Critical Thinking, by Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar.pptx


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Critical Thinking - Practicum in Language, LANE 462 - Summer 2010, Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar.

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Critical Thinking, by Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar.pptx

  1. 1. LANE 462 Critical Thinking? By: Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 1
  2. 2. Everyone thinks ….. Everyone thinks; it is our nature to do so. But much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased, unclear, partial, uninformed or down-right prejudiced. Yet the quality of our life and that of what we produce, make, or build depends precisely on the quality of our thought. Poor thinking is costly, both in money and in quality of life. Excellence in thought, however, must be systematically cultivated. - Richard Paul 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 2
  3. 3. Critical Thinking History •Socrates – 400 BC 2,500 years ago Socrates established the importance of asking deep questions, seeking evidence, analyzing basic concepts before we accept ideas as worthy of beliefs . 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 3
  4. 4. Socrates • Questioning • Inquiring • Search for meaning • Search for truth 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 4
  5. 5. •Plato, Aristotle, Greek skeptics Plato, Aristotle, and Greek skeptics emphasized that things are often very different from what they appear to be and that only the trained mind is prepared to see though the way thing look to us on the surface. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 5
  6. 6. In the middle ages •Thomas Aquinas (Sumna Theologica) Thomas Aquinas (Sumna Theologica) ensures that his thinking met the tests of critical thinkers by answering criticisms of his ideas. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 6
  7. 7. 15th & 16th C. (Renaissance) •European scholars (Colet, Erasmus, More in England) started thinking critically about religion, art, society, human, law, and freedom. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 7
  8. 8. Francis Bacon in England • wrote The Advancement of Learning, the 1st book in critical thinking. •argued for the importance of studying the world empirically. •laid the foundation for modern science with his emphasis on the information- gathered process. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 8
  9. 9. Francis Bacon • Father of the Scientific Method • “We must become as little children in order to enter the kingdom of science” 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 9
  10. 10. •Descartes in France 50 years later •Sir Thomas More in England Descartes in France • wrote the 2nd book Rules for the Direction of the Mind - developed a method of critical thought based on the principle of systematic doubt. •In the same period, Sir Thomas More: - developed a model for a new social order Utopia in which every domain the present world was subject to critique. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10
  11. 11. 16th &17th C. Hobbes & Locke - not to accept the traditional cultural beliefs dominant in the thinking of their day as being rational and normal. - everything in the world should be explained by evidence and reasoning. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 11
  12. 12. 17th & 18th C. • Robert Boyle & Isaac Newton in Chemistry & nature • other French thinkers in sociology & politics Adam Smith produces Wealth of Nations in economics 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 12
  13. 13. 19th C. • Darwin's Descent of Man in the biological domain focused on the history of human culture and the basis of biological life • Sigmund Freud study in the unconscious domain. •Plus other studies in the Anthropological & Linguistics domains. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 13
  14. 14. 20th C. •Number of thinkers have increased in every domain of human thought and within which reasoning takes place. •Dewey – 1930’s •Ennis – 1980’s 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 14
  15. 15. Dewey Reflective Thinking • Dispositions of thinking • Native Resources – Open mindedness – Curiosity – Whole heartedness – Suggestion – Intellectual Responsibility – Orderliness 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 15
  16. 16. Ennis • Critical thinking is “reasonable, reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do.” 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 16
  17. 17. Ennis - Actions a learner usually must take in order to think critically • Judge the credibility of sources • Identify conclusions, reasons and assumptions • Judge the quality of an argument including the acceptability of its reasons, assumptions, and evidence • Develop and defend a position on an issue 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 17
  18. 18. Ennis - Actions a learner usually must take in order to think critically • Ask appropriate clarifying questions • Plan experiments and judge experimental designs • Define terms in a way appropriate for the context • Be open-minded • Try to be well-informed • Draw conclusions when warranted, but with caution 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 18
  19. 19. Thus… Students in school should be taught how to think critically. Classes should be designed based on reasoning and rational grounds and not as series of facts. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 19
