LANE-462-CA-2011 Everyone thinks …..
Everyone thinks; it is our nature to do so. But
much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased,
unclear, partial, uninformed or down-right
prejudiced. Yet the quality of our life and that
of what we produce, make, or build depends
precisely on the quality of our thought. Poor
Critical Thinking thinking is costly, both in money and in
quality of life. Excellence in thought,
Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.com
however, must be systematically cultivated.
- Richard Paul
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Critical Thinking History Socrates
•Socrates – 400 BC
2,500 years ago Socrates established the • Questioning
importance of asking deep questions, • Inquiring
seeking evidence, analyzing basic concepts • Search for meaning
before we accept ideas as worthy of
beliefs . • Search for truth
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•Plato, Aristotle, Greek skeptics In the middle ages
•Thomas Aquinas (Sumna Theologica)
Plato, Aristotle, and Greek skeptics
emphasized that things are often very Thomas Aquinas (Sumna Theologica)
different from what they appear to be and ensures that his thinking met the tests of
that only the trained mind is prepared to see critical thinkers by answering criticisms of his
though the way thing look to us on the ideas.
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15th & 16th C.
•European scholars Francis Bacon in England
• wrote The Advancement of Learning,
(Colet, Erasmus, More in England) the 1st book in critical thinking.
started thinking critically about religion, art, •argued for the importance of studying
society, human, law, and freedom. the world empirically.
•laid the foundation for modern science
with his emphasis on the information-
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Francis Bacon •Descartes in France
50 years later •Sir Thomas More in England
• Father of the Scientific Method Descartes in France
• “We must become as little children in order to • wrote the 2nd book Rules for the Direction of the Mind
enter the kingdom of science” - developed a method of critical thought based on the
principle of systematic doubt.
•In the same period, Sir Thomas More:
- developed a model for a new social order Utopia in
which every domain the present world was subject to
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16th &17th C. Hobbes & Locke 17th & 18th C.
- not to accept the traditional cultural beliefs
dominant in the thinking of their day as being • Robert Boyle & Isaac Newton in Chemistry &
rational and normal. nature
- everything in the world should be explained • other French thinkers in sociology & politics
by evidence and reasoning. Adam Smith produces Wealth of Nations in
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19th C. •Number of thinkers have increased in every
• Darwin's Descent of Man in the biological domain of human thought and within which
domain focused on the history of human reasoning takes place.
culture and the basis of biological life •Dewey – 1930’s
• Sigmund Freud study in the unconscious •Ennis – 1980’s
•Plus other studies in the Anthropological &
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• Critical thinking is “reasonable, reflective
• Dispositions of thinking • Native Resources thinking focused on deciding what to believe or
– Open mindedness – Curiosity do.”
– Whole heartedness – Suggestion
– Intellectual Responsibility – Orderliness
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Ennis - Actions a learner usually Ennis - Actions a learner usually must take in
must take in order to think critically order to think critically
• Judge the credibility of sources • Ask appropriate clarifying questions
• Identify conclusions, reasons and assumptions • Plan experiments and judge experimental designs
• Judge the quality of an argument including the • Define terms in a way appropriate for the context
acceptability of its reasons, assumptions, and evidence • Be open-minded
• Try to be well-informed
• Develop and defend a position on an issue
• Draw conclusions when warranted, but with caution
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What Is Critical Thinking?
Students in school should be taught
how to think critically. Classes should
be designed based on reasoning and “Critical thinking is the ability to apply reasoning and
logic to unfamiliar ideas, opinions, and situations.
rational grounds and not as series of
Thinking critically involves seeing things in an open-
facts. minded way. This important skill allows people to look
past their own views of the world and to adopt a more
aware way of viewing the world.”
What is Critical Thinking?
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HOW DO YOU DEFINE CRITICAL Definition of Critical Thinking
•pursuit of relevant andcorrect thinking in the
Critical thinking means
about the world.
•reflective, way to describe it skillful thinking
that is focused on deciding what to believe or
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• Critical thinking is not being able to process
• True critical thinking is higher-order thinking,
enabling a person to, for example, responsibly
information well enough to know to stop for red lights or judge between political candidates, serve on a
whether you received the correct change at the murder trial jury, evaluate society's need for
supermarket. nuclear power plants, and assess the
• Such low-order thinking, critical and useful though it
may be, is sufficient only for personal survival; most
consequences of global warming.
