Inflectional Paradigms - morphology- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar


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Inflectional Paradigms - morphology- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

  1. 1. LANE 333 - MORPHOLOGY Verb 2012 – Term 1 Paradigm Noun Comparable Paradigm Paradigm Inflectional ParadigmsInflectional Paradigms 11 By: Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.comDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 1 10/26/2011
  2. 2. What is a paradigm?•A paradigm is the complete set of related word-formsassociated with a given lexeme.• A paradigm is a set of related forms having the samestem but different affixes.•Example: a derivational paradigm with the stem head;ahead, behead, header, headlong, headship,heady, subhead.•Paradigms are also defined by the grammaticaldistinctions which a language chooses to codemorphologically.•Example: Nouns in English have to be inflected for NUMBER. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 2 10/26/2011
  3. 3. PARADIGMSParadigms are the devices used bystructuralists for establishing wordclasses in English considering the waysin which certain types of words can begrouped into sets, called paradigms,on the basis of the inflectional andderivational affixes (prefixes andsuffixes) that they will take.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 3 10/26/2011
  4. 4. Types of Paradigms Derivational Paradigms PARADIGMS Inflectional ParadigmsDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 4 10/26/2011
  5. 5. • A derivational paradigm is a set of related words whichhave the same root but different stems.Examples: 1. nature, natural, naturally 2. unnatural, unnaturally 3. naturalist, naturalistic, naturalistically 4. naturalize, naturalization• An inflectional paradigm is a set of related wordsconsisting of the same stem to which different inflectionalsuffixes have been added.•Examples: 1. brighten, brightens, brightening , brightened, brightened 2. great, greater, greatest 3. boy, boy’s, boys, boys’Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 5 10/26/2011
  6. 6. Inflectional Paradigms•The inflectional paradigm is formed by words to which theinflectional suffixes are attached.• As far as stems are concerned, we can say that the stem ofthe word is that part of the word which remains when theinflectional suffix is removed.• Some authors refer to the stem as the base of the word.• There are three types of stems: 1. Simple stems are identical to the root: run, tree, room, chair 2. Derived stems consist of a root and one or more derivational suffixes: freedom, motherhood, anticapitalism 3. Compound stems consist of two or more roots: blackberry, airplane, day-careDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 6 10/26/2011
  7. 7. Inflectional paradigmsAN INFLECTIONAL PARADIGM is aset of related words composed of thesame stem and all the inflectionalsuffixes that can go with this stem. A STEM + INFLECTIONAL SUFFIXES INFLECTED FORMS OF ONE AND THE SAME WORDDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 7 10/26/2011
  8. 8. Inflectional categoriesAffixes that are added to roots to indicategrammatical relationships are known asINFLECTIONAL ENDINGS, and the processof combining these endings with roots is calledINFLECTION.INFLECTIONAL CATEGORIES: are abstractmeanings that typically relate to a largerlinguistic system of contrasts. These categoriesare: PERSON, NUMBER, GENDER,TENSE, ASPECT, VOICE, MOOD , andCASE. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 8 10/26/2011
  9. 9. Inflectional categoriesPERSON: refers to the three–way distinctionbetween the speaker (first person), the hearer(second person), and someone or somethingelse (third person).GENDER: refers to the distinction betweenMASCULINE, FEMININE, and NEUTER.NUMBER: refers to the distinction betweensingular and plural.TENSE: indicates distinctions in the TIME(PRESENT,PAST, FUTURE)Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 9 10/26/2011
  10. 10. Inflectional categoriesASPECT:(PROGRESSIVE, PERFECTIVE) of anaction or state.VOICE: refers to the distinction between ACTIVE andPASSIVE.MOOD: refers to the distinction betweenINDICATIVE, SUBJUNCTIVE, and IMPERATIVE.CASE: indicates the grammatical function of theinflected word in a phrase , clause, or sentence;(NOMINATIVE CASE), (ACCUSATIVE CASE),(POSSESSIVE or GENITIVE). Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10 10/26/2011
  11. 11. Inflectional categories and affixes of English Affix Used to Express Word Class Inflectional Category Category Number -s: book/books Nouns -s, -: the cats tail, Possessive Charles toe 3rd Person Singular -s:It rains Present Past Tense -ed: paint/painted Verbs -ed: (has painted) Perfect Aspect (past participle) -ing: fall/falling, Progressive Aspect ‘I’m falling’ (present participle) Comparative -er: tall/taller Adjectives Superlative -est: tall/tallestDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 11 10/26/2011
  12. 12. Types of Inflectional Paradigms Verb Paradigm Noun Comparable Paradigm Paradigm Inflectional ParadigmsDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 12 10/26/2011