  20. 20. What Is Critical Thinking? “Critical thinking is the ability to apply reasoning and logic to unfamiliar ideas, opinions, and situations. Thinking critically involves seeing things in an open- minded way. This important skill allows people to look past their own views of the world and to adopt a more aware way of viewing the world.” What is Critical Thinking? 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 20
  21. 21. HOW DO YOU DEFINE CRITICAL THINKING? 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 21
  22. 22. Definition of Critical Thinking •Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world. •Another way to describe it is reasonable, reflective, responsible, and skillful thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 22
  23. 23. •Critical thinking is to know to stop for red lights or information well enough not being able to process whether you received the correct change at the supermarket. • Such low-order thinking, critical and useful though it may be, is sufficient only for personal survival; most individuals master this. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 23
  24. 24. •True critical thinking for higher-order thinking, enabling a person to, is example, responsibly judge between political candidates, serve on a murder trial jury, evaluate society's need for nuclear power plants, and assess the consequences of global warming. • Critical thinking enables an individual to be a responsible citizen who contributes to society, and not be merely a consumer of society's distractions. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 24
  25. 25. •questions, who thinks critically can ask appropriate A person gather relevant information, efficiently and creatively sort through this information, reason logically from this information, and come to reliable and trustworthy conclusions about the world that enable one to live and act successfully in it. • Children are not born with the power to think critically, nor do they develop this ability naturally beyond survival-level thinking. Critical thinking is a learned ability that must be taught. Most individuals never learn it. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 25
  26. 26. •students by peers or by most parents. reliably to Critical thinking cannot be taught •necessary andimpart the proper information and Trained to knowledgeable instructors are skills. •scientificthinking canapplied by ordinary Critical method be described as the people to the ordinary world. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 26
  27. 27. • This is true because critical thinking mimics the well-known method of scientific investigation: a question is identified, an hypothesis formulated, relevant data sought and gathered, the hypothesis is logically tested and evaluated, and reliable conclusions are drawn from the result. • All of the skills of scientific investigation are matched by critical thinking, which is therefore nothing more than scientific method used in everyday life rather than in specifically scientific disciplines or endeavors. • • Critical thinking is scientific thinking. A scientifically-literate person, such as a math or science instructor, has learned to think critically to achieve that level of scientific awareness. But any individual with an advanced degree in any university discipline has almost certainly learned the techniques of critical thinking. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 27
  28. 28. • Critical thinking is the ability to think for one's self and reliably and responsibly make those decisions that affect one's life. • Critical thinking is also critical inquiry, so such critical thinkers investigate problems, ask questions, pose new answers that challenge the status quo, discover new information that can be used for good or ill, question authorities and traditional beliefs, challenge received dogmas and doctrines, and often end up possessing power in society greater than their numbers. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 28
  29. 29. • It may be that a workable society or culture can tolerate only a small number of critical thinkers, that learning, internalizing, and practicing scientific and critical thinking is discouraged. Most people are followers of authority: most do not question, are not curious, and do not challenge authority figures who claim special knowledge or insight. Most people, therefore, do not think for themselves, but rely on others to think for them. Most people indulge in wishful, hopeful, and emotional thinking, believing that what they believe is true because they wish it, hope it, or feel it to be true. Most people, therefore, do not think critically. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 29
  30. 30. • Critical thinking has many components. Life can be described as a sequence of problems that each individual must solve for one's self. Critical thinking skills are nothing more than problem solving skills that result in reliable knowledge. Humans constantly process information. Critical thinking is the practice of processing this information in the most skillful, accurate, and rigorous manner possible, in such a way that it leads to the most reliable, logical, and trustworthy conclusions, upon which one can make responsible decisions about one's life, behavior, and actions with full knowledge of assumptions and consequences of those decisions. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 30