• Critical thinking enables an individual to be a
individuals master this. responsible citizen who contributes to society, and
not be merely a consumer of society's
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• A person who thinks critically can ask appropriate
questions, gather relevant information, efficiently • Critical thinking cannot be taught reliably to
and creatively sort through this information, reason students by peers or by most parents.
logically from this information, and come to reliable • Trained and knowledgeable instructors are
necessary to impart the proper information and
and trustworthy conclusions about the world that
enable one to live and act successfully in it. skills.
• Children are not born with the power to think • Critical thinking can be described as the
scientific method applied by ordinary
critically, nor do they develop this ability naturally
beyond survival-level thinking. Critical thinking is a people to the ordinary world.
learned ability that must be taught. Most individuals
never learn it.
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•methodtruescientific investigation: a question theidentified, an
because critical thinking mimics
• Critical thinking is the ability to think for one's self and
hypothesis formulated, relevant data sought and gathered, reliably and responsibly make those decisions that affect
the hypothesis is logically tested and evaluated, and reliable one's life.
• conclusions are drawn from the result.
All of the skills of scientific investigation are matched by
• Critical thinking is also critical inquiry, so such critical
thinkers investigate problems, ask questions, pose new
critical thinking, which is therefore nothing more than
scientific method used in everyday life rather than in answers that challenge the status quo, discover new
specifically scientific disciplines or endeavors. information that can be used for good or ill, question
• Critical thinking is scientific thinking.
A scientifically-literate person, such as a math or science
authorities and traditional beliefs, challenge received
dogmas and doctrines, and often end up possessing power
instructor, has learned to think critically to achieve that level
in society greater than their numbers.
of scientific awareness. But any individual with an advanced
degree in any university discipline has almost certainly learned
the techniques of critical thinking.
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•small number ofa critical thinkers, that learning,can tolerate only a
It may be that workable society or culture
•describedthinkinga has many components. Life caneach
as sequence of problems that
practicing scientific and critical thinking is discouraged. Most individual must solve for one's self. Critical thinking skills
people are followers of authority: most do not question, are not are nothing more than problem solving skills that result
curious, and do not challenge authority figures who claim in reliable knowledge. Humans constantly process
special knowledge or insight. Most people, therefore, do not information. Critical thinking is the practice of processing
think for themselves, but rely on others to think for them. Most this information in the most skillful, accurate, and
people indulge in wishful, hopeful, and emotional thinking, rigorous manner possible, in such a way that it leads to
believing that what they believe is true because they wish it, the most reliable, logical, and trustworthy conclusions,
hope it, or feel it to be true. Most people, therefore, do not think upon which one can make responsible decisions about
critically. one's life, behavior, and actions with full knowledge of
assumptions and consequences of those decisions.
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A GOOD CRITICAL THINKER understands the idea of degrees of belief
sees similarities and analogies that are not superficially apparent
can learn independently and has a long-lasting interest in doing
Raymond S. Nickerson (1987) characterizes a good critical thinker in so
terms of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and habitual ways of applies problem-solving techniques in domains other than those
behaving. in which learned
Here are some of the CHARACTERISTICS of such a thinker: can structure informally represented problems in such a way that
uses evidence skillfully and impartially
organizes thoughts and articulates them concisely and coherently
formal techniques, such as mathematics, can be used to solve
distinguishers between logically valid and invalid inferences them
suspends judgment in the absence of sufficient evidence to support a can strip a verbal argument of irrelevancies and phrase it in its
decision essential terms
understands the difference between reasoning and rationalizing
attempts to anticipate the probable consequences of alternative actions
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habitually questions one's own views and attempts to
understand both the assumptions that are critical to those views
and the implications of the views Critical thinking is the art of analyzing and
is sensitive to the difference between the validity of a belief evaluating thinking with a view to improving it.
and the intensity with which it is held
is aware of the fact that one's understanding is always limited,
often much more so than would be apparent to one with a
recognizes the fallibility of one's own opinions, the probability
of bias in those opinions, and the danger of weighting evidence
according to personal preferences
This list serves to indicate the type of thinking and approach to
life that critical thinking is supposed to be
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Why Critical Thinking?
• Critical thinking
–A set of conceptual tools used to make “It is human irrationality, not a lack of knowledge that threatens human
potential” (Nickerson cited in Kurfiss, 1986).
• Intellectual skills and strategies It . . .
