will do to make up the time and/or materials. 16.clarify and have students understand the rules of what is acceptable and unacceptable behavior in a classroom, and be consistent in enforcing these rules. 17.realize the importance of eye contact with students both in and out of class. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 41
  42. 42. 18.distribute an outline of the lecture before the class starts. This approach assists students in organizing the material presented by the teacher. 19.if the teacher requires a term paper or research paper, the teacher should take the responsibility of arranging a library orientation. 20.have the counselors visit the classes to foster an awareness of counseling. 21.allow students to switch classes if work schedules change or other salient reasons develop. 22. be prepared to use an alternate approach if the one the teacher has chosen seems to bog down. The format of instruction can be changed according to student interests and concerns. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 42
  43. 43. 23.throughout the course, but particularly during the first class sessions: • stress a positive attitude (“you can handle it”) • emphasize his/her willingness to give individual help point out the relevance of the subject matter to the concerns and goal of the students • capitalize on opportunities to praise the abilities and contributions of students whose status in the course is in doubt • utilize a variety of instructional methods, drawing on appropriate audio-visual aids as much as possible. • urge students to talk to the teacher about problems, such as changes in work schedule, before dropping the course for them. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 43
  44. 44. Student-Initiated Activities To produce positive results in getting the students to work with one another, the teacher may: 1. have students one another’s papers before they turn them in. This activity could help them to locate one another’s errors before being graded. 2. if the class lends to a field trip, have the students plan it and make some or all of the arrangements. 3. ask students to submit sample test questions (objective or subjective) prior to a test. The class itself can compose a test or a quiz based on the course objectives. 4. create opportunities for student leaders to emerge in class; use their leadership skills to improve student performance. 5. if students are receiving tutoring help, ask them to report the content and results of their tutoring 6. have students set specific goals for themselves throughout the semester in terms of their learning and what responsibilities they will undertake. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 44
  45. 45. FACULTY INITIATED ACTIVITIES To be more creative faculty member, the instructor may: 1. utilize small group discussions in class whenever feasible. 2. take the initiative to contact and meet with students who are doing poor work 3. encourage students who had the first part of a course to be in the second part together. 4. ask the Reading Faculty to do a “reliability study” of the texts s/he uses in the classroom 5. develop library/supplementary reading lists which complement course content. The instructor may select books at various reading levels. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 45
  46. 46. 6. use his/her background, experience, and knowledge to inter- relate the subject matter with other academic disciplines 7. throughout the semester, have students submit topics that they would like to cover or discuss. 8. take students on a mini-tour of the learning resources center, reading/study skills area, counseling center, etc. 9. work with the division counselor to discuss procedures to follow-up absentees, failing students, etc. 10.use his/her imagination to device ways to positively reinforce student accomplishments and try to avoid placing students in embarrassing situations, particularly in class. 11.create situations in which students can help the teacher (the student may get a book from library, look up some reference material, conduct a class research project) 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 46
  47. 47. 12.set up special tutoring sessions and extra classes, especially for students who are doing poorly. 13.confer with other faculty members who have the same students in class 14.look at his/her record book periodically to determine student progress (inform the latter) 15.team teach a class with a colleague, switch classes for a period or two, or invite a guest lecturer to class. 16.use the library reference shelf for some of the old tests and quizzes and tell the students that some question will be taken from the old test in the next test. 17.engage in periodic (weekly) self-evaluation of each class (e.g. what was accomplished this past week?; how did students react?) 18.at mid-term and at final exam, the last test question asked by the teacher is that whether the student is going to continue at the college. If a potential drop-out is identified, the teacher can advise the student to work with a division counselor. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 47
  48. 48. Teaching can be more effective by a) lesson planning, b) course designing, and c) syllabus designing. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 48
  49. 49. DESIGNING A SYLLABUS •Three aspects are to be considered whilst designing a syllabus: 1. steps for syllabus planning, 2. principles that foster critical thinking, 3. and syllabus functions. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 49
  50. 50. Perfect syllabus contains eleven main subdivisions: 1. course information, 2. course description, 3. course objectives, 4. instructional approaches, 5. course requirements & assignments, 6. course policies, 7. grading, evaluation, 8. texts/resources/reading/supplies, 9. course calendar, 10. study tips/ learning resources, and 11. student feedback on instruction 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 50
  51. 51. Lesson planning •Lesson planning takes place in three stages: • Pre-Lesson Preparation, • Lesson Planning and Implementation, and • Post Lesson Activities 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 51
  52. 52. Lesson Planning Procedure Stage 1: Pre-Lesson Preparation 1.goals 2.content 3.student entry level Stage 2:Lesson Planning and Implementation 1.unit title 2.instructional goals 3.objectives 4.rationale 5.content 6.instructional procedures 7.evaluation procedures Stage 3: Post Lesson Activities 1.lesson evaluation and revision 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 52
  53. 53. COURSE DESIGN A “GOOD COURSE” DESIGN CONTAINS FIVE PRINCIPLES : 1. challenges students to HIGHER LEVEL OF LEARNING, 2. uses ACTIVIVE FORMS OF LEARNING, 3. gives FREQUANT and IMMIDIATE FEEDBACK to students on the quality of their learning, 4. uses a STRUCTURED SEQUENCE OF DIFFERENT LEARNING ACTIVITIES, 5. and has a FAIR SYSTEM FOR ASSESSING AND GRADING STUDENTS. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 53
  54. 54. FIVE PRINCIPLES OF GOOD COURSE DESIGN PRINCIPLE 1: challenges students to HIGHER LEVEL OF LEARNING • all courses require some “lower level” learning, i.e., comprehending and remembering basic information and concepts. But many courses never get beyond this. Examples of “ higher level learning” include problem solving, decision making, critical thinking, and creative thinking. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 54
  55. 55. PRINCIPLE 2: uses ACTIVIVE FORMS OF LEARNING means not “passive” (i.e. reading and listening), “active learning ” means learn solving problems and thinking critically. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 55
  56. 56. PRINCIPLE 3: gives FREQUANT and IMMIDIATE FEEDBACK to students on the quality of their learning “frequent” means weekly or daily ,“immediate” means during the same class if possible, or at the next class session. Frequent and immediate feedback for students are needed to know whether they are doing it correctly. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 56
  57. 57. PRINCIPLE 4: uses a STRUCTURED SEQUENCE OF DIFFERENT LEARNING ACTIVITIES Different learning activities such as lectures, discussions, small groups, writing, etc are to be structured in sequence in which earlier classes lay the foundation for complex and higher level learning tasks in later classes. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 57
  58. 58. PRINCIPLE 5: has a FAIR SYSTEM FOR ASSESSING AND GRADING STUDENTS Students should have a fair grading system: objective, reliable, based on learning, flexible, and communicated in writing. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 58
  59. 59. RESOURCES: •GOOD TEACHING http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teach... •Code of Ethics for Teachers as Educators http://www.highered.nysed.gov/tcert/resteachers/codeofethics.html •COMMON TEACHING METHODS http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip /comteach.htm •COMMON VISUAL AIDS http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip /visuals.htm •ENHANCING YOUR TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teacht ip/enhance.htm •MOTIVATING STUDENTS http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip /motiv.htm •IDEAS TO ENCOURAGE STUDENT RETENTION http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip /studretn.htm 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 59
  60. 60. •LESSON PLANNING PROCEDURES http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/lesspln1.ht m •COURSE DESIGN http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/finks5.htm •Designing a Syllabus http://cte.udel.edu/instructional-topics/designing-courses/designing-learning-centered- syllabus.html 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 60

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