  31. 31. A GOOD CRITICAL THINKER Raymond S. Nickerson (1987) characterizes a good critical thinker in terms of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and habitual ways of behaving. Here are some of the CHARACTERISTICS of such a thinker: uses evidence skillfully and impartially organizes thoughts and articulates them concisely and coherently distinguishers between logically valid and invalid inferences suspends judgment in the absence of sufficient evidence to support a decision understands the difference between reasoning and rationalizing attempts to anticipate the probable consequences of alternative actions 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 31
  32. 32. understands the idea of degrees of belief sees similarities and analogies that are not superficially apparent can learn independently and has a long-lasting interest in doing so applies problem-solving techniques in domains other than those in which learned can structure informally represented problems in such a way that formal techniques, such as mathematics, can be used to solve them can strip a verbal argument of irrelevancies and phrase it in its essential terms 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 32
  33. 33. habitually questions one's own views and attempts to understand both the assumptions that are critical to those views and the implications of the views is sensitive to the difference between the validity of a belief and the intensity with which it is held is aware of the fact that one's understanding is always limited, often much more so than would be apparent to one with a noninquiring attitude recognizes the fallibility of one's own opinions, the probability of bias in those opinions, and the danger of weighting evidence according to personal preferences This list serves to indicate the type of thinking and approach to life that critical thinking is supposed to be 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 33
  34. 34. A Definition: Critical thinking is the art of analyzing and evaluating thinking with a view to improving it. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 34
  35. 35. • Critical thinking –A set of conceptual tools used to make decisions • Intellectual skills and strategies • Reasonable process –A mental ability • Disciplined intelligence • Problem solving 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 35
  36. 36. Why Critical Thinking? “It is human irrationality, not a lack of knowledge that threatens human potential” (Nickerson cited in Kurfiss, 1986). It . . . • underlies listening and speaking, reading and writing, the basic language skills. • plays an important part in social change. All institutions in any society: courts, governments, schools, businesses, are the products of critical thinking. • plays a key role in technological advances. • frees the human mind from false beliefs and deceptions. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 36
  37. 37. Who Uses Critical Thinking? • STUDENTS !!! • Parents • Nurses • Doctors • Athletic coaches • Teachers/Professors • Air Traffic Controllers • Military Commanders • Lawyers, Judges • Supervisors • Day Care Workers 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 37
  38. 38. W ho SH O U LD think critically? 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 38
  39. 39. Types of thinkers Novice thinkers Expert thinkers 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 39
  40. 40. Novice Versus Expert Thinker • Expert thinkers – Quickly identify relevant information. – Can formulate a solution with “sketchy” information . • Novice thinkers – Consider all information equally important. – Develop hypothesis, test hypothesis. – Cannot focus on central issues. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 40
  41. 41. Cultivated Critical Thinkers Well cultivated critical thinkers: • are able to raise vital questions and problems, as well as formulate and present them clearly. • can gather and assess information and interpret it effectively. • can reach well-reasoned conclusions and solutions to problems while testing them against relevant criteria and standards. • can be open-minded. • can communicate effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 41
  42. 42. Benefits of critical thinking Critical thinking empowers and improves chances of success • in a career • as a consumer • in social roles in our community – personally, essential to personal autonomy – socially, essential to democratic system 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 42
  43. 43. Pitfalls…… • Teaching for critical thinking takes more time to prepare. • Teaching for critical thinking will reduce the amount of “material” covered. • Teaching for critical thinking is not popular with students in the beginning. • BUT… 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 43
  44. 44. How Can One Become a Critical Thinker? • By asking pertinent questions (of self as well as others); • By listening carefully towhat others, thinking about they say, and giving feedback; • By assessing statements and arguments; • By observing with an open mind; • By developing a sense of observation and curiosity; • on makinglogic and solid By assertions based sound • By becomingsolutions; in finding new interested evidence; • By sharing ideas with others; • By examining and opinions assumptions, beliefs, • By becomingreader; an open-minded and weighing them against listener and truth. • By developing a “thinker’s • By engaging in active reading vocabulary”. and active listening! 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 44
  45. 45. Critical thinking begins when you question beyond what is given. You want to know more: • how something happens, • why it happens, and further • what will happen if something changes. Critical thinking therefore requires a conscious level of processing, analysis, creation and evaluation of possible outcomes, and reflection. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 45