• Reasonable process • underlies listening and speaking, reading and writing, the basic language
–A mental ability • plays angovernments, schools, businesses,Allare the products ofsociety:
important part in social change. institutions in any
• Disciplined intelligence thinking.
• Problem solving • plays a key role in technological advances.
• frees the human mind from false beliefs and deceptions.
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Who Uses Critical Thinking? W ho SH O U LD think critically?
• STUDENTS !!!
• Athletic coaches
• Air Traffic Controllers
• Military Commanders
• Lawyers, Judges
• Day Care Workers
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Types of thinkers
Novice Versus Expert Thinker
Novice thinkers • Expert thinkers
– Quickly identify relevant information.
– Can formulate a solution with “sketchy” information .
• Novice thinkers
– Consider all information equally important.
– Develop hypothesis, test hypothesis.
– Cannot focus on central issues.
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Cultivated Critical Thinkers
Benefits of critical thinking
Well cultivated critical thinkers:
Critical thinking empowers and improves
• are able to raise vital questions and problems, as well as
formulate and present them clearly. chances of success
• can gather and assess information and interpret it • in a career
• as a consumer
• can reach well-reasoned conclusions and solutions to
problems while testing them against relevant criteria • in social roles in our community
and standards. – personally, essential to personal autonomy
• can be open-minded.
– socially, essential to democratic system
• can communicate effectively with others in figuring out
solutions to complex problems.
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How Can One Become a Critical Thinker?
Pitfalls…… • By asking pertinent questions • By listening carefully towhat
(of self as well as others); others, thinking about
they say, and giving feedback;
• Teaching for critical thinking takes more time • By assessing statements and
arguments; • By observing with an open
to prepare. mind;
• Teaching for critical thinking will reduce the • By developing a sense of
observation and curiosity; • By makinglogic and solid
amount of “material” covered. on sound
• Teaching for critical thinking is not popular • By becomingsolutions; in
with students in the beginning. • By sharing ideas with others;
• By examining and opinions
• By becomingreader;
• BUT… and weighing them against listener and
• By developing a “thinker’s • By engaging in active reading
vocabulary”. and active listening!
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Critical thinking begins when you If you’re a critical thinker,
question beyond what is given. you think.
You want to know more: ….No surprise….
• how something happens,
• why it happens, and further
•You are willing to examine your beliefs, assumptions,
• what will happen if something changes.
and opinions and weigh them against facts.
Critical thinking therefore requires a conscious level of • You are willing to evaluate the generalizations and
processing, analysis, creation and evaluation of possible stereotypes you have created and are open to change,
outcomes, and reflection. if necessary.
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Critical thinkers look for
Critical thinkers listen carefully.
•If you’re a critical thinker, you look for
•If you’re a critical thinker, you listen carefully to what evidence to support your assumptions and
others are saying and are able to give feedback. beliefs.
•You are able to suspend judgment until all the facts • You examine problems closely and are
have been gathered and considered. able to reject information that is incorrect
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Therefore…through experience, as a critical
Critical thinkers are curious. thinker, you will:
They are interested in knowing all there is • identify information that is being put forth as an
about a topic. They look for new and better argument and break it down to its basic components for
ways to do everything. They are not the evaluation.
• construct alternative interpretations
person who will settle for “…because that is
• be willing to explore diverse perspectives
the way we have always done it.” • be willing to change personal assumptions when
presented with valid information
• be willing to ask difficult questions and the ability to
receptive to opposing viewpoints.
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A CRITICAL THINKER CONSIDERS THE ELEMENTS OF
• Critical thinking is, in short, self-directed, self- REASONING:
disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking.
• It requires accurate standards of excellence and 1. Purpose, Goal, Objective, or End in View
2. Question at Issue (or Problem to Be Solved)
mindful command of their use. 3. Point of View, Frame of Reference, Perspective,
• It entails effective communication and problem solving Orientation
abilities and a commitment to overcome our native 4. Assumptions (presuppositions, what is taken for granted)
egocentrism and sociocentrism. 5. Information (data, facts, observations, experiences)
6. Concepts (theories, definitions, axioms, laws, principles,
7. Interpretation & Inferences (conclusions, solutions)
8. Implications & Consequences (Where does this thinking
lead? What will result if this thinking is turned into action?)
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UNIVERSAL STRUCTURES OF THOUGHT
Whenever we think,
we think for a purpose,
within a point of view,
based on assumptions,
leading to implications and consequences.