  13. 13. A. The Noun Paradigm FORMS STEM PLURAL POSSESSIVE PLURAL POSSESSIVE Inflectional {-s pl} {-s ps} {-s pl ps} Suffixes doctor doctors doctor’s Doctors’ MODELS mother mothers mother ’s mothers’Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 13 10/26/2011
  14. 14. The Noun ParadigmNouns may be categorised in terms of number (singularor plural) and case (possessive or not). Nouns only takethe genitive case clitic -‘s.A paradigm for all the forms of a noun is called adeclension, and to write a paradigm for a particular nounis called declining the noun. Here is an example of thedeclension of the words: stone, ox, and man. SINGULAR PLURAL POSSESSIVE PLURAL POSSESSIVE stone stones stone’s stones’ ox oxen ox’s oxen’s man men man ’s men’ sDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 14 10/26/2011
  15. 15. The Noun Paradigm• The four-form paradigm is maximal:not all nouns have the four forms.• many nouns do not take the possessiveforms because an of structure oftentakes the place of {-s ps} the morpheme.Example:“The ceiling of the room” – is morelikely to be used than - “the room’sceiling” .Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 15 10/26/2011
  16. 16. The Noun Paradigm• Some nouns have only the form of: the stem: tennis, courage plural form: clothes, trousers ending with an –s, and treated as singular: Physics, economics ending with an –s, but may be either singular and plural: measles, ethicsDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 16 10/26/2011
  17. 17. Noun PluralsTo differentiate singular from plural forms, there are 3useful tests for the NUMBER in the noun:1. Pronoun substitution: • a noun is singular if it can take he/him, she/her, it, this, or that • a noun is plural if it can take they/them, these or those2.The number of the noun may be signaled by a modifier such as several, many, or by a pronoun reference.3.When a noun functions as a subject of a verb, its number is sometimes shown by the form of the verb. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 17 10/26/2011
  18. 18. Noun PluralsSome collective nouns, may be eithersingular or plural in meaning when theyare singular in form such as tribe, team,faculty, family.Examples:• The family (the unit) is sitting at the dinner table.•The family (the individuals)have gathered from many parts of the country.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 18 10/26/2011
  19. 19. Noun Plurals REGULAR – S PLURAL NOUN PLURALS IRREGULAR PLURALDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 19 10/26/2011
  20. 20. Noun Plurals 1. Regular plurals include the three allomorphs of {-s pl} such as hats/-s/, fads /-z/, and kisses /-Əz/.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 20 10/26/2011
  21. 21. Noun Plurals2. Irregular plurals have several small groups: a. -en plurals e.g. oxen, children b. -Ø (zero) suffixal plurals e.g. deer deer /dir/(pl.)= /dir/ + / Ø/ c. Replacive allomorphs; e.g. geese geese /gis/= goose/gus/+ /u>i/. d. Morphophonemic changes: One set of nouns has the stem of the plural an allomorph that is different from the stem of the singular. e.g. knife > knives knives /nayvz/=/naif/ + /f > v/+ /-z/Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 21 10/26/2011
  22. 22. Noun PluralsPluralization of borrowed nouns:1. conforms to the rules of the borrowing language as in: soprano > sopranos2. Kept the plural form of the original language as in: phenomenon > phenomena3. Both plural forms :the original and the borrowed languages as in: Curriculum > Curriculums + curriculaDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 22 10/26/2011
  23. 23. Noun PossessiveAllomorphs of the possesive morpheme:{-s ps}has the same phonologicallyconditioned allomorphs as the plural:/- ǝs/, /-z/, /-ǝz/ , plus a zero allomorph. NOUN POSSESSIVE dentists /dentists/ ʧildrǝnz children’s /ʧildrǝnz/ ʧildrǝn ǝsǝz ǝsǝz/ Waitress’s /weitrǝsǝz/ students’ /studnts/Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 23 10/26/2011
  24. 24. Noun PossessiveThere are different semantic relationships that can existbetween the possessive noun and the one that follows:1. Possession or belongingness, e.g. John’s hat2. Characterization or description, e.g. men’s coats3. Origin, e.g. Cary’s novels4. Measure (time, value, space), e.g. a dollar’s worth5. Subject of act, e.g. John’s flight6. Object of act, e.g. Eliot’s criticsDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 24 10/26/2011
  25. 25. Noun PossessiveAmbiguous possessive nouns:Express more than one relation at thesame timeExample: ‘his son’s loss grieved him’ His son lost something He lost his son ( subject of underlying verb) ( object of underlying verb)Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 25 10/26/2011
  26. 26. Noun Possessive{-s ps} vs. ‘of structure’:There is a tendency to use theinflected form with animatenouns; thus, ‘the dog’s leg’ , but‘the leg of the table’.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 26 10/26/2011
  27. 27. B. The Verb Paradigm FORMS STEM PRESENT PRESENT PAST PAST THIRD-PERSON PARTICIPLE TENSE PARTICIPLE SINGULARInflection {-s 3d} {-ING vb} {-D pt} {-D pp}al Suffixes show shows showing showed showedMODELS ring rings ringing rang rung cut cuts cutting cut cutDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 27 10/26/2011