  46. 46. If you’re a critical thinker, you think. ….No surprise…. •You are willing to examine your beliefs, assumptions, and opinions and weigh them against facts. • You are willing to evaluate the generalizations and stereotypes you have created and are open to change, if necessary. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 46
  47. 47. Critical thinkers listen carefully. •If you’re a critical thinker, you listen carefully to what others are saying and are able to give feedback. •You are able to suspend judgment until all the facts have been gathered and considered. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 47
  48. 48. Critical thinkers look for evidence…. •If you’re a critical thinker, you look for evidence to support your assumptions and beliefs. • You examine problems closely and are able to reject information that is incorrect or irrelevant. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 48
  49. 49. Critical thinkers are curious. They are interested in knowing all there is about a topic. They look for new and better ways to do everything. They are not the person who will settle for “…because that is the way we have always done it.” 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 49
  50. 50. Therefore…through experience, as a critical thinker, you will: • identify information that is being put forth as an argument and break it down to its basic components for evaluation. • construct alternative interpretations • be willing to explore diverse perspectives • be willing to change personal assumptions when presented with valid information • be willing to ask difficult questions and the ability to receptive to opposing viewpoints. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 50
  51. 51. • Critical thinking is, in short, self-directed, self- disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking. • It requires accurate standards of excellence and mindful command of their use. • It entails effective communication and problem solving abilities and a commitment to overcome our native egocentrism and sociocentrism. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 51
  52. 52. A CRITICAL THINKER CONSIDERS THE ELEMENTS OF REASONING: 1. Purpose, Goal, Objective, or End in View 2. Question at Issue (or Problem to Be Solved) 3. Point of View, Frame of Reference, Perspective, Orientation 4. Assumptions (presuppositions, what is taken for granted) 5. Information (data, facts, observations, experiences) 6. Concepts (theories, definitions, axioms, laws, principles, models) 7. Interpretation & Inferences (conclusions, solutions) 8. Implications & Consequences (Where does this thinking lead? What will result if this thinking is turned into action?) 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 52
  53. 53. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 53
  54. 54. UNIVERSAL STRUCTURES OF THOUGHT Whenever we think, we think for a purpose, within a point of view, based on assumptions, leading to implications and consequences. We use data, facts, and experiences, to make inferences and judgments, based on concepts and theories, in attempting to answer a question or solve a problem. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 54
  55. 55. QUESTIONS IMPLIED BY THE UNIVERSAL STRUCTURES OF THOUGHT: [Use these questions when beginning work] •What is my fundamental purpose? •What is the key question I am trying to answer? •What information do I need in order to answer my question? •What is the most basic concept in the question? •What assumptions am I using in my reasoning? •What is my point of view with respect to the issue? •What are my most fundamental inferences or conclusions? •What are the implications and possible consequences of my reasoning (if my reasoning is valid? 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 55
  56. 56. Universal Intellectual Standards • Clarity : If a statement is unclear we cannot evaluate its fit with the other standards. • Accuracy : Accuracy = TRUTH. Is it true? • Precision : Is there enough detail to completely understand the statement. • Relevance : Is the information connected to the question at hand? 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 56
  57. 57. • Depth: Does the statement, fact, etc. address the complexity of the issue? • Breadth: Are there other points of view or other ways to consider this question? Are you considering the key factors? • Logic: Does it make sense? Can you make that conclusion based on the information and evidence? • Significance: Is this the most important problem to consider? Is this the central idea to focus on? Which of these facts are most important? • Fairness: Do I have any vested interest in this issue? Am I sympathetically representing the viewpoints of others? 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 57
  58. 58. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 58
  59. 59. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 59
  60. 60. Robert Platt Crawford 1931 provides a list that can serve as a bridge to creative thinking 1. The intent of Crawford’s Attribute Listing was to enable students to operate at the creativity or synthesis level of Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy. Additional cognitive operations, however, are needed to implement the four-step process. The steps are: 2. Select a problem, product, or system (problem designation) 3. Break it into key attributes or stages or parts (analysis/synthesis/creative thinking) 4. Identify various ways to achieve each attribute or part (brainstorming or any idea-generating technique) 5. Design or create a solution by manipulating and recombining the variables (structured synthesis) 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 60