We use data, facts, and experiences,
to make inferences and judgments,
based on concepts and theories,
in attempting to answer a question or solve a problem.
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QUESTIONS IMPLIED BY THE UNIVERSAL
STRUCTURES OF THOUGHT: [Use these questions Universal Intellectual Standards
when beginning work]
•What is my fundamental purpose? • Clarity : If a statement is unclear we cannot
•What is the key question I am trying to answer?
•What information do I need in order to answer my evaluate its fit with the other standards.
question? • Accuracy : Accuracy = TRUTH. Is it true?
•What is the most basic concept in the question? • Precision : Is there enough detail to completely
•What assumptions am I using in my reasoning? understand the statement.
•What is my point of view with respect to the issue?
•What are my most fundamental inferences or • Relevance : Is the information connected to the
conclusions? question at hand?
•What are the implications and possible consequences
of my reasoning (if my reasoning is valid?
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• Depth: Does the statement, fact, etc. address the
complexity of the issue?
• Breadth: Are there other points of view or other ways to
consider this question? Are you considering the key
• Logic: Does it make sense? Can you make that
conclusion based on the information and evidence?
• Significance: Is this the most important problem to
consider? Is this the central idea to focus on? Which of
these facts are most important?
• Fairness: Do I have any vested interest in this issue?
Am I sympathetically representing the viewpoints of
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Robert Platt Crawford 1931 provides a list that can
serve as a bridge to creative thinking
1. The intent of Crawford’s Attribute Listing was to enable students
to operate at the creativity or synthesis level of Bloom’s
Cognitive Taxonomy. Additional cognitive operations, however,
are needed to implement the four-step process. The steps are:
2. Select a problem, product, or system (problem designation)
3. Break it into key attributes or stages or parts
4. Identify various ways to achieve each attribute or part
(brainstorming or any idea-generating technique)
5. Design or create a solution by manipulating and recombining the
variables (structured synthesis)
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– Looking for opportunities to use reasoning
– expecting situations that require reasoning
– Confident in reasoning ability
Application Evaluation Decision Making • Innovativeness
Comprehension Synthesis Problem Solving – Intellectually curious
Knowledge Analysis Concept attainment
– Wants to know the truth
• Cognitive maturity
– Aware that real problems are complex
– Open to other points of view
– Aware of biases and predispositions
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To understand reasoning properly, however, we need to The difference between mere thinking and reasoning or inference is easy to
understand how it differs from mere thinking. understand through examples. Consider the following pairs of sentences:
•When we are merely thinking our thoughts simply come to us, 1. Alan is broke, and he is unhappy.
Alan is broke, therefore he is unhappy.
one after another: when we reason we actively link thoughts
2. Anne was in a car accident last week, and she deserves an extension
together in such a way that we believe one thought provides on her essay.
support for another thought. Anne was in a car accident last week, so she deserves an extension on
•This active process of reasoning is termed inference. her essay.
• Inference involves a special relationship between different 3. This triangle has equal sides and equal angles.
thoughts: when we infer B from A, we move from A to B because This triangle has equal sides; hence it has equal angles.
Notice that the first sentence in each pair simply asserts two thoughts but
we believe that A supports or justifies or makes it reasonable to
says nothing about any relationship between them, while the second
believe in the truth of B. sentence asserts a relationship between two thoughts. This relationship is
signaled by the words therefore, so, and hence. These are called inference
indicators: words that indicate that one thought is intended to support (i.e., to
justify, provide a reason for, provide evidence for, or entail) another thought.
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Critical Thinking • Inference
–Querying claims, conjecturing alternatives, drawing
skills and sub-skills conclusions
• Interpretation – Problem solving, decision making, differential, diagnosis
– categorization, decoding, clarifying meaning • Explanation
– Stating results, justifying procedures, presenting arguments
– Notes, matrices, charts, patient history
– Elements of reasoning, stating the case, clarity
• Analysis • Self-regulation
– examining ideas, identifying arguments, analyzing – Self examination, self correction
arguments – Self critique, questioning, changing, recognizing personal
– Elements of reasoning, listening, data errors in thinking
– assessing claims, assessing arguments
– Questioning, credibility, reasonableness, trust.