  28. 28. The Verb Paradigm•Verbs have five forms.•Each of the five forms has its own uses:1. The stem (base form) : occurs after to, modals,,indicating simple present tense with all person except3rd person singular, and indicating imperative mood.2. The present third-person singular : {-s 3d}used with he, she , it or nouns which thesepronouns will substitute. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL 1st person take(base form) take (base form) 2nd person take(base form) take (base form) 3rd person takes {-s 3d} take(base form)Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 28 10/26/2011
  29. 29. The Verb Paradigm3. The present Participle: {-ING vb}: Combines with forms of verb ‘to be’ indicating progressive aspect. • They were writing letters. Can be used as subjectless verbal. • Owning a cabin in the north woods, Jake was very popular during the summer vacation. • Not knowing what to say, Mary kept silent. Not used with verbs indicating mental activities: • * Jake is owing a cabin in the north woods. • * She was not knowing what to say.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 29 10/26/2011
  30. 30. The Verb Paradigm EXAMPLES:‘I speak’ (present tense)‘ I spoke ’ (past tense)‘ I am speaking ’ (present progressive),‘ I was speaking ’ (past progressive)‘ I have spoken ’ (present perfect),‘ I had spoken ’ (past perfect)Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 30 10/26/2011
  31. 31. The Verb Paradigm4. The past tense: {-D pt} has regular and irregular forms indicating SIMPLE PAST TENSE.5.The past participle: {-D pp}has regular and irregular forms. It is used with verb ‘to have’ to form verbal phrases indicating PERFECTIVE ASPECT. It can be used with verb ‘to be’ to form the passive form indicating PASSIVE VOICE.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 31 10/26/2011
  32. 32. The Verb Paradigm4. The past tense: {-D pt} has regular and irregular forms indicating SIMPLE PAST TENSE.5.The past participle: {-D pp}has regular and irregular forms. It is used with verb ‘to have’ to form verbal phrases indicating PERFECTIVE ASPECT. It can be used with verb ‘to be’ to form the passive form indicating PASSIVE VOICE.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 32 10/26/2011
  33. 33. Suppletion• A total change in the paradigm is called suppletion.• Consider the verb ‘go’• The entire stem /go-/ has been replaced ɜ by a wholly different stem /wɜn-/.• The suppletion can be expressed by this ɜ ɜ formula : /wɜnt/ = /go > wɜn/ + /t/ Base [-s] ŋ [-iŋ] [-ed1] [-ed2] form form form form form go goes going went goneDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 33 10/26/2011
  34. 34. SuppletionSuppletion is allomorphy that is produced byretrieving from the lexicon different phonologicalforms of the morpheme in question. A noticeable caseis the verb be in English, which has the suppletiveforms am, are, is, was, and were, as well as be,being, and been. Originally suppletive forms werethose which were ‘supplied’ to fill in for missingforms of a root in a ‘defective’ (i.e., incomplete)paradigm. Under that definition, am, is, are, was,and were are suppletive with respect to be, but beenand being are not. (David Tuggy ,1997)Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 34 10/26/2011
  35. 35. SuppletionIt would be quite odd to posit aphonological rule to derive, for example, ӕ/ӕm/ from /bi/, or vice versa, or both ofthem from a third form; they are clearlynot phonologically-related forms. Thus, itis normally assumed that forms such as‘am, are, is, was, were, and be’ arelexically stored.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 35 10/26/2011
  36. 36. SuppletionIt is also generally assumed that a formlike being, since it is predictable fromthe combination of be with the suffix -ing, is not stored.A suppletive allomorph’s use may beconditioned by grammatical context (e.g.,am occurs in present tense with firstperson singular subject). David Tuggy, 1997Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 36 10/26/2011
  37. 37. C. Comparable Paradigm Forms Stem Comparative Superlative Inflectional {-ER cp} {-EST sp} Suffixes sweet sweeter sweetest MODELS soon sooner soonestDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 37 10/26/2011
  38. 38. Comparable ParadigmComparable paradigm includes:1. Nearly all one-syllable adjectives: hot2. Some two-syllable adjectives mainly ending in –ly and -y: funny3. A few adverbials of one or two syllables: early4. One preposition: near Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 38 10/26/2011
  39. 39. Comparable ParadigmOther adjectives and adverbs usuallytake the preceding more or mostinstead of –er/-est. Some adjectives have suppletive(irregular) forms in the comparativeand superlative such as ‘good’: ɛǝ ʊ ɛ better/bɛtǝr/=/gʊd>bɛt-/+/ -ǝr/ǝ ɛ ʊ ɛ best /bɛst/ = /gʊd > bɛ-/ + /-st/Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 39 10/26/2011
  40. 40. Conclusion•In all inflectional paradigms, the stemremains constant.• The suffixes produce the difference inmeaning among the forms of eachparadigm.•Membership in one of these inflectionalparadigms is one of the signals thatenables us to group words into four of themajor pats of speech- nouns, verbs,adjectives, and adverbs.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 40 10/26/2011
  41. 41. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 41 10/26/2011