Levels of translating, presented by dr. shadia yousef banjar


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Levels of translating, presented by dr. shadia yousef banjar

  1. 1. LANE-462-FA-HA- Term 2- 2011 Levels of Translating By: http://SBANJAR .kau.edu.sa/ Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.comDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 1
  2. 2. Newmark states that translating a sourcetext into a target text operates in fourlevels :1. Textual Level,2. Referential Level,3. Cohesive Level, and4. Naturalness Level. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 2
  3. 3. THE FOUR LEVELS OF TRANSLATINGDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 3
  4. 4. THE TEXTUAL LEVEL It involves the source text. At this level, you decode or render thesyntactic structures of the source text intotheir correspondent structures in the targettext. Sometimes you have to change thesestructures into something quite different inorder to achieve the target languagenaturalness. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 4
  5. 5. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 5
  6. 6. The referential level operates on the content of the ST. Itdeals with the message or the meaning of the text.On this level you decode the meaning of the source textand build the conceptual representation.This is where you simplify polysemous words andphrases. On it you decode idioms and figurative expressions. This is where you figure out the pragmatic function of thesource text.Once you have decoded the ST, you encode it into anappropriate target language expressions.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 6
  7. 7. The referential level and the textual level are closely related because the language of the source text conveys the message, and you use language to encode the message into the target text.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 7
  8. 8. The cohesive level The cohesive level links the textual and the referentiallevels . It deals with the form and the meaning of the text . Newmark identifies it as the mood of the text while otherscall it the tone of the text. In fact, tone is the authorsattitude towards the text and the mood is the readersattitude toward the text. tone words can be negative, neutral, and positive. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 8
  9. 9. TONE is simply the author’s attitude toward the subject. You can recognize the tone/attitude by the language/word choices the author uses. His language will reveal his perspective/opinion (that is, whether it is positive/negative) about the subject. Tone must be inferred through the use of descriptive words.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 9
  10. 10. MOOD MOOD is the overall feelings or emotions that are created IN THE READER. Authors “move” their readers’ moods through their choice of words and level of detail.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10
  11. 11. Cohesive devices are typically single words or phrases that basically make the text hang together. By analogy, they are much like the seams in our clothing which keep items like jackets and trousers together. Three elementary examples of cohesive devices are word repetition, synonyms and pronouns.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 11
  12. 12. Cohesion is the network of lexical, grammatical,and other relations which link various parts of atext. These relations or ties organize and, tosome extent, create a text, for instance, byrequiring the reader to interpret words andexpressions by reference to other words andexpressions in the surrounding sentences andparagraphs. Cohesion is a surface relation andit connects together the actual words andexpressions that we can see or hear.Halliday and Hasan identify five main cohesivedevices in English: reference, substitution,ellipsis, conjunction, and lexical cohesion. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 12
  13. 13. At the structural sublevel, you investigate how variousconnectors, such as conjunctions, enumerations,repetitions or reiterations, definite articles anddeterminers, general category labels, synonyms,punctuation marks, simple or complex conjuncts, linksentences and structure the text and what Newmarkcalls its train of thought – which is basically its underlyinginformation structure. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 13
  14. 14. You establish the tone by finding the so-called value-ladenand value-free passages, such as subjective and objectivebits, euphemisms, and other framing devices, framing being the strategy of linguistically presentingsomething in the perspective of ones own values and worldview,in a way promoting these. An author will frequently use emotional language that is value-ladened to affect our opinions. These words reflect the bias ofthe author and can express positive or negative opinions orbiases toward the subject. Sometimes these words are referredto as loaded words. All of this will have to be somehow transferred into the targettext so you achieve maximal equivalence at this level to. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 14
  16. 16. The level of naturalness This level is target text oriented, focusing exclusively on the construction of the target text. It is important that: 1. the target text makes sense. 2. the target text reads naturally like any other text composed in the target language. This is apparently more difficult than one might expect, because one tends to reproduce a lot of grammatical structures, phrases and wordings which are natural in the source language but, while possible in the target language, which do not feel natural as such in the target language.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 16
  17. 17. What makes things more complicated is that naturalness often depends on the situation, such that something might seem natural in one context but unnatural in another. The best, perhaps only way, to ensure naturalness is to read through your translation and spot unnaturally sounding parts and change them into something that sounds more natural. This is something that most people skip when they do translations.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 17
  18. 18. Reference:A textbook of translation. Newmark, Peter,1988, Prentice-HallInternational (New York).Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 18