  61. 61. Application Evaluation Decision Making Comprehension Synthesis Problem Solving Knowledge Analysis Concept attainment 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 61
  62. 62. Critical Thinking Dispositions • Engagement – Looking for opportunities to use reasoning – expecting situations that require reasoning – Confident in reasoning ability • Innovativeness – Intellectually curious – Wants to know the truth • Cognitive maturity – Aware that real problems are complex – Open to other points of view – Aware of biases and predispositions 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 62
  63. 63. To understand reasoning properly, however, we need to understand how it differs from mere thinking. •When we are merely thinking our thoughts simply come to us, one after another: when we reason we actively link thoughts together in such a way that we believe one thought provides support for another thought. •This active process of reasoning is termed inference. • Inference involves a special relationship between different thoughts: when we infer B from A, we move from A to B because we believe that A supports or justifies or makes it reasonable to believe in the truth of B. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 63
  64. 64. The difference between mere thinking and reasoning or inference is easy to understand through examples. Consider the following pairs of sentences: 1. Alan is broke, and he is unhappy. Alan is broke, therefore he is unhappy. 2. Anne was in a car accident last week, and she deserves an extension on her essay. Anne was in a car accident last week, so she deserves an extension on her essay. 3. This triangle has equal sides and equal angles. This triangle has equal sides; hence it has equal angles. Notice that the first sentence in each pair simply asserts two thoughts but says nothing about any relationship between them, while the second sentence asserts a relationship between two thoughts. This relationship is signaled by the words therefore, so, and hence. These are called inference indicators: words that indicate that one thought is intended to support (i.e., to justify, provide a reason for, provide evidence for, or entail) another thought. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 64
  65. 65. Critical Thinking skills and sub-skills • Interpretation – categorization, decoding, clarifying meaning – Notes, matrices, charts, patient history • Analysis – examining ideas, identifying arguments, analyzing arguments – Elements of reasoning, listening, data • Evaluation – assessing claims, assessing arguments – Questioning, credibility, reasonableness, trust. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 65
  66. 66. • Inference –Querying claims, conjecturing alternatives, drawing conclusions – Problem solving, decision making, differential, diagnosis • Explanation – Stating results, justifying procedures, presenting arguments – Elements of reasoning, stating the case, clarity • Self-regulation – Self examination, self correction – Self critique, questioning, changing, recognizing personal errors in thinking 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 66
  67. 67. Aspects of critical thinking • Issues – factual – interpretive – evaluative – mere verbal dispute • Claims – truth-statement with adequate support – assumption: claim without support • hidden assumptions undermine reliability of reasoning 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 67
  68. 68. Resolving Obstacles To Critical Thinking Obstacle—relativism or subjectivism • Remedy—patience and tenacity in pursuit of the truth Obstacle—egocentrism and ethnocentricity • Remedy— intellectual humility Obstacle—intimidation by authority • Remedy—intellectual independence Obstacle—conformism • Remedy—intellectual courage Obstacle—unexamined and inferential assumptions, and presuppositions • Remedy—examination of assumptions 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 68
  69. 69. Characteristics of Critical Thinkers: • Strive for understanding • Are honest with themselves • Base judgment on evidence • Are interested in other people’s ideas • Control their feelings/emotions • Recognize that extreme views are seldom correct. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 69
  70. 70. • Keep an open mind • They are very observant • Identify key issues and raise questions • Obtain relevant facts • Evaluate the findings and form judgments 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 70
  71. 71. What does the absence of critical thinking look like? • We blindly accept at face value all justifications given by organizations and political leaders. • We blindly believe TV commercials. • We blindly continue to hold on to old beliefs. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 71
  72. 72. Young girl? Or old women? 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 72
  73. 73. Man playing horn? Or a woman’s silhouette? 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 73
  74. 74. A face of a native American? Or an Eskimo’s back? 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 74
  75. 75. Thinking Barriers – Emotions • Anger • Passion • Depression – Stress – Bias (values and beliefs) 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 75
  76. 76. Personal Barriers to thinking (Ego Defenses) • Denial – Refuse to accept reality. • Projection – We see in others what is really happening to us. • Rationalization – Lying to ourselves about the real reasons for our behaviors and feelings. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 76