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Resolving Obstacles To Critical
Aspects of critical thinking Thinking
• Issues Obstacle—relativism or subjectivism
– factual • Remedy—patience and tenacity in pursuit of the truth
Obstacle—egocentrism and ethnocentricity
• Remedy— intellectual humility
Obstacle—intimidation by authority
– mere verbal dispute • Remedy—intellectual independence
• Claims Obstacle—conformism
– truth-statement with adequate support • Remedy—intellectual courage
– assumption: claim without support Obstacle—unexamined and inferential assumptions, and
• hidden assumptions undermine reliability of reasoning presuppositions
• Remedy—examination of assumptions
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Characteristics of Critical
• Strive for understanding • Keep an open mind
• Are honest with themselves • They are very observant
• Base judgment on evidence • Identify key issues and raise questions
• Are interested in other people’s ideas • Obtain relevant facts
• Control their feelings/emotions
• Evaluate the findings and form judgments
• Recognize that extreme views are seldom
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What does the absence of
critical thinking look like? Young girl? Or old
• We blindly accept at face value all justifications women?
given by organizations and political leaders.
• We blindly believe TV commercials.
• We blindly continue to hold on to old beliefs.
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Man playing A face of a native
horn? Or a American? Or an
woman’s Eskimo’s back?
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Thinking Barriers Personal Barriers to thinking
• Anger • Denial
– Refuse to accept reality.
• Depression – We see in others what is really happening to us.
– Stress • Rationalization
– Bias (values and beliefs) – Lying to ourselves about the real reasons for our
behaviors and feelings.
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• Personalization • Selective abstraction
– Thinking in which the world revolves around an – Focusing on one detail of a situation
individual and ignoring the larger picture
• Polarized Thinking • Overgeneralization
– There is only black or white – no gray – Drawing broad conclusions on the
• Catastrophizing basis of a single incident.
– Always consider the worst possible outcome (all
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Five Phases of Critical Thinking
• Phase 4: Finding Alternatives
• Phase 1: Trigger Event –Also called the transition stage when old
– Usually an unexpected event that causes ideas are either left behind and a new way
some kind of inner discomfort or confusion.
• Phase 2: Appraisal of thinking begins.
– A period of reflection and the need to find • Phase 5: Integration
another approach to deal with the issue.
• Phase 3: Exploration –Involves fitting new ideas and information
– People start asking questions and gathering
into everyday usage.
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Key Questions to Critical
• Are there any fallacies in the reasoning?
Thinking • How good is the evidence?
• What are the issues and the expected conclusions? • Are there rival causes?
• What are the reasons? • Are the statistics deceptive?
• What words or phrases are ambiguous? • What significant information is omitted?
• What are the value conflicts and assumptions? • What reasonable conclusions are possible?
• What are the assumptions?
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Critical thinking involves evaluating information or Critical thinking involves evaluating information or
arguments in terms of their accuracy and worth arguments in terms of their accuracy and worth
• Decision Making
• Verbal Reasoning
– identifying and judging several alternatives and selecting
– Understanding and evaluating the persuasive techniques the best alternative
found in oral and written language
• Critical Analysis of Prior Research
• Argument Analysis – evaluating the value of data and research results in terms
– Discriminating between reasons that do and do not of the methods used to obtain them and their potential
support a particular conclusion relevance to particular conclusions.
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Problem Solving Procedure Characteristics of Critical Thinking & Decision
• Define the problem (not the symptom)
• Remove thinking barriers (bias and logical)
• University of Phoenix Model
• Gather all relevant facts – Framing the question
• Generate solutions (brainstorming, creative thinking) – Making the decision
• Select a solution and have a back up plan – Evaluating the decision
• Implement and evaluate
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University of Phoenix Model How to Apply Bloom’s
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Level 1 – Recall Level 2 – Understand
Remembering previously learned material, recalling facts, Demonstrating understanding of the stated meaning of
terms, basic concepts from stated text facts and ideas
• Name Relate • Compare Explain
• List Tell • Describe Rephrase
• Recognize Recall • Outline Show
• Choose Match • Organize Relate
• Label Define • Classify Identify
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Level 2 1/2 – Infer Level 3 – Put to Use
Demonstrating understanding of the unstated meaning Solving problems by applying acquired knowledge,
of facts and ideas facts, and techniques in a different situation
• Speculate • Apply Dramatize
• Interpret • Construct Restructure
• Infer • Model Simulate
• Generalize • Use Translate
• Conclude • Practice Experiment
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Level 4 – Break down Level 5 – Put together
Examining and breaking down information into parts Compiling information in a different way by combining elements
in a new pattern
• Analyze Simplify
• Diagram • Compose Elaborate
• Classify • Design Formulate
• Contrast • Develop Originate
• Sequence • Propose Solve
• Adapt Invent
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Level 6 – Judge
Presenting and defending opinions by making judgments Active learning
about information based on criteria
Active learning ….
