Tools of Analysis II


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Tools of Analysis II, By Dr.Shadia Banjar, LANE 334, Syntax, 2010

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Tools of Analysis II

  1. 1. Tools of Analysis II By: Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 1
  2. 2. LANGUAGE SPOKEN WRITTEN We are going to deal with written Sentences. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 2
  4. 4. Phonology looks at and describes the sound system of a language. Morphology looks at the way words are formed . Syntax describes the way words fit together to form sentences or utterances. Semantics study meaning. Pragmatics study usage. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 4
  5. 5. Syntax • Syntax: is the branch of linguistics deals with sentence structure. • In order to study the structure of sentences, we have to know the grammatical rules governing the way words are combined to form ‘well-formed’ sentences. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 5
  6. 6. √√√√√√√ a ‘well-formed’ sentence 1. I shot the sheriff. Native XXXXXXX speaker 2. *the shot sheriff I. an ‘ill-formed’ sentence Native speaker Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 6
  7. 7. (consist of) S word + word + word + ……. (sentence) word order rules Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 7
  8. 8. SYNTACTIC CATEGORIES To understand the language in terms of syntactic rules, we have to know what are the SYNTACTIC CATEGORIES! A syntactic category is either a phrasal category, such as noun phrase or verb phrase, which can be decomposed into smaller syntactic categories, or a lexical category, such as noun or verb, which cannot be further decomposed. The three criteria used in defining syntactic categories are: 1. The type of meaning it expresses. 2. The type of affixes it takes. 3. The structure in which it occurs. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 8
  9. 9. A family of expressions that can substitute for one another without loss of grammaticality is called a syntactic category. 1. The cat chases the mouse. 2. The dog chases the mouse 3. The policeman chases the mouse. 4. The mother mouse chases the mouse. If words and phrases could not be assigned to a small group of categories, it would be very hard to learn or use a language. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 9
  10. 10. – In the given examples: 1-4, – every word is a member of a category. – a word’s category type determines the kind of phrase it can form. – a phrase is a word or string of words that functions as a unit in a sentence, built around a head. – Every language has specific phrase structure rules determining how phrases can be combined to form sentences. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10
  12. 12. LEXICAL WORD CATEGORIES Lexical word categories are: §Words that have some sort of inherent meaning are called lexical words (or content words). §Categories related to such words are called lexical categories e.g. NOUN, VERB, ADJECTIVE. §Open-class in the sense that new words can be Open-class added, and thus have a large number of class members. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 12
  13. 13. Functional word categories Functional word categories are: §Words that don’t have (an easily detectable) inherent meaning are called functional words because such words perform some function in the sentence. §Categories belong to such words are called FUNCTIONAL CATEGORIES e.g. DETERMINER, CONJUNCTION §Functional word categories tend to be CLOSED-CLASS (new words may not be added) and have a small number of class members. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 13
  14. 14. NOUN Morphological properties • it can take a plural -s morpheme; Exceptions: children, deer, mice, fish, . . . • it can be modified by a possessive (apostrophe: ’s) • it contains morphemes like the following: -ity, -ness, -er, -ment, -ance, -hood. These are all NOUN- OR NOMINAL SUFFIXES e.g. friendliness, writer, government, neighborhood. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 14
  15. 15. Syntactic properties of the class of NOUN • preceded by articles like: a, an, the, demonstrative pronouns like: this, that, these, those and numerals like: one, two, three. •preceded by an ADJECTIVE or several ADJECTIVES. •preceded by a PREPOSITION. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 15
  16. 16. Verb Morphological properties • takes a past tense –ed1 form e.g. He walked. • takes the –s form of the verb for third-person singular agreement e.g. He goes to work daily. • takes the –ing form to express the progressive aspect e.g. he is running. • takes the –ed2 form to express the perfective aspect e.g. I have finished my work. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 16
  17. 17. Syntactic properties of the class of VERB • preceded by AUXILIARIES e.g. He has gone. •preceded by MODAL VERBS e.g. She can cook. •preceded by negation words like not and never e.g. Do not cry, He never shouts. • followed by an ADVERB or ADVERBS e.g. He snores loudly • can be followed by a NOUN e.g. I hate John. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 17
  18. 18. ADJECTIVE Morphological properties of the class of ADJECTIVE • has morphemes like -ous, -y, -ish, e.g. furious, angry, brownish, friendly. •able to form comparatives and superlatives with -er and -est. e.g. bigger , biggest. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 18
  19. 19. Syntactic properties of the class of ADJECTIVE • can be preceded by ADVERBS e.g. very angry. •modifies a NOUN. It can come after determiners like the, a, this, these, those and numerals and before NOUNS e.g. the angry boy, those twelve small monkeys. •cannot immediately follow PREPOSITIONS e.g. *in angry. XXXXXXX •can follow VERBS. E.g. He is angry. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 19
  20. 20. ADVERB Morphological properties of the class of ADVERB • often followed by the morpheme –ly, e.g. softly, quickly, angrily. Exceptions: abroad, now, fast, often, well, also, very, too, never, so, ... Syntactic properties of the class of ADVERB • modifies a VERB; e.g. walks quickly. •modifies an ADJECTIVE; e.g. swiftly angry. •modifies another ADVERB; e.g. very angrily. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 20
  21. 21. Constituents A constituent is a grammatical unit which is part of a larger grammatical unit. in example (1): • The cat = noun phrase • Noun Phrase =determiner + noun • "determiner" and "noun“ are the constituents of the noun phrase. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 21
  22. 22. TREE DIAGRAMS Three aspects of a speaker’s syntactic knowledge are explicitly represented in tree diagrams: 1. The linear order of the words in the sentence, 2. the groupings of words into syntactic categories, and 3. the hierarchical structure of the syntactic categories. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 22
  23. 23. The Tree Diagram For: Juliet loves Romeo S VP NP V NP N N Juliet loves Romeo Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 23
  24. 24. Form and Function •Words can be grouped in certain patterns to form sentences. •In terms of forms, a sentence consists of a noun phrase and a verb phrase. •In terms of function, a sentence consists of a subject and a predicate. A predicate must contain a predicator which is a verb. •The class of a constituent indicates its form and what the form does or acts as a grammatical unit indicates its function. • The position of the constituent determines its grammatical function. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 24
  25. 25. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 25