  77. 77. Thinking Errors • Personalization – Thinking in which the world revolves around an individual • Polarized Thinking – There is only black or white – no gray • Catastrophizing – Always consider the worst possible outcome (all the time) 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 77
  78. 78. • Selective abstraction – Focusing on one detail of a situation and ignoring the larger picture • Overgeneralization – Drawing broad conclusions on the basis of a single incident. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 78
  79. 79. Five Phases of Critical Thinking • Phase 1: Trigger Event – Usually an unexpected event that causes some kind of inner discomfort or confusion. • Phase 2: Appraisal – A period of reflection and the need to find another approach to deal with the issue. • Phase 3: Exploration – People start asking questions and gathering more information. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 79
  80. 80. • Phase 4: Finding Alternatives –Also called the transition stage when old ideas are either left behind and a new way of thinking begins. • Phase 5: Integration –Involves fitting new ideas and information into everyday usage. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 80
  81. 81. Key Questions to Critical Thinking • What are the issues and the expected conclusions? • What are the reasons? • What words or phrases are ambiguous? • What are the value conflicts and assumptions? • What are the assumptions? 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 81
  82. 82. • Are there any fallacies in the reasoning? • How good is the evidence? • Are there rival causes? • Are the statistics deceptive? • What significant information is omitted? • What reasonable conclusions are possible? 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 82
  83. 83. Critical thinking involves evaluating information or arguments in terms of their accuracy and worth • Verbal Reasoning – Understanding and evaluating the persuasive techniques found in oral and written language • Argument Analysis – Discriminating between reasons that do and do not support a particular conclusion 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 83
  84. 84. Critical thinking involves evaluating information or arguments in terms of their accuracy and worth • Decision Making – identifying and judging several alternatives and selecting the best alternative • Critical Analysis of Prior Research – evaluating the value of data and research results in terms of the methods used to obtain them and their potential relevance to particular conclusions. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 84
  85. 85. Problem Solving Procedure • Define the problem (not the symptom) • Remove thinking barriers (bias and logical) • Gather all relevant facts • Generate solutions (brainstorming, creative thinking) • Select a solution and have a back up plan • Implement and evaluate 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 85
  86. 86. Characteristics of Critical Thinking & Decision Making • University of Phoenix Model – Framing the question – Making the decision – Evaluating the decision 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 86
  87. 87. University of Phoenix Model 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 87
  88. 88. How to Apply Bloom’s Six Levels • Knowledge • Comprehension • Application • Analysis • Synthesis • Evaluation 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 88
  89. 89. Level 1 – Recall Remembering previously learned material, recalling facts, terms, basic concepts from stated text • Name Relate • List Tell • Recognize Recall • Choose Match • Label Define 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 89
  90. 90. Level 2 – Understand Demonstrating understanding of the stated meaning of facts and ideas • Compare Explain • Describe Rephrase • Outline Show • Organize Relate • Classify Identify 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 90
  91. 91. Level 2 1/2 – Infer Demonstrating understanding of the unstated meaning of facts and ideas • Speculate • Interpret • Infer • Generalize • Conclude 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 91
  92. 92. Level 3 – Put to Use Solving problems by applying acquired knowledge, facts, and techniques in a different situation • Apply Dramatize • Construct Restructure • Model Simulate • Use Translate • Practice Experiment 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 92
  93. 93. Level 4 – Break down Examining and breaking down information into parts • Analyze Simplify • Diagram Summarize • Classify Relate to • Contrast Categorize • Sequence Differentiate 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 93
  94. 94. Level 5 – Put together Compiling information in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern • Compose Elaborate • Design Formulate • Develop Originate • Propose Solve • Adapt Invent 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 94
  95. 95. Level 6 – Judge Presenting and defending opinions by making judgments about information based on criteria • Judge Defend • Rank Justify • Rate Prioritize • Evaluate Support • Recommend Prove 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 95
  96. 96. Active learning Active learning …. • Appeal to a variety of learning styles • Emphasis on development of skills over transmission of information • Emphasis on ‘higher order’ thinking skills • Learning experiences are ‘active’ (reading, discussing, writing) • Explore students’ attitudes, values 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 96
