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Syntactic categories, by dr. shadia yousef banjar.ppt [compatibility mode]


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  • 1. LANE 334 -EA: Syntax 2011 – Term 2 Syntactic Categories 2 By: Shadia Y. Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.comDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 1
  • 3. Phonology looks at and describes the sound system of a language. Morphology looks at the way words are formed . Syntax describes the way words fit together to form sentences or utterances. Semantics deals with meaning. Pragmatics deals with usage.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 3
  • 4. Syntax • Syntax: is the branch of linguistics deals with sentence structure. • In order to study the structure of sentences, we have to know the grammatical rules governing the way words are combined to form ‘well-formed’ sentences.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 4
  • 5. √√√√√√√ a ‘well-formed’ sentence 1. I shot the sheriff. Native XXXXXXX speaker 2. *the shot sheriff I. an ‘ill-formed’ sentence Native speakerDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 5
  • 6. (consist of) S word + word + word + …….(sentence) word order rules Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 6
  • 7. SYNTACTIC CATEGORIESTo understand the language in terms of syntactic rules, wehave to know what are the SYNTACTIC CATEGORIES! Syntactic category are either phrasal categories, such asnoun phrase or verb phrase, which can be decomposed intosmaller syntactic categories, or word category, such as nounor verb, which cannot be further decomposed.The three criteria used in defining syntactic categories are:1. The type of meaning it expresses.2. The type of affixes it takes.3. The structure in which it occurs.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 7
  • 8. A family of expressions that can substitute for one another without loss of grammaticality is called a syntactic category. 1. The cat chases the mouse. 2. The dog chases the mouse 3. The policeman chases the mouse. 4. The mother mouse chases the mouse. If words and phrases could not be assigned to a small group of categories, it would be very hard to learn or use a language.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 8
  • 9. – In the given examples: 1-4, – every word is a member of a category. – a word’s category type determines the kind of phrase it can form. – a phrase is a word or string of words that functions as a unit in a sentence, built around a head. – Every language has specific phrase structure rules determining how phrases can be combined to form sentences.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 9
  • 11. LEXICAL WORD CATEGORIES Lexical word categories are: Words that have some sort of inherent meaning are called lexical words (or content words). Categories related to such words are called lexical categories e.g. NOUN, VERB, ADJECTIVE. Open-class in the sense that new words can be added, and thus have a large number of class members.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 11
  • 12. NOUNMorphological properties it can take a plural -s morpheme; Exceptions: children, deer, mice, fish, . . . it can be modified by a possessive (apostrophe: ’s) it contains morphemes like the following: -ity, -ness, -action, -er, -ion, -ment, -ance, -hood. These are all NOUN- OR NOMINAL SUFFIXES e.gfriendliness, writer, government, neighborhood.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 12
  • 13. Syntactic properties of the class of NOUN • preceded by articles like: the, demonstrative pronouns like: this, that, these, those and numerals like: one, two, three. •preceded by an ADJECTIVE or several ADJECTIVES. •followed by a PREPOSITION. •preceded by a PREPOSITION.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 13
  • 14. VerbMorphological properties• takes a past tense –ed1 form e.g. He walked.• takes the –s form of the verb for third-personsingular agreement e.g. He goes to work daily.• takes the –ing form to express the progressiveaspect e.g. he is running.• takes the –ed2 form to express the perfective aspecte.g. I have finished my work.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 14
  • 15. Syntactic properties of the class of VERB • preceded by AUXILIARIES. These are words like do and have e.g. has come, does like. •preceded by MODAL VERBS. These are words like can, must, will and should e.g. can cook, must work, will sleep, and should eat. •preceded by negation words like not and never e.g. Do not cry, Never shouts. • preceded by an ADVERB or ADVERBS e.g. quickly run. • can be followed by a NOUN e.g. They hate John.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 15
  • 16. ADJECTIVEMorphological properties• has morphemes like -ous, -y, -ish, e.g. furious,angry, brownish, friendly.•able to form comparatives and superlatives with -erand -est. e.g. bigger , biggest.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 16
  • 17. Syntactic properties of the adjective class: • can be preceded by ADVERBS e.g. very angry, more hard-working. •can occur after determiners like the, a, this, these, those and numerals and before NOUNS e.g. the angry boy, those twelve small monkeys. • modifies a NOUN. •cannot immediately follow PREPOSITIONS e.g. *in angry. XXXXXXX •can follow VERBS. E.g. He is angry.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 17