• Judge Defend
• Appeal to a variety of learning styles
• Rank Justify
• Emphasis on development of skills over
• Rate Prioritize transmission of information
• Evaluate Support • Emphasis on ‘higher order’ thinking skills
• Recommend Prove • Learning experiences are ‘active’ (reading,
• Explore students’ attitudes, values
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Active learning Active learning
• Participants like it • Match important objectives to active learning exercises
• More fun and interesting for the instructor • If using groups, provide clear instructions on:
• Research literature supports it – forming groups
• Provides time to process information – objectives
• Effective transfers to long-term memory – time limits
• Greater retention of skills & information – reporting back
• Leads to higher cognitive learning
• Leads to affective learning
• Very effective for adult learning
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Active learning Active learning
• Be prepared—everything will take longer than
expected You need to …..
• Hand out exercises as students enter • Ask groups to take discussion notes
• Limit number of choices • Provide time for reporting back
• Plan efficient strategies for forming groups • Ensure all can hear (repeat remarks if necessary)
• Circulate among groups during group work (to keep • Summarize after group reports
on task, assist)
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Working Assumptions Working Definitions
• Active Learning - “students involved in doing
• Active learning is necessary for the teaching of critical
things & thinking about the things they are doing”
thinking. • Critical Thinking - “reasonable reflective thinking
• Critical thinking should be integrated into every aspect of that is focused on deciding what to do and what to
the educational process. believe” OR “interpreting, analyzing or evaluating
• Students should be made aware of the thinking process. information, arguments or experiences with a set of
• Critical thinking must be taught explicitly.
reflective attitudes, skills, and abilities to guide our
• Process is as important as content.
thoughts, beliefs and actions” OR “examining the
thinking of others to improve our own”
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Thinking Tools 1 Questioning
• A Thinking Tool is an instrument that can help us in Questioning is one approach to motivate
using our minds systematically and effectively. others to:
• With the use of thinking tools, the intended ideas will be • Get information
arranged more systematically, clearly, and easy to be
understood. • Test understanding
There are 4 types of THINKING TOOLS: • Develop interest
• Questioning • Evaluate the ability of individuals
• Concepts towards understanding certain things.
• Mindmaps “A person who asks
• Cognitive Research Trust questions
is a person who thinks.”’
- William Wilen
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Questioning - Bloom’s Taxonomy 2 Concepts
Evaluation Concepts are general ideas that we use to identify and
organize our experience. Words are the vocabulary of
language; Concepts are the vocabulary of thought.
Structure of Concepts: PROPERTIES
Analysis • Sign - word/symbol that names the
Application • Referents - examples of the CONCEPT
concept SIGN REFERENTS
Interpretation • Properties - qualities that all
examples of the concept share in
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3 Mindmaps 4 Cognitive Research Trust
A mindmap can be defined as a visual presentation of the ways Thinking Method
in which concepts can be related to one another. • The essence of the (Cognitive Research Trust) Thinking
Method is to focus attention directly on different
aspects of thinking and to crystallize these aspects into
definite concepts and tools that can be used
• It is designed to encourage students to broaden their
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Final Words Crawford, R. P. (1964). The techniques of creative thinking: How to use
CRITICAL THINKING is the active and systematic process of your ideas to achieve success. Burlington, VT: Fraser Publishing Co.
• Communication Dewey, J. (1933). How we think. New York: D. C. Heath.
Ennis, R. (1993). Critical thinking assessment. Theory Into Practice, 32(3).
• Problem-solving Retrieved October 25, 2006, from Academic Search Premier database.
• Evaluation Johnson, S. (1998). Skills, Socrates, and the Sophists: Learning from
history. British Journal of Educational Studies 46(2). Retrieved March 23,
• Analysis 2009, from JSTOR database.
• Synthesis Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2006b). The miniature guide to critical thinking
concepts and tools (4th ed.). Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical
• Reflection Thinking.
both individually and in community to Pedersen, O. (1997). The first universities: Stadium Generale and the
origins of university education in Europe. New York: Cambridge University
• develop understanding Press.
• Support positive decision-making and Foundation for Critical Thinking. Critical Thinking: Basic Theory and
• Guide action Instructional Structures. Sonoma, California: 1998.)
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