  97. 97. Active learning • Participants like it • More fun and interesting for the instructor • Research literature supports it • Provides time to process information • Effective transfers to long-term memory • Greater retention of skills & information • Leads to higher cognitive learning • Leads to affective learning • Very effective for adult learning 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 97
  98. 98. Active learning • Match important objectives to active learning exercises • If using groups, provide clear instructions on: – forming groups – objectives – time limits – reporting back 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 98
  99. 99. Active learning • Be prepared—everything will take longer than expected • Hand out exercises as students enter • Limit number of choices • Plan efficient strategies for forming groups • Circulate among groups during group work (to keep on task, assist) 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 99
  100. 100. Active learning You need to ….. • Ask groups to take discussion notes • Provide time for reporting back • Ensure all can hear (repeat remarks if necessary) • Summarize after group reports 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 100
  101. 101. Working Assumptions • Active learning is necessary for the teaching of critical thinking. • Critical thinking should be integrated into every aspect of the educational process. • Students should be made aware of the thinking process. • Critical thinking must be taught explicitly. • Process is as important as content. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 101
  102. 102. Working Definitions • Active Learning - “students involved in doing things & thinking about the things they are doing” • Critical Thinking - “reasonable reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to do and what to believe” OR “interpreting, analyzing or evaluating information, arguments or experiences with a set of reflective attitudes, skills, and abilities to guide our thoughts, beliefs and actions” OR “examining the thinking of others to improve our own” 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 102
  103. 103. Thinking Tools • A Thinking Tool is an instrument that can help us in using our minds systematically and effectively. • With the use of thinking tools, the intended ideas will be arranged more systematically, clearly, and easy to be understood. There are 4 types of THINKING TOOLS: • Questioning • Concepts • Mindmaps • Cognitive Research Trust 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 103
  104. 104. 1 Questioning Questioning is one approach to motivate others to: • Get information • Test understanding • Develop interest • Evaluate the ability of individuals towards understanding certain things. “A person who asks questions is a person who thinks.”’ - William Wilen 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 104
  105. 105. Questioning - Bloom’s Taxonomy Evaluation Synthesis Higher-Level Thinking Analysis Application Interpretation Lower-level Thinking Knowledge 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 105
  106. 106. 2 Concepts Concepts are general ideas that we use to identify and organize our experience. Words are the vocabulary of language; Concepts are the vocabulary of thought. Structure of Concepts: PROPERTIES • Sign - word/symbol that names the concept • Referents - examples of the CONCEPT concept SIGN REFERENTS • Properties - qualities that all examples of the concept share in common. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 106
  107. 107. 3 Mindmaps A mindmap can be defined as a visual presentation of the ways in which concepts can be related to one another. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 107
  108. 108. 4 Cognitive Research Trust Thinking Method • The essence of the (Cognitive Research Trust) Thinking Method is to focus attention directly on different aspects of thinking and to crystallize these aspects into definite concepts and tools that can be used deliberately. • It is designed to encourage students to broaden their thinking. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 108
  109. 109. Final Words CRITICAL THINKING is the active and systematic process of • Communication • Problem-solving • Evaluation • Analysis • Synthesis • Reflection both individually and in community to • develop understanding • Support positive decision-making and • Guide action 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 109
  110. 110. References Crawford, R. P. (1964). The techniques of creative thinking: How to use your ideas to achieve success. Burlington, VT: Fraser Publishing Co. Dewey, J. (1933). How we think. New York: D. C. Heath. Ennis, R. (1993). Critical thinking assessment. Theory Into Practice, 32(3). Retrieved October 25, 2006, from Academic Search Premier database. Johnson, S. (1998). Skills, Socrates, and the Sophists: Learning from history. British Journal of Educational Studies 46(2). Retrieved March 23, 2009, from JSTOR database. Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2006b). The miniature guide to critical thinking concepts and tools (4th ed.). Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking. Pedersen, O. (1997). The first universities: Stadium Generale and the origins of university education in Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press. Foundation for Critical Thinking. Critical Thinking: Basic Theory and Instructional Structures. Sonoma, California: 1998.) 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 110
  111. 111. Internet Resources: 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 111
  112. 112. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 112