Clauses presented by dr. shadia yousef banjar.pptx

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LANE 334-EA- TERM 2-Year 2011.
Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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Clauses presented by dr. shadia yousef banjar.pptx

  1. 1. LANE 334 -EA: Syntax 2011 – Term 2 MAIN CLAUSE SUBORDINATE CLAUSES 5 CLAUSES By: http://SBANJAR.kau.edu.sa/Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.com3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 1
  2. 2. 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 2
  3. 3. • A clause is a group of related words containing a and a . • It is different from a in that a phrase does not include a subject and a verb relationship.3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 3
  4. 4. CLAUSE SUBORDINATE MAIN CLAUSE CLAUSE3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 4
  5. 5. • Main clauses are .• Every main clause will follow this pattern: subject + verb = complete thought. e.g. Tom shouted. Tom = subject; shouted= verb.• The important point is that every sentence must have at least one main clause. 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 5
  6. 6. : A clausethat can stand by itself and still makesense. An independent clause couldbe its own sentence, but is often partof a larger structure, combined withother independent clauses and withdependent clauses.3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 6
  7. 7. INDEPENDENT CLAUSES can come at the end or at the beginning of a sentence.1. After mother got home, she went to bed.2. She sang a song when it was her turn. 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 7
  8. 8. INDEPENDENT CLAUSES Have a subjectand predicate which contains a predicator(verb), and makes sense all by itself.1. [[Many people] [have been suffering]]2.[[The clouds] [gathered quickly]] 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 8
  9. 9. INDEPENDENT CLAUSE: Expresses acomplete thought. It can stand aloneas a sentence.1. [The doorbell rang]2. [She smiled down on the children]3. [The turkey was hot and juicy] 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 9
  10. 10. An independent clause can function as a sentence byitself or as part of a sentence: – [S John studied very hard last year] (simple sentence) – [s John studied very hard last year] but [s he failed his test] (compound sentence) NOTE:Coordinated clauses are called and labelled them by means of S (for sentence/clause) in the left-hand corner. 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10
  11. 11. Independent clauses are connected by a FANBOYS: For-And-Nor-But-Or-Yet-So. Coordinating Conjunctions and but or yet for nor so Conjunctions cannot be included in the independent/main clauses. 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 11
  12. 12. A subordinate clause will follow thispattern:subordinator + subject + verb =incomplete thought.e.g. He asked whether he might gohome with her.whether = subordinator; he = subject;go= verb. 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 12
  13. 13. are DEPENDENT CLAUSES.A DEPENDENT CLAUSE:• DOESN’T express a complete thought.• CAN’T stand alone as a sentence.• SOUNDS like something else should follow in orderto make sense.• MUST have a subject and a predicate that contains apredicator (verb) otherwise it’s a phrase. 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 13
  14. 14. • The important point to remember about is that they can neverstand alone as complete sentences.• To complete the thought, you must attach each to a main clause.• He closed the window because it waswindy.3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 14
  15. 15. can come at theend or at the beginning of a sentence.1. She drove the car so that her brother could walk.2. After mother got home, she went to bed.3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 15
  16. 16. begin with : rather than even if sinceafter even so thatalthough though until thanas if when thatas if if only whenever thoughas long as in order where tillas though that whereas unlessbecause now that whereverbefore once while 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 16
  17. 17. :• Usually have a comma when they arefound in the first part of a sentence.•If found at the end of the sentence,there will not be any comma.1. Before the dance, she went home.2. The boys help out if they get to listen to music. 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 17
  18. 18. ApplicationHis aunt feared that he might catch something.• Bracketing the above constituent gives the followingresult: [ s His aunt feared [ that he might catch something]] something]]• It is clear that the string ‘’he might catch something’’ ‘’heis also an S, but what about ‘that’? The sentence is tobe bracketed as follows: [ s1 His aunt feared [ X that [ s2 he might catch something]]] something]]] 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 18
  19. 19. • S2 Is a sentence inside sentence S1 : itis a constituent of sentence S1.• the role of ‘that’ is linking S2 (the embeddedsentence) to the sentence inside which itoccurs: that is the subordinator. Theconstituent X, compising the subordinator andS2, S (S-bar) or S’ (S- prime), is often labelled (S- (S-• It is a unit containing the subordinator andthe subordinate clause;•S that - S 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 19
  20. 20. The element that occupies the so-called complementiser slot (COMP slot) in front of the sentence S2. Thus the previous bracketing may be adapted as follows:[ s1 His aunt feared [S that [ s2 he might catch something]]] something]]] 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 20
  21. 21. HAVE A NICE DAY!3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 21

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