  • 18. ADVERB Morphological properties • often followed by the morpheme –ly, e.g. swiftly, quickly, angrily. Exceptions: abroad, now, fast, often, well, also, very, too, never, so, ... Syntactic properties • modifies a VERB; e.g. walks quickly. •modifies an ADJECTIVE; e.g. swiftly angry. •modifies another ADVERB; e.g. very angrily.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 18
  • 19. Functional word categoriesFunctional word categories are: Words that don’t have (an easily detectable) inherentmeaning are called functional words because such wordsperform some function in the sentence. Functional word categories tend to be CLOSED-CLASS (newwords may not be added) and have a small number of classmembers. functional word categories like the following:• DETERMINERS/QUANTIFIERS•AUXILIARIES•CONJUNCTIONS•COMPLEMENTIZERS Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 19
  • 20. Determiners/QuantifiersThis is a general term for articles (a, an, the),demonstratives (these, those, this), possessivepronouns (his, her, their, her), some quantifiers andinterrogatives (how many, what, where, which, how,why), numerals (one, two, . . . ). Morphological properties: Invariable; i.e. cannottake affixesSyntactic properties: occur before adjectives andnouns.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 20
  • 21. AuxiliariesThis is a general term for the so-called “helping verbs”. Theseare auxiliary verbs like: do, have, be and modal verbs like:can, must, should, will, ought. Morphological properties: can be inflected for tense, voice(active, passive), mood (subjunctive, indicative, . . . ), aspect(progressive, perfective). e.g. can, could, could have, wassent, . . . . Syntactic properties:– typically occur either immediately before the main verb orbefore an adverb modifying the main verb. e.g. can work, canalways work.– can also occur before other auxiliary verbs. e.g. could havecome.– can undergo inversion in questions. e.g. You can speakSpanish vs. Can you speak Spanish? Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 21
  • 22. Conjunction This refers to words like and, or, both, either, neither... Morphological properties: invariable; don’t take affixes. Syntactic properties: typically connect words of the same category. e.g. two or more nouns, two or more verbs, two or more sentences, two or more adjectives, . . .Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 22
  • 23. Complementizer This includes words like: whether, so that, in that, because, if, since, that, . . . Morphological properties: invariable; don’t take affixes. Syntactic properties: create embedded sentences. That is, they create sentences within sentences. e.g. [John likes Sue because [she is pretty]].Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 23
  • 24. Phrasal CategoriesPhrasal Categories: Just as words have wordcategories, phrases have phrasal categories.• Phrasal categories, are ultimately much moreuseful than just individual phrases, for the study ofsentence structure. A phrasal category is directlydetermined by the category of the word which thephrase is about. Such a word is called the head ofthe phrase. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 24
  • 25. •How to determine a phrasal category:The concept of a “head”:• The head of a phrase is the main word of that phrase.• It is essentially what the entire phrase is about.• The category of a phrase is directly determined from thecategory of its head.To see how this works, consider the following example with thephrases marked out in brackets:[[The tiny woman] [went [to [the store ]] ] ]Sentence (S) = The tiny woman went to the storePhrase 1 = the tiny woman :Noun Phrase (NP, for short).Phrase 2 = went to the store: Verb Phrase (VP).Phrase 3 = to the store: Prepositional Phrase (PP).Phrase 4 = the store : Noun Phrase (NP). Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 25
  • 26. Constituents A constituent is a grammatical unit which is part of a larger grammatical unit. in example (1): • The cat = noun phrase • Noun Phrase =determiner + noun • "determiner" and "noun“ are the constituents of the noun phrase.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 26
  • 27. TREE DIAGRAMS Three aspects of a speaker’s syntactic knowledge are explicitly represented in tree diagrams:1. The linear order of the words in the sentence,2. the groupings of words into syntactic categories, and3. the hierarchical structure of the syntactic categories. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 27
  • 28. The Tree Diagram For: Juliet loves Romeo S VP NP V NP N N Juliet loves RomeoDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 28
  • 29. Form and Function •Words can be grouped in certain patterns to form sentences. •In terms of forms, a sentence consists of a noun phrase and a verb phrase. •In terms of function, a sentence consists of a subject and a predicate. A predicate must contain a predicator which is a verb. •The class of a constituent indicates its form and what the form does or act as a grammatical unit indicates its function.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 29
  • 